ENTREPRENEURSHIP AS A PANACEA TO ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT; CASE STUDY OF ETSAKO WEST
This study was intended to evaluate entrepreneurship as a panacea to economic development. This study was guided by the following objectives; To examine the challenges of entrepreneurship in the sustainable development of Estako west, To examine the relationship between entrepreneurship and economic development, To examine entrepreneurship education as a means of encouraging entrepreneurship in Estako west, To examine entrepreneurship as having a link with the economy of Nigeria.
The study employed the survey design; questionnaires in addition to library research were applied in order to collect data. Primary and secondary data sources were used and data was analyzed using the Chi-square statistical tool at 5% level of significance which was presented in frequency tables and percentage. The respondents under the study were 100 SME owners from the population. The study findings revealed that the challenges of entrepreneurship in the sustainable development include the ease of doing business; difficulty starting a business; lack of skilled workers to employ; high cost of registration the business and difficult getting credit for the business.
The outcome of this study will educate the general public, the government and policy makers on the need to encourage entrepreneurship.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Title Page - - - - - - - - - i
Approval Page - - - - - - - - ii
Declaration - - - - - - - - iii
Dedication - - - - - - - - - iv
Acknowledgement - - - - - - - v
Abstract - - - - - - - - - vi
Table of Contents - - - - - - - vii
CHAPTER ONE – INTRODUCTION
1.1 Background of the Study - - - - -
1.2 Statement of General Problem - - - -
1.3 Objective of the Study - - - - - -
1.4 Research Questions - - - - - -
1.5 Hypothesis - - - - - - - - -
1.6 Significance of the Study - - - - -
1.7 Scope of the Study - - - - - -
1.8 Definition of Terms - - - - - -
CHAPTER TWO – REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE
2.1 Introduction - - - - - - - - -
2.2 Conceptual clarifications- - - - - - - - -
2.2.1 The concept of Entrepreneurship/ Entrepreneur- - - -
1.2.2 Concept of Unemployment/Employment- - - - -
1.2.3 Concept of Sustainable Development- - - - - -
3.1 Theoretical Framework- - - - - - - - -
3.1.1 The Schumpeter Effect Theory- - - - - - -
3.1.2 The Refugee Effect Theory- - - - - - - -
3.2 Some Empirical Evidences on the Link between Unemployment and Entrepreneurship- - - - - - - - -
4.1 Problems of entrepreneurship in employment generation in Nigeria- -
5.1 Prospects of entrepreneurship development in employment generation in Nigeria - - - - - - - - -- -
6.1 Enhancing the developmental impact of entrepreneurship- - -
7.1 The role of university entrepreneurship education to economic development of Nigeria: the case of Kaduna State University-
8.1 Conclusion- - - - - - - - -- -
CHAPTER THREE – RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
3.1 Introduction - - - - - - - - -
3.2 Research Design - - - - - - - -
3.3 Area of the Study - - - - - - - -
3.4 Population of Study - - - - - - - -
3.5 Sample size and Sampling Techniques - - - - -
3.6 Instrument for Data Collection - - - - - -
3.7 Validity of the Instrument - - - - - - -
3.8 Reliability of the Instrument - - - - - -
3.9 Method of Data Collection - - - - - - -
3.10 Method of Data Analysis - - - - - - -
CHAPTER FOUR – DATA PRESENTATION AND ANALYSIS
4.0 Introduction - - - - - - - - -
4.1 Data Presentation and Analysis - - - - - -
4.2 Characteristics of the Respondents - - - - -
4.3 Data Analysis - - - - - - - - -
4.4 Testing Hypothesis - - - - - - - -
4.5 Summary of Findings - - - - - - - -
4.6 Discussion of Findings - - - - - - -
CHAPTER FIVE – SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION
5.0 Introduction - - - - - - - - -
5.1 Summary - - - - - - - - - -
5.2 Conclusion - - - - - - - - - -
5.3 Recommendations - - - - - - - -
References - - - - - - - - - -
Appendix - - - - - - - - - -
1.1 Background of the study
Nigeria as a country fully endowed with human and material resources have the right playing ground for business and investment purposes.
Prior to the 80s, unemployment and poverty were not as disturbing as what it is now. However, inconsistencies in the socio-economic policies of successive governments contributed to the increase in unemployment and poverty. During this period, many workers were laid off, and early retirement of employees due to some shaky government policies.
Nigeria as a developing country is improving in economic sectors such as science, technology, sports, entertainment, and agriculture. Innovative end- products are derived from each of this sectors-foodstuff from agriculture, in the area of technology we have phones/laptops repair, sales of recharge cards, in engineering we have cases of road construction, in tourism we have the preservation of our culture and the list continues. Notwithstanding all these human and material resources Nigeria is blessed with, it is still referred to as one of the poorest countries in sub-Sahara Africa (Salami,2011 p:10). It is obvious on the way some countries have encouraged the entrepreneur sector, thus reducing the level of unemployment to the barest minimum, but that cannot be said of Nigeria. As the government has done little or nothing to bring a lasting solution to this problem; thus leading to increase in crime and other vices just to meet ends needs.
The role of entrepreneurship in the curbing of unemployment, unstable economic growth and development cannot be emphasized. The current state of the global world brings entrepreneurship to a fore. Countries practicing capitalism makes the current state of the economy glaring that private ownership of business is a way forward. The youths are unemployed not because they don’t have the qualifications; but because politically, economically and even religiously the systems are paralyzed (Kuratko, 2009).
