EFFECT OF SOCIAL MEDIA IN THE 2015 ELECTION CASE STUDY OF LAGOS.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Title Page - - - - - - - - -
Approval Page - - - - - - - -
Declaration - - - - - - - -
Dedication - - - - - - - - -
Acknowledgement - - - - - - -
Abstract - - - - - - - - -
Table of Contents - - - - - - -
CHAPTER ONE – INTRODUCTION
1.1 Background of the Study - - - - -
1.2 Statement of the Problem - - - -
1.3 Objectives of the Study - - - - - -
1.4 Research Questions - - - - - -
1.5 Research Hypothesis - - - - - -
1.6 Significance of the Study - - - - -
1.7 Scope of the Study - - - - - -
1.8 Limitations of the Study - - - - -
1.9 Definition of Terms - - - - - -
CHAPTER TWO – REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE
2.1 Introduction - - - - - - -
2.2 Theoretical Framework - - - - -
2.3 Conceptual Framework - - - - -
2.4 Empirical Review - - - - - -
CHAPTER THREE – RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
3.1 Introduction - - - - - - -
3.2 Research Design - - - - - -
3.3 Population of Study - - - - - -
3.4 Sample size and Sampling Techniques - - -
3.5 Method of Data Collection - - - - -
3.6 Research Instrument
3.7 Validity of the Instrument - - - - -
3.8 Reliability of the Instrument - - - -
3.9 Sampling Method - - - - - -
CHAPTER FOUR – DATA PRESENTATION AND ANALYSIS
4.1 Introduction - - - - - - -
4.2 Data Presentation and Analysis - - - -
4.3 Testing Hypothesis - - - - - -
CHAPTER FIVE – SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION
5.1 Summary - - - - - - - -
5.2 Conclusion - - - - - - - -
5.3 Recommendations - - - - - -
References - - - - - - - -
Appendix - - - - - - - -
CHAPTER 1: Introduction
The concept “social media” has attracted many definitions from different disciplines. In a lay man‟s explanation, it may simply connote “within group interactive communication”. The “group” in this definition represents “social” content of the definition. According Suomen Toivo–Think Tank (2012), social media are new information network and information technology using a form of interactive communication skills, where users produce the content of information and interpersonal relationships are established and maintained in the process. A typical social media services could be content sharing, web communities, or an Internet forum (Sanastokeskus, 2010). In the same vein, Kaplan and Heinlein (2010), defined social media as a group of Internet-based application that ar2 built upon the ideology and technology of web 2.0 and allows the generation and exchange of its content. On the social media, the users are not passive like in the case of Television, Radio, and Newspaper; rather they are active in the formation and exchange of information (Sweeter and Laricsy, 2008).
Information that emanated from a member of the forum might become topical and even spread beyond where it was first discussed. Typical examples of social media include Facebook, Twitter, YouTube, Google+, MySpace, Skype, Instagram, Flipagram, and Hi5. All these sites and applications have interactive options that facilitate broadcasting and rebroadcasting of information. Aside from these websites, these are also application that people are even more accessible to on smartphones and androids. The applications include: BBM on which there are BBM channels, where news and other information are created, broadcasted, and even modified. There is also What Sapp application that facilitates the formulation and dissemination of information. Others are Nimbuzz and 2go. They are not just for news, but are also for gossips and rumours. In so many cases on social media, what started out as rumours, gossip, or even speculation that are reproduced and rebroadcasted as real, even though it was fake ab-initio. This particular problem emanates from the user-to-user interaction found on social media and distinguishes from the traditional media. In social media, the gate keeping role of traditional media is eliminated.
In social media, there are 5 major features that are easy to identify. According to Suomen Toivo- Think Tank (2012), the features are social networking and social interaction, participation, the use of social providers, openness, and collaboration. These features are linked to the six classifications of social media postulated by the same author. There classifications are: Social Networks (Facebook, Google+, Myspace, LinkedIn); Media Products Community (Youtube, Flickr, Slideshare); Blog Services (wordpress, blogger, Twitter); Information Community (Wikipedia and Wikispaces), which is also referred to as Collaborative Project (Policy and Legal Advocacy Centre, 2012); Virtual Community also called Virtual Game Worlds PLAC (2012) includes Second Life and World of War craft; and Link Sharing Services (Digg and Diego). The social media is a body of packages that users would find attractive and even hard to do without.
