MALARIA PARASITE AND ITS EFFECT TO HUMAN HEALTH


MALARIA PARASITE AND ITS EFFECT TO HUMAN HEALTH

ABSTRACT:  

The detection of malaria parasite in the blood, which is as the major aim of this project was carried out and experimental data shows the existence of three spp of the parasite in the human blood cell these are as follows:

(a) Plasmodium Falciparium

(b) P. Malarias

(c) P. Vivax

Moreover, the last remaining spp, which is Plasmodium Ovale was not observed at all in the human blood cell.  Out of 150 specimens collected, 110 were found to be positive indicating that about 74% people in our country Nigeria were living under the shadow of this infectious disease.

Finally, in our findings, it was assumed that the most susceptible group of people to this malaria parasite were the children under the age range of 1 to 10 and the pregnant women in the adult range.  This findings was made after staining the thick and thin film using different stains vis:  Leishman, Giemsa and field Stains, which enhances a clear observation of morphological appearance of the organisms under the microscopic view. 

LIST OF TABLES

TABLE  1: Different Between Thick and Thin Film

TABLE  2: Tabulation of the Result Obtained

LIST OF FIGURES

Figure 1: Stages of PlasmodiumVivax

Figure 2: Stages of PlasmodiumOvale

Figure 3: Stages of PlasmodiumMalarias

Figure 4: Stages of PlasmodiumFalciparum

Figure 5: General Life Cycle of Malaria Parasite

Figure 6: Thick Film of Blood Sample

Figure 7: Thin Film of Blood Sample

Figure 8: Techniques of Staining (Field stain A & B)

Figure 9: Histogram Chart 

TABLE   OF   CONTENTS

Title page

Certification

Dedication

Acknowledgment

Abstract

List of table

List of figures

Table of contents

CHAPTER   ONE

1.0 INTRODUCTION

1.1 Background Information

1.2 Statement of the Problems

1.3 aim and Objective of the Study

1.4 Hypothesis

CHAPTER   TWO

2.0 LITERATURE REVIEW

2.1 The Stages of Different Species of Malaria Parasite

CHAPTER   THREE

3.0 MATERIALS AND METHOD

3.1 Materials Used

3.2 Sample Collection

3.3 Method of Sample analysis

3.4 Preparation of Blood Film Preparation of buffer Solution to be used with

3.5 Giemsa Stain

3.6 Different Between Thick and Thin Film

CHAPTER   FOUR

4.0 RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS

4.1 Results

4.2 Discussion

CHAPTER   FIVE

5.0 RECOMMENDATION AND CONCLUSION

5.1 Recommendations

5.2 Conclusions

REFERENCES

CHAPTER   ONE

1.0 INTRODUCTION

1.1 BACKGROUND INFORMATION

Malaria Parasite is regarded as one of the most serious health problems facing almost the whole world today.  It was noted that this parasitic disease is caused by species of poor tozoa called Plasmodium spp.  Within the compass of medical environment, malaria was known to be a parasitic disease that gets into human system through the pathogenic bite of an infected female anopheles mosquito, (Knudsen, 1992).

Malaria parasite was also found to be mostly infective to the children under 5 – 6 years and pregnant women, this is because this group of people usually build antibodies which do not prevent the endemic disease of the parasite, but tolerate the victim to a point where it is not consistently lethal (WHO 1986).  In the year 1880, AlphonsusLavaran first observed this parasite at it merizoit stage and was published in the B”Bullentine de Academic de Medicine pariss”.  Further findings on this malaria parasite was carried on by Italian doctors which includes Golgi Manson, baslianelli etc.  This people observed the mechanism of spreading and the life cycle of the parasite.  It was also estimated that 270 million new malaria infection occur worldwide along with 110 million cases of illness and 2 million deaths, where 25% of children’s’ death in Africa are attributed to malaria parasite (WHO, 1986).

Malaria parasite being a parasite, which falls into protozoa called sporazoa.  It means that they are spore formers; their life cycle involves an alternation of generation, one, which is sexual, and the other asexual method of reproduction.  The sexual and asexual generations in this parasite take place in two different hosts.  In the definite host, the parasite carries out the sexual part of the reproduction of which female anopheles mosquito is the host which the asexual part will be carried on in the intermediate host which is in the human blood system (Franklin and Wehrle, 1948).

According to Chees Brough (1987), this plasmodium spp, which is the causative agent of this malaria parasite are of four varieties species that attacks man.  They are:

a) Plasmodium vivax, which causes tartian malaria, or vivax malaria

b) Plasmodium malaria, the cause of quatain malaria also called malaria malariae

c) Plasmodium oval that causes oval malaria and finally

d) Plasmodium falciparum, which is the agent of malignant tartian malaria.

