THE ROUTE SURVEY OF OYUN-OLORU ROAD IN MORO LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA, ILORIN, KWARA STATE
1.1 BACKGROUND TO THE STUDY
Engineering Surveying is one of the branches of surveying which from the general express for any survey work carried out in connection with construction engineering and building project, it is a large scale topographical map survey which the basis for design of engineering works such as highways, railways, canals, tunnels, dams, pipelines and transmission lines.
In the word of engineering and environmental studies, surveying has been recognized as the inevitable operation been described as be the bedrock of every meaningful development. The greater part of its responsibility is seen from the various types of surveying which are all geared toward promoting route ways, convenience, accessibility and spatial declination of both natural and social environment. In addition, surveying means the activities of planning, designing, constructions, development and rehabilitation of roads, depending on the survey data required by the surveyor.
Route survey which is an aspect of engineering survey may be defined as the survey operation that is done for the establishment of the horizontal and vertical alignment of transportation facilities. It involved: planning, design and setting out of any route such as railways, highways, pipelines and canals etc. as obtained by a surveyor and it also involved the proper assessment of natural and man-made features.
In addition, this type of survey should be applied when there is need for alignment, expansion, or rehabilitation at any existing route (road) e.g. for traffic purposes. The reason is that route survey provides a plan/map that shows the alignment, details, profile and cross sectional leveling which depicts the nature of the terrain of a given strip of land which serves the purpose of location, design and construction of route networks.
Good road network is one of the basic amenities needed by human being as movement is one of the characteristics of living things. There are needs for people to move from one place to the other and transportation of goods and services. Therefore for any meaningful development in a country, good road is a must.
1.2 SIGNIFICANT OF THE PROJECT
It was discovered that the route from Oyun to olorun village moro Local government Ilorin, Kwara State, had been badly eroded and full of potholes; also, the road is found to be too narrow and needed to be extended considering the volume of traffic plying the road. Rehabilitation of this road should be carried out in other to increase its carrying capacity thereby increase the physical development and human activities therein. Due to these, certain information about the road must be acquired which calls for route survey so as to get the baseline data necessary for the road design.
The main aim of this project is:
To carry-out Route Survey of Oyun-Oloru road in Moro local government area, Ilorin, Kwara State
In actualization of the said aim of the project, the following objectives
Were followed sequentially:
(i) Reconnaissance which include office planning and field reconnaissance.
(ii) Identification of existing features and adjoining roads.
(iii) Stability of the ground controls to be use for orientation.
(iv) Determination of centre line and marking of chainages along the centre line at an interval of 25m.
(v) Marking out some selected points for the cross-sectioning at intervals of 3m to the right and left on the profile and also the edges of drainage was marked.
(vi) Leveling to determine the height of some selected points along the road.
(vii) Detailing by the use of a total station Mato NTS352R
(viii) Plan production (graphical representation of the surveyed road way) drawn with appropriate scale.
(ix) Reports write up.
1.4 PROJECT SPECIFICATIONS
The following are the specification to be ascertained in the project:
(i) Traverse must commence on three coordinated (known) controls and closed on another set of three coordinated controls which must be confirmed undisturbed by necessary measurement (control checks).
(ii) Third order traverse must be run along the route on all turning points at one zero observation and the angular difference from both faces should not be more than thirty seconds (30"), the angular misclosure is determined by 30"√n,
Where ‘n’ is the total number of station observed.
(iii) Establishing traverse points by using pegs together with nails and bottle corks.
(iv) Spirit leveling must commence on a known benchmark and closed back on another known benchmark. Formulae for its misclosure are ±24mm√k, where ‘k’ is the total distance covered in kilometers.
(v) Leveling must be observed at every 25m intervals on the centre line and at 5m intervals on both sides of the centre line for the cross sectioning. Edges of drainage at both sides should be heightened.
(vi) Fixing of relevant features to enhance assessment and necessary composition for good interpretation of plan.
(vii) Setting out curve by using deflection angle method within third other survey.
(viii) The accuracy of the project must fall within the order of the project.
1.5 SCOPE OF THE PROJECT
The entire project covered the following:-
(i) Reconnaissance (both office planning and field reconnaissance).
(ii) Data acquisition:
(a) Selection of stations.
(b) Traverse angular observation and data recording.
(c) Linear measurement with the aid of Mato NTS352R total station.
(d) Spirit leveling of traverse centre line and adjacent sides (longitudinal or profile and cross sectioning).
(e) Fixing of details by tacheometry method.
(iii)Computations to determine:
(a) Horizontal coordinates (i.e. x and y coordinates)
(b) Vertical coordinates (i.e. z coordinates) by level reduction.
(c) Setting out angles and distance for the curve.
(iii) Data analysis i.e. comparing result obtained with the required accuracy.
(iv) Data presentation :
(a) Production of horizontal alignment (i.e. plan showing existing features and the propose route).
(b) Production of longitudinal section plan
(c) Production of cross section plan
(d)Project report writing: - This involves writing of detail report in connection with entire project done in conformity with the outline given by the project supervisor.
The underlisted names are the personnel that participated in the execution of this project. They are:
1. ABDUL RAHEEM SADIAT FUNKE HND/16/SGI/FT/001 (writer)
2. ADENIYI ADEBOWALE OLUMIDE HND/16/SGI/FT/025
3. AWONIRAN SAKIRU OPEYEMI HND/16/SGI/FT/015
4. HAMMED KAZEEM BOLAJI HND/16/SGI/FT/018
1.7 STUDY AREA
The project site is the route from Oyun to olorun village moro Local Government area Ilorin, Kwara State. It cover approximately 3.km extent of land.
Figure 1.7.1 : study area diagram Moro Local Government Ilorin Kwara State
5.0 SUMMARY AND CONCLUSION
The necessity of this project was to design a road network through data acquire from Oyun to Oloru village Moro Local Government Area. This began with reconnaissance through visitation to the project site and drawing of the reconnaissance diagram.
Also the necessary information and equipment were collected from the department of Surveying and Geo informatics unit of the school. The test of instrument and control check were carried out to ensure controls were in order. Also data acquisition was made through traversing, leveling and detailing.
More so, applicable formula were used to process the acquire data that helped in obtaining the coordinates of the selected points. The accuracy of the data was cross checked with allowable accuracy limit. Information was used to establish the design of the curve along the route using geographical information system (GIS). The processed data was plotted using CIVILCAD with appropriate scale and paper size and printed copies. Some important details along the route were shown on the plan.
5.2. PROBLEMS ENCOUNTERED
The major problems encountered on the field were mentioned below;
1. Present of pot holes along the route
2. Traffic along the route caused delay during the field observation. This was corrected by changing direction traffic during the work.
3. Heavy rainfalls mostly lead to the postponement of work, instead of two (2) days on site we spent(3-5) days.
4. The scorching heat from the sun was also a great challenge
Having undergone the project successfully, I hereby conclude that the aims of the project were achieved as the expected accuracy as the obtained result conformed to the required accuracy of the third order job. Also, the great tasking exercise actually exposed and broadened my knowledge on the scope and concept of engineering work involved in route surveying, more so, the project has been successfully executed as adequate data were acquired, processed and presented in plans.
Finally, the project result could be used in rehabilitation or construction of the route by any government authority concerned.
Having successfully carried out the project assignment, I hereby recommend the following
⦁ The data and result obtained from this project can / should be used for further construction analysis
⦁ The result can further be used for more research work along / within the road limit
⦁ Practical of such should be given to students not for final year project alone as it broaden students’ knowledge of engineering aspect of surveying..