THE ECONOMIC AND SOCIAL EFFECTS OF RURAL-URBAN MIGRATION IN LOCAL GOVERNMENT ( A CASE STUDY OF IKOLE LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA OF EKITI STATE)
The purpose of this research work is to examine the economic and social effect of rural-urban migration in Local Government with special emphasis on Ikole Local Government Area of Ekiti State for the purpose of getting the required information from the respondents.
The researcher made a personal contact and observation from the personal contact and observation, it was discovered that Ikole Local Government is one of the Local Government that play an important role in rural urban migration. People move from rural areas to urban areas for the purpose of getting better offers, for the purpose of getting basic healthcare, social infrastructure, for marriage, to continue schooling and by following relatives.
In presenting the research, the work is divided into five chapters. Each dealing with one topic or the other in order to make a good description of the various stages involved in the study. The project or research work consists of five chapters as viz:-
Chapter one consist of introduction, statement of the problem, aims and objectives of the study, significance of the study, research hypothesis, scope and limitation of the study, organization of the chapter and definition of terms.
Chapter two has to do with literature review in form of introduction, theoretical framework, current trends in thinking, review of related literature, summary of chapter.
Chapter three contains introduction, the research methodology, method of data collection and questionnaire design and problems encountered.,
Chapter four deals with introduction, brief history of Ikole Local Government, reasons for migration out of Ikole Local Government area, reasons for migration of the villagers and villagers, responses, reasons whey village on rural area is unpleasant, age group of the migrant and summary of the chapter.
Chapter five states the summary of findings, recommendation and conclusion.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
CHAPTER ONE: 1.0 General Introduction or background of the study
1.2 Statement of the problem
1.3 Purpose/objectives of the study
1.4 significance of the study
1.5 Research hypothesis
1.6 Scope and limitations of the study
1.7 Organization of the study/plan of the study synopsis of each chapter.
1.8 Definition of terms
CHAPTER TWO: 2.0 Literature Review
2.2 Theoretical framework
2.3 Current trends in thinking
2.4 summary of the chapter
CHAPTER THREE: 3.0 Methodology and Research Methods
3.2 Sample and population of the study
3.3 Sources of data/data collection instruments
3.4 Method of data analysis
CHAPTER FOUR: 4.0 Data presentation/Analysis and Interpretation of Findings
4.2 Brief History of Ikole Local Government
4.3 Presentation of data
4.4 Analysis of data
4.5 Testing of hypothesis
4.6 Summary of chapter
CHAPTER FIVE: 5.0 Summary, recommendation and conclusion
5.1 Summary of findings
1.0 INTRODUCTION GENERAL INTRODUCTION
1.1 INTRODUCTION IN OVERVIEW OF THE TOPIC
Few years ago, rural-urban migration was viewed favourably in the economic department, prior to this time, rural-urban migration has been in existence. People migrate from one place or area to the other especially from rural to urban area for one thing or the other. It is now abundantly clear from recent trends that the rate for rural urban job creat8ion and surpass from the capacity of both industrial and urban social service effectively to absorb this labour. Population in Ekiti State is becoming alarming and particularly among the youths. The consequence of this is gradual reduction of family labour on the farms and most especially since the late 1780s, other problems are created in this process and it is the intention of the researcher to examine the extent to which Ekiti State is affected.
In relating to Ikole Local Government, it was created in 1996 by General Sanni Abacha.
The language attributes of the inheritance of this area has made it very much possible for the Ikole Local Government people to settle down peacefully to conduct their day-today activities such as farming and trading. The major problem which form the focus of the research work is that Ekiti State was being faced by problem of the movement of her youngable bodies. Those that are literate and educated to urban centre in search of jobs.
Thereby rendering the area to be less productive agriculturally’; this again has its effect of the national level. The movement of large number of people from other area including those of rural urban areas.
1.2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
This project is based on the social and economic effect of rural-urban migration with particular reference to Ikole Local Government, Eikti State and the years they have been in problems in the area i.e. movement of vehicle, youths to urban town for job.