Entrepreneurship constitutes immensely to the social, economic, financial and otherwise development of any country. Due to this, successive governments have tried to revive this sector while current governments seem more serious; and that is why they saddled some agencies with the responsibility of achieving this-agencies like: National Poverty Eradication Programme (NAPEP), National Directorate of Employment (NDE), etc. the truth still remains that for a country to grow in all ramifications, it must have strong private partners who involve in wealth creation, backed with great skills. (Akpomi,2009 p:156).
It is crystal clear that entrepreneurship development enhances the sustainable development of a country, the sector has been neglected and of cause, this has an effect on the economy. Bearing the aforementioned in mind, entrepreneurship if given the needed attention it requires will place Nigeria on the right pedestal nationally and internationally.
This study is aimed at presenting entrepreneurship as a panacea to current economic challenges facing Nigeria, most especially the high level of unemployment.
1.2 Statement of the problem
It is quite disheartening on how the teeming population of unemployed graduates of Nigeria keeps increasing on a daily basis. There are no white collar jobs and this is what every Nigerian graduate looks up to after his national youth service (NYSC).
Due to this, some have resorted to very dubious means of making money, with cases of arm robbery attacks, kidnapping, prostitution, drug/human trafficking, oil theft, etc always on the news.
Another problem to the subject matter is that the government is not doing the needful to revive the entrepreneurship sector and this is tied to a major problem of the country; which is corruption. The agencies saddled with this responsibility are dormant doing nothing, other than embezzling funds allocated for such task. On some occasions, you have the government allocate certain funds to purchase equipment meant to empower youths who have learnt some skills, but at the end of the day such funds are diverted.
In addition to this, schools, secondary and tertiary institutions lack entrepreneurship education of students. Students are not well enlightened on the need to have a skill and create their own wealth instead of waiting for the government to create employment.
However, Nigeria being a mono economy also poses a challenge. Nigerians including the government concentrates so much on the oil sector, thus relegating other sectors of the economy that can create jobs for the unemployed.
Meanwhile, these are some of the problems this study will be seeking ways of proffering solutions to.
1.3 Aims/ Objectives of the study
The major aim of this study is to examine Entrepreneurship as a panacea to economic development; a case study of Etsako west.
Other specific objectives include:
1. To examine the challenges of entrepreneurship in the sustainable development of Estako west.
2. To examine the relationship between entrepreneurship and economic development.
3. To examine entrepreneurship education as a means of encouraging entrepreneurship in Estako west.
4. To examine entrepreneurship as having a link with the economy of Nigeria.
1.4 Research questions
1. What are the challenges of entrepreneurship in the sustainable development of Estako west?
2. Is there a relationship between entrepreneurship and economic development?
3. Is entrepreneurship education a means of encouraging entrepreneurship in Estako west?
4. Is there a link between entrepreneurship and the economy of Nigeria?
1.5 Research Hypothesis
H0:There are no challenges of entrepreneurship in the sustainable development of Estako West.
H1: There are challenges of entrepreneurship in the sustainable development of Estako West.
Significance of the study/ Justification of the study
This study is meant to educate the general public, the government and policy makers on the need to encourage entrepreneurship.
The public need to be well informed that gone are the days when Nigerians sit and wait for the government to create jobs; now is the time for private individuals to create jobs in other to enhance economic growth.
Also, the government has a part to play in promoting entrepreneurship. The government can embark on meaning projects; enact policies that will support entrepreneurship in Nigeria. The government equally needs to see to it that funds allocated to empower such programmes are well utilized.
In addition, the government needs to enforce entrepreneurship education in schools, in other for our students to be educated on the need to acquire skills to enhance job creation in the country.
However, policy makers need to add this study to their work in other to educate upcoming generations about entrepreneurship.
This study will be of immense benefit to other researchers who intend to know more on this topic and can also be used by non-researchers to build more on their work. This study contributes to knowledge and could serve as a guide for other work or study.
1.6 Scope/ Limitations of the study
This study is restricted to examining Entrepreneurship as a panacea to economic development; a case study of Etsako west.
Limitations of study
1. Financial constraint- Insufficient fund tends to impede the efficiency of the researcher in sourcing for the relevant materials, literature or information and in the process of data collection (internet, questionnaire and interview).
2. Time constraint- The researcher will simultaneously engage in this study with other academic work. This consequently will cut down on the time devoted for the research work.
1.7 Definition of terms
Entrepreneurship: This is the willingness to take risks and develop, organize and manage a business venture in a competitive global marketplace that is constantly evolving. Entrepreneurs are pioneers, innovators, leaders and inventors.
Panacea:This is an answer or solution for all problems or difficulties.
Economic development: This is the process and policies by which a nation improves the economic, political, and social well-being of its people.
It is alsoreferred to as the quantitative and qualitative changes in an existing economy.
Salami, C.G.E. (2011). Entrepreneurial Interventionism and Challenges of Youth Unemployment in Nigeria. Global Journal of Management and Business Research
, 11 (7) Version 1.0 July 2011. Global Journals Inc. (USA).
Kuratko, D.F. (2009). Introduction to Entrepreneurship. 8th ed. Australia: South-Western.
Akpomi, M.E. (2009). Achieving millennium development goals (MDGs) through teaching entrepreneurship education in Nigeria higher education institutions (HEIs). European Journal of Social Sciences, 8(1): 154-157..