CORRUPTION AND PUBLIC ATTITUDE TOWARDS THE NIGERIA POLICE FORCE (A CASE STUDY OF ILORIN WEST LOCAL GOVERNMENT)
Nigeria political and economic system has been characterize by series of crisis in which corruption surface to be one of the major challenges. Thus, this project work examined corruption among the Nigeria Police Force and as it affect the entire public attitude. The findings of this work will enhance Nigeria as a state in facing the cankerworm and use every possible solution in combating it. From the research, the questionnaire distributed to the public revealed that the anti-corruption crusade embarked upon by Obasanjo Administration i.e. EFCC & ICPC, if left alone to be independent can go a long way in combating corruption. However, police force should be taught simple ethnic and should also be notified how noble their job is.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Table of Content
CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION
1.1 Background to the Study
1.2 Statement of the Problem
1.3 Objectives of the Study
1.4 Hypothesis of the Study
1.5 Significant of the Study
1.6 Scope of the Study
1.7 Organisation of the Study
1.8 Definition of major Terms
CHAPTER TWO: REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE
2.1 The concept of corruption
2.2 Causes of corruption
2.3 Nigeria Police Force Public View
2.4 Attempts to combat corruption
2.5 Implications of corruption on Nigeria Society
2.6 Developing Democratic police
CHAPTER THREE: CAUSES OF CORRUPTION IN NIGERIA POLICE FORCE
3.1 Leadership Problem in Nigeria Police Force
3.2 Economic hardship in Nigeria Police Force
3.3 Indiscipline in the Force
3.4 Low level of education among the lack of rank and files
3.5 Low level of salary
3.6 Training and retraining programmes
CHAPTER FOUR: CONSEQUENCES OF CORRUPTION AMONG THE NIGERIA POLICE FORCE
4.1 Extortion of good society
4.2 Wrongful arrest and defending of the member of the public
4.3 Abuse of their official duties
4.4 Misuse of their rifles
CHAPTER FIVE: SUMMARY, RECOMMENDATION AND CONCLUSION
1.1 Background to the study
On February 26th, 1952 the Emirs of Gwandu moved the motion in the Northern House of Chiefs.
“That this house, agreeing that Bribery and corruption are widely prevalent in all walk of life, recommends that Native Authorities should make every effort to trace and punish offenders with strict impartiality and to educate public opinion against bribery and corruption.
And yet eleven years later, Ronald Waith and Edgar simple kins noticed that “in Africa corruption flourishes as luxuriantly ass the bush and weeds which it so much resembles, taking the goodness form the soil and suffocating the growth of the plants which have been carefully and expensively bred and tended. The forces ranged against it are negligible”.
One of the major challenges that has faced the Nigeria society over the years in the issue of corruption. Corruption has become so deep sealed in the country that it has become so deep scaled in the country that it had stunted growth in all sectors difficulties in developing fast. Transparency international on independent global watch on corruption has eaten deep into the fabrics of the police force, such that seeing a policemen quickly conjures the image of someone who collect bribe. Illegal road blocks are mounted almost at regular intervals on the highway for the purpose of extorting money especially from commercial drivers.
Public attitudes towards the police is nothing to write home about over the years. Indeed, it has been a table of woes.
The public out cry against the police office is sadden since, some belief that the police are also accomplice adding that some unscrupulous police officers not only collude with the men of underworld but also engage in the robbery themselves.
This subject citizens life insecure since robbers can attack at gun point for close three hours or more without any response from the police.
However, it should be noted that not all police officers are corrupt, few may be faithful and loyal in discharging their crucial roles in the society.
1.2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
According to Rose-Ankerman (1997) as sited in Saliu Ed (1999) corruption in which ever way it is viewed and considered underpinnings as it effects efficiency and economic system. In Nigeria, corrupt acts are called such slang as “egunje” “kinkbacks” settlement”, “fastone”, “brown envelop” e.t.c. No matter how richly endowed a nation might be corruption can be cognitive wheel of economic progress and development.
Article 324 of the police regulation states, among others that a police officer shall be determined as incorruptible in the exercise of his police duties. The violation of this status is as old as the police force itself. One of the earliest officially recognized corrupt acts in road safety administration by the Nigeria Police can be traced back to December 1953 after the police started the vehicle inspection duty to determine the workiness or otherwise of vehicles.
The familiar bargon of “stop, park die, wetin you carry, wey your papers, wetin I wan do with N10 e.t.c. have become the voices and visions of Nigeria roads. This has resulted to delay and death to transporters, conductors and even passengers who refused to give them the money on demand by the police.
The advance fee fraud known generally as ‘419’ cannot be fought by the Nigeria police force, another body was set up to tackle financial and related crimes. The pervasiveness of ‘419’ had made businessmen who were being increasing spurned by the international business community because of distrust brought about by advance fee fraud. The established body EFCC (The economic and financial crime commission). Since it inception had also prosecuted officials involved in corrupt enrichment. The worst of it all was the prosecution of a former inspector General of Police.