SOME OF THE PROBLEMS ARE:
1. There are rapid rate of movement/migration from rural to urban areas.
2. There are less productivity in the areas of agriculture.
3. The rural towns are characterized by low labour and low productivity.
4. Cities are growing fast and suffering from rural illness.
1.3 PURPOSE/OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY
The aims and objectives or purpose of the study are:-
i. To identify and examine the general causes of rural-urban migration in Ikole Local Government.
ii. To determine the impact of rural urban migration on the rural development of Ikole Local Government area.
iii. To show the negative impact this migration has on urban area or centre.
iv. To provide an insight to the problems in order to contribute towards a policy of rural urban migration
v. To examine the magnitude of migration from the Local Government in particular and state in general
vi. Suggest possible solutions to the problems
1.4 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
The significance of the study is to determine the effect of rural urban migration of Ikole Local Government in both social and economic aspect of the Local Government.
1.5 RESEARCH HYPOTHESIS
The following hypothesis would be tested in the research project.
i. Lack of job opportunities in the rural area is responsible for the rural-urban migration on Ikole Local Government in both social and economic aspect of the Local Government.
ii. The influx of people from the rural areas to urban areas is responsible for the shortage of accommodation in the urban centre.
1.6 SCOPE AND LIMITATION OF THE STUDY
This research work is limited to only Ikole Local Government Area of Ekiti State with a view of finding the economic and social effect of rural-urban migration and creating alternative source of social and economic effect in this Local Government.
1.7 ORGANIZATION OF THE STUDY/PLAN FO THE STUDY/SYNOPSIS OF EACH CHAPTER.
This project consists of five chapters as viz:-
Chapter one consist of introductions statement of the problem, purpose/objectives of the study, significance of the study, research hypothesis, scope and limitation of the study/synopsis of each chapter and definition of forms or operational terms
Chapter two has to do with introduction theoretical framework, current trends in thinking and summary of the chapter.
Chapter three contains introduction, sample and population of the study, sources of data/data collection instruments, method of data analysis and research problems.
Chapter four deals with data presentation/analysis and interpretation of findings. Introduction, brief of history of Ikole Local Government, Presentation of data, analysis of data, testing of hypothesis, summary of the chapter.
Chapter five states the summary of findings, recommendation and conclusions.
1.8 DEFINITION OF TERMS OR OPERATIONAL TERMS
MIGRATION: Migration refers to the movement of people from one place to another. It is equally defined as population mobility. this can take place within a country, region or it can take place from one country to another. Migration can also be defined as a response to possible dissatisfaction to people within their present location to another location.
RURAL: For the purpose of this project, the word rural shall be described as a place that lack necessary infrastructure and telecommunication we may say assume that any place having population of less than 5,000 people sparsely populated and lack any form of wage earning in economic with less tribal diversity and strictly controlled socio culturally should be regarded as a rural area.
URBAN: This means metropolitan centre were basic infrastructural facilities are available. An urban area is relatively large and permanent settlement of social heterogeneous individuals in another definition.
G.W. fair Holms states that urban settlements are high concentration of 5,000 people living in geographical area having the following characteristics, a wage earning economy, a trial diversification, and absence of traditional socio-cultural control.
URBANIZATION: Urbanization may be defined as the process of territorial population concentration both in form of rural-urban nations and multiplication of points of concentration and the increase in size of individual concentration.
DEVELOPMENT: Development can be defined as the advancing from lower level to higher level. Definition of development from the classical economic perspective refers to the increase in the economic well being of a nation.
According to Onar and Okoli (2000) state that development involves progressing of movement of advancing towards something better.
RURAL DEVELOPMENT: Rural development will be used in this work as a means for restructuring the economic order to statisfy the materials needs and aspiration of the rural masses and to promote individual and collective incentives to participates in the process of development. This involve a host of multi-sectarian activities including the improvement of agriculture, promotion of rural industries, creations of the infrastructure and establishment of appropriate decentralized structure in order to allow mass participation. Therefore, rural development will facilitate improved living standard of the masses of the low income population residing in rural areas and make the process of their development self sustaining if sincerely unpursued.
ORGANIZATION CHART OF IKOLE LOCAL GOVERNMENT EKITI STATE
Secretary to Local Government
Director of Administration
Head of Departments
Primary health care (PHC)
Planning research and statistics
Ega – Etal, L.A. (1981): Development Rural Nigeria Problem and Prospect (ed). The Nigeria Rural Sociological Association.
Barlay G.W. (1958): Techniques Population Analysis Willy and Sons, New York.
Oyeniran A.( 1995) Emerging trend in Nigeria Local Government..