With skill and experience these organs and the differentiate disease they cause can be possibly differentiate from each other.

LIFE CYCLE

Among all the mosquitoes that suck blood, it is the female species that has the quality capable of sucking blood, the male mosquitoes are vegetarians, which mean plant feeders, and they feed on the plant juice, which they suck.  It is the female mosquito in the genus anopheles that bites man to suck blood, and in the process inject the malaria parasite in the body system.

Infectious mosquito contain in their salivary gland plasmodia, which occur in spindle-shaped form known as sporozoide.  Once a mosquito that is parasitise by this organism feeds on the host liver (intermediate host), it injects the sporozoites, these migrate to the host liver where in the parenchymal cells they multiply asexually.  This part of cycle is known as exoerythrocyticschizogony, exo-erythrocytic indicates that it takes place outside the red cell, “Schizogony” literally meaning splitting generation.  This malaria parasite leaves the liver cells, enter red blood cells, and begin the erythrocyticSchizogony phase.  While para-erythrocyticcycle continue in the parachymal cell of the liver.  The exceptions being plasmodium falaparum which do not undergo paraenythrocytic cycle.  In the red cell the malaria parasite grows in size making use of globin in haemoglobin as its source of protein as amino acid, the residual product collects as a pigment.

Then divisions of the protozoan nucleus occur.  At this point, the multinucleated organism inside a red cell is called Schizont or segmenter.  And a separate nucleus, which is surrounded by its own cytoplasm, is called a merocoite.  The number of the nuclear division and hence the number of merozoite formed varies from species toispecies and this factor is very useful for the identification of the type of species involved.  The red cells containing mature merozoite disintegrate, and merozoites thus released invade new red blood cells, becoming trophozoites and the cycle continues.

Because of the significant exception of the plasmodium falciparum for not undergoing para-erythrocytic cycle, different drugs and other control measure are used against this organism in erythrocytic and para-erythrocytic cycle, plasmodium falciparum being relatively easier to control than other species.  Mostly often but not all parasitised red blood cells give raise to merozoites.  Some plasmodia in red cells ultimately and differently develops either into two sexual forms viz:

The macrogamatocyte (female) or microgamtoclyte (male) or as the asexual form, which continues the cycle in the human system.

The gametocytes develop no further in man and will survive only when they are ingested by female anopueles mosquito.  Parenthentically, all the four species of malaria parasite mentioned above can be transmitted from one intermediate host to another by either transfusion of blood or congenitally.  The gametocytes ingested by a mosquito undergo further development, from each microgamatocyte, about a dozen or so mobile, flagella like microgametes are formed.  Then in the stomach of mosquito there occurs a union of the microgametes and macrogametes resulting in the formation of zygote, which proceeds to develop into an Ookinete.

This Ookinete is a worm like; it migrates to the stomach wall of the mosquito where it transforms to another form known as Oasyst.  Then within the Oosyst repeated nuclear divisions occur.  The mature Oosyst breaks with the release of thousands of sporozoites into the content mosquito.  Sporozoites now migrate to the salivary gland of the mosquito where they are ready again to be injected into the intermediate host (man) for another cycle.  The Cycle in the mosquito takes 1 to 3 weeks.  In man, the time from mosquito bite to first symptoms and thus the time for the pre-erythrocytic and erythrocytic cycle to occurs vary considerably.

The typical incubation periods in vivax, ovale malaria and palciparum malaria are on the order of 14 – 17, 10 – 14, 28, 8 – 10 days respectively.  This period occasionally may be much longer in vivax 16 – 12 mouths and malaria (years) disease condition.

1.2 STATEMENT OF PROBLEMS

A repeatedly report about malaria parasite infection has arise several years long ago and presently, causing regular fever, continuous chill, vomiting, headache, shortage of blood and other relative sickness, which forms the symptom of the infection.

The estimate of the incident of this parasite, according to WHO (1986) shows that about 270 million new malaria infection occurs worldwide with the accompaniment of 110 and 2 million case of illness and death respectively.  Where 25% of children’s’ death in Africa are attributed to malaria (WHO, 1986).

1.3 AIM AND OBJECTIVE OF THE STUDY

AIM

To determine malaria parasite in the blood cell and its effect to the human health.

THE SPECIFIC OBJECTIVE ARE

1. To identify varieties of Plasmodium spp., and the different stages of the parasite in the blood sample.

2. To identify the effect of the parasite in the blood cell of an infected person. 

3. To proffer preventive measures to reduce the incidence of this and its mortality rate among children in the area where there is large infection of malaria parasite.