The isolation of the police from those they are supposed to serve often produces a siege mentality since the police have little regular contact or good interpersonal relationship with ordinary citizens. A person from a humble background for example has lees chance of having his course takes up by the police appropriately. The citizens lack confidence in police, this has often led to problem in police investigation of crime because members of the public most often do not want to be involve in police cases such as reporting crimes which they have witness neither would they give a necessary information which could help them in discharging their duty. Citizens sometimes prefer punishing offenders when caught instead of reporting to the police.
1.3 OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY
This study is aimed at achieving the following specific objectives:
To investigate the various causative factors of corruption in the Nigeria police forces.
To discuss the effect of corruption on the society.
To offer possible way of combating corruption in the police force.
1.4 HYPOTHESES FORMULATION
The following research questions are considered in this study.
Is there any relationship between the police force and the public?
Are the activities of Nigeria police force supportive or complementary towards the security of the citizens?
Is there any relationship between police profession and other professions in Nigeria?
Is there any relationship between corruption and symbol of failure in Nigeria?
1.5 SIGNIFICANT OF THE STUDY
This study is to bring to light the term corruption which is one of the major challenges Nigeria as a state is facing so as to combat it as in society.
The study will be of help to the social science students who are the leaders of tomorrow to note of the reasons for underdevelopment in Nigeria, and to carry out more research so as to find a lasting solution.
1.7 ORGANISATION OF THE STUDY
The work examine the concept of corruption and public attitude towards the Nigeria police force in the following chapters.
Chapter one consist of the following sub-headings: introduction/background to the study. Here, researcher introduce the topic in question within a page and 10 pages. It serves as an age opener to the reader. Statement of problem: Here, researcher states in question from the problem that is associated with the concept to be investigated.
Purpose and objective of study: here, the reason and aims of the research is stated.
Hypothesis formulation: This is a tentative statement that findings of investigation will proof to be right or wrong. It also meant to guide the researcher.
Significant of the study is the role or importance of the research to academic and society at large.
Scope and limitation is concerned with area to be covered.
Organization of the study is the outline of each chapter while the lost subheading is the definition or clarification of major terms used.
Chapter two contains literature review which consist theoretical work of others that is related to research about to be investigated.
Chapter three is basically research methodology, where the method adopted is stated.
Chapter four is majority on discussion of findings or data analysis.
Chapter five consist of summary of the findings, conclusion, suggestion and recommendation.
1.6 SCOPE AND LIMITATION OF THE STUDY
This research will concentrate on corruption as it affect the society and the Nigeria Police Force. Consequently, the study is limited to Ilorin West Local Government of Kwara State. This local government comprises of the following area: Emir’s place, Oja-Oba, Oloje, Baboko, Agbo-Oba, Adewole Estate, Sawmill, Taiwo to mention but few.
1.7 DEFINITION OF KEY TERMS
POLICE FORCE: Police is a government agency responsible for general maintenance of low and order.
CRIME: It is a deviant act or behaviour that violate a society’s legal code. This act is followed by a sanction on the committees of the offences.
PUBLIC: The aggregation of individual or group of individual that makes up a society.
ATTITUDE: A habitual mode of thought or feeling.
CORRUPTION: Is the fraudulent activity especially siphoning funds that are meant for the general populace for one’s selfish use only.
REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE
A review of literature is a systematic identification location and analysis of documents containing information related to this research problem. It is based upon past knowledge of what has been done and it provides useful hypotheses and useful suggestion for suggestions for signification investigation.
2.2 THE CONCEPT CORRUPTION
According to Nasiru et’al (2007) corruption or corrupt practices has to do with fraudulent activity especially sipon funds that are meant for the general populace for one’s aggrandizement only.
Referring to T.I. Higim, Onyema Nnadozie (2003) in M.N. Mohammed et al (2006) defines corruption to mean:
“Stealing public funds, receiving bribes unjustly seeking gifts, moneys or advantage calculated to public duties, and gifts or advantage calculated to influence official and as an obstacle to equitable discharge of duties.
In view of Mohammed et’ al (2006:96) corruption is view as taking advantage of one’s office or position either in the public or private organization to get extra benefits or favours which are not due to one under normal due process.
Newham (2000) sited Syed and Bruce (1998) in Olusuyi (2003) that corruption in the police is classified majorly into seven types. These are as follows.
1. FAVOURISM: where a police officer uses his position provide illegitimate assistance to members of family colleagues or influential people.
2. BRIBERY AND EXTORTION: Bribery for obstruction criminal justice process, for non enforcement of a violation, extortion limited and regular paid protection to criminal operation.
3. THEFT: Police stealing from stored goods such as evidence and goods seized.
4. KICK BACKS: Payment for delivery of illegitimate services’, payment (among police officers) in return for the awarding of work related opportunities for corrupt incomes.
According to Olufokunbi (1986) in Olusuyi (2003) corruption in the Nigeria police is as rampant hardly can you obtain justice from the police without bribery irrespective of where the citizen is innocent or guilty. According to Olufokunbi he further misappropriated people’s property to substitute for the loss money secured by his wife.
Gay Arnold (1977) in Mohammed (2006) contends that Brigadier Emmanuel Abisoye, the Adjutant General of the Nigeria Army in 1975 comments that “All Nigeria are corrupt apparently meaning that society encouraged the belie that everyone was his own and should struggle by whatever mean for whatever he could get”..