1.1 Background of the Study
The influence of the social media in the modern day society is immeasurable. In fact, it has become the most accessible source of information in the present day society. This information on the social media is unregulated and sometimes, they tend to be biased, presumptuous, and might even be tentative. Aside from these, the population of bloggers is uncontrolled as many have the ability to create blogs and channels, where information can be circulated. Unfortunately, the majority of the accessible population to these information are unaware of these maladies.
The social media influenced the 2015 general election through the opinion polls and eventually, the broadcasting of the results, before the final release by INEC. It is a comparative analyses of social media opinion polls, results released via social media before the final release of results, and the final result from INEC . The social media results were sourced from wards and participating youth corps members in the electoral procedures. The release of the results via social media increased political participation as most people had first-hand results, before the final release. These results were not just transmitted from the social media blogs, but were also recirculated via social networking sites and applications. As a result, the process added value to the Nigerian political culture and facilitated other issues that might have ensued from the electoral process. The research intends to investigate the effect of social media in the 2015 Election with a case study of lagos state.
1.2 Statement of the Problem
The social media constitute one important source of information in modern day society In fact; it has become the most accessible source of information in the present day society. This information on the social media is unregulated and sometimes, they tend to be biased, presumptuous, and might even be tentative. Aside from these, the population of bloggers is uncontrolled as many have the ability to create blogs and channels, where information can be circulated. Unfortunately, the majority of the accessible population to these information are unaware of these maladies. The social media pass information freely, because they are unregulated. The information can come in the form of broadcast on social media application, like what’s App and BBM, blogs; or even text messages. With the unregulated nature of the social media, it is certain that many of the information are not subject to scrutiny and may be conjured, misrepresentation, or even misinformation. This in no doubt is the situation in which the 2015 election was conducted. The problem confronting this research is to investigate the effect of social media on the 2015 election with a case study of Lagos state
1.3 Objective of the Study
1 To determine the nature of social media
2 To determine the nature of the 2015 election
3 To determine the effect of social media on the 2015 election
4 To determine the effect of social media on the 2015 election in Lagos state
1.4 Research Questions
1 What is the nature of social media?
2 What is the nature of the 2015 election
3 What is the effect of social media on the 2015 election in Lagos?
1.5 Significance of the Study
The study provides an appraisal of the nature of social media which will enhance people understanding of its workings and applicability
It shall seek to determine its effectiveness in election processes.
The study shall also serve as a source of information on issues concerning social media
1.6 Statement of Hypothesis
1 Ho 2015 Election in lagos was not effective
Hi 2015 Election in Lagos was effective
2 Ho The use of social media in 2015 Election in lagos is low
Hi The use of social media in 2015 Election in Lagos is high
3 Ho The effect of social media on the 2015 Election in Lagos is Low
Hi The effect of social media on the 2015 Election in Lagos is high
1.7 Scope of the Study
The study focuses on the appraisal of the effect of social media on the 2015 Election in Lagos.
1.8 Definition of Terms
Facebook – an online social networking site that allows users to create their personal profiles, share photos and videos, and communicate with other users
Twitter – an internet service that allows users to post "tweets" for their followers to see updates in real-time
LinkedIn – a networking website for the business community that allows users to create professional profiles, post resumes, and communicate with other professionals and job-seekers.
Pinterest – an online community that allows users to display photos of items found on the web by "pinning" them and sharing ideas with others.
Snap chat – an app on mobile devices that allows users to send and share photos of themselves doing their daily activities.
Social media technologies
take many different forms including blogs, business networks, enterprise social networks, forums, micro blogs, photo sharing, products/services review, social bookmarking, social gaming, social networks, video sharing, and virtual worlds.