1.4 HYPOTHESIS

Hi - Malaria parasite is high among children under 5 – 6 years 

and pregnant women.

Ho - Malaria parasite is not high among children and pregnant 

women.

.

MALARIA PARASITE AND ITS EFFECT TO HUMAN HEALTH



TYPE IN YOUR TOPIC AND CLICK SEARCH.






RESEARCHWAP.NET
Researchwap.net is an online repository for free project topics and research materials, articles and custom writing of research works. We’re an online resource centre that provides a vast database for students to access numerous research project topics and materials. Researchwap.net guides and assist Postgraduate, Undergraduate and Final Year Students with well researched and quality project topics, topic ideas, research guides and project materials. We’re reliable and trustworthy, and we really understand what is called “time factor”, that is why we’ve simplified the process so that students can get their research projects ready on time. Our platform provides more educational services, such as hiring a writer, research analysis, and software for computer science research and we also seriously adhere to a timely delivery.

TESTIMONIES FROM OUR CLIENTS


Please feel free to carefully review some written and captured responses from our satisfied clients.

  • "Exceptionally outstanding. Highly recommend for all who wish to have effective and excellent project defence. Easily Accessable, Affordable, Effective and effective."

    Debby Henry George, Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, USA.
  • "I saw this website on facebook page and I did not even bother since I was in a hurry to complete my project. But I am totally amazed that when I visited the website and saw the topic I was looking for and I decided to give a try and now I have received it within an hour after ordering the material. Am grateful guys!"

    Hilary Yusuf, United States International University Africa, Nairobi, Kenya.
  • "Researchwap.net is a website I recommend to all student and researchers within and outside the country. The web owners are doing great job and I appreciate them for that. Once again, thank you very much "researchwap.net" and God bless you and your business! ."

    Debby Henry George, Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, USA.
  • "Great User Experience, Nice flows and Superb functionalities.The app is indeed a great tech innovation for greasing the wheels of final year, research and other pedagogical related project works. A trial would definitely convince you."

    Lamilare Valentine, Kwame Nkrumah University, Kumasi, Ghana.
  • "I love what you guys are doing, your material guided me well through my research. Thank you for helping me achieve academic success."

    Sampson, University of Nigeria, Nsukka.
  • "researchwap.com is God-sent! I got good grades in my seminar and project with the help of your service, thank you soooooo much."

    Cynthia, Akwa Ibom State University .
  • "Sorry, it was in my spam folder all along, I should have looked it up properly first. Please keep up the good work, your team is quite commited. Am grateful...I will certainly refer my friends too."

    Elizabeth, Obafemi Awolowo University
  • "Am happy the defense went well, thanks to your articles. I may not be able to express how grateful I am for all your assistance, but on my honour, I owe you guys a good number of referrals. Thank you once again."

    Ali Olanrewaju, Lagos State University.
  • "My Dear Researchwap, initially I never believed one can actually do honest business transactions with Nigerians online until i stumbled into your website. You have broken a new legacy of record as far as am concerned. Keep up the good work!"

    Willie Ekereobong, University of Port Harcourt.
  • "WOW, SO IT'S TRUE??!! I can't believe I got this quality work for just 3k...I thought it was scam ooo. I wouldn't mind if it goes for over 5k, its worth it. Thank you!"

    Theressa, Igbinedion University.
  • "I did not see my project topic on your website so I decided to call your customer care number, the attention I got was epic! I got help from the beginning to the end of my project in just 3 days, they even taught me how to defend my project and I got a 'B' at the end. Thank you so much researchwap.com, infact, I owe my graduating well today to you guys...."

    Joseph, Abia state Polytechnic.
  • "My friend told me about ResearchWap website, I doubted her until I saw her receive her full project in less than 15 miniutes, I tried mine too and got it same, right now, am telling everyone in my school about researchwap.com, no one has to suffer any more writing their project. Thank you for making life easy for me and my fellow students... Keep up the good work"

    Christiana, Landmark University .
  • "I wish I knew you guys when I wrote my first degree project, it took so much time and effort then. Now, with just a click of a button, I got my complete project in less than 15 minutes. You guys are too amazing!."

    Musa, Federal University of Technology Minna
  • "I was scared at first when I saw your website but I decided to risk my last 3k and surprisingly I got my complete project in my email box instantly. This is so nice!!!."

    Ali Obafemi, Ibrahim Badamasi Babangida University, Niger State.
  • To contribute to our success story, send us a feedback or please kindly call 2348037664978.
    Then your comment and contact will be published here also with your consent.

    Thank you for choosing researchwap.com.