POROSITY OF SOIL WITH WATER ANALYSIS IN THREE DIFFERENT LAND USES


POROSITY OF SOIL WITH WATER ANALYSIS IN THREE DIFFERENT LAND USES

ABSTRACT

This project centres on Porosity of soil samples and water quality gotten from three different land uses.

Porosity measures the amount of void spaces in materials, rock media and this is important in classification of a media (soil or rock) as a good reservoir Media. A porous medium is a substance that has tiny pores, or air spaces between solid material through which liquid and gas can pass through e.g. sand and soil.

The samples were collected from three different land uses, which were gotten from areas close to well.

Water quality refers to the chemical, physical and radiological characteristic of water. It is a measure of the condition of water relative to the requirements of one or more biotic species and to or any human or purpose.

The properties of these samples were determined in the laboratory. The comparative discussion on the analysis of the result show that earth samples gotten from the urban and urban-rural locations has the higher porosity than that of the rural factors, and that the Turbidity, lead content, total coliform potassium content etc. of the urban and urban-rural locations are also higher than that of the rural location.

TABLE OF CONTENT

Cover Page ...............................................................................................................i

Title Page………………………………………………………………………….ii

Certification Page.................................................................................................... iii

Dedication................................................................................................................ iv

Acknowledgement ....................................................................................................v 

Abstract    .................................................................................................................vi

Table of Contents ....................................................................................................vii

CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION

1.1                Background of Study..................................................................................1-2

1.2                Aim and Objective......................................................................................2-3

1.3                Significance……………………………………………………………….3-4

1.4                Scope of project...........................................................................................5

1.5                Basic Assumption........................................................................................5

CHAPTER TWO: LITERATURE REVIEW

2.1        Porosity …………………......................................................................... 6

2.1.1     Porosity or Void fraction ……………………….......................................6-7

2.2     Types of Porosity ………….........................................................................8-10

2.3       Measurement of Porosity …………………………………………………10-12

2.4       Total Porosity and Its Component ………………………………………...12

2.5       Measurement of Effective Porosity ……………………………………….13-16

2.6       Water and Water Quality …………………………………………………17

2.7       Examples of the Different Sources of Water …………………………….17-18

2.8       Quality of Water ………………………………………………………….19-21

2.9       Industrial and Domestic Use of Water ……………………………………22

CHAPTER THREE: METHODOLOGY

3.0        Materials …………....................................................................................23

3.1        Source of Materials ……….…………………...........................................23

3.2       Procedure for Measuring Porosity ...............................................................24

3.3       Procedure for Measuring Water Quality .....................................................25-33

     CHAPTER FOUR: RESULTS

4.0       Results and Discussion (Porosity) …………………………………….….34

4.1       Results and Discussion (Water Quality) ………………………………….35          

CHAPTER FIVE: CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS

5.1         Conclusion................................................................................................36-37

5.2         Problems Encountered..............................................................................38

5.3          Recommendations...................................................................................39-40

Reference................................................................................................................40-42

CHAPTER ONE

 1.0 INTRODUCTION

Porous media refers to a substance that has tiny pores, or air spaces between solid material through which liquid and gas can pass. Examples of naturally occurring porous media include soil, and sometypes of stone, such as pumice and sandstone. Sponges, ceramics, and reticulated foam are also manufactured for use as porous media. The possible applications of these materials in science, industry, and everyday life are vast, although they are perhaps most commonly used as filters (Dullien, 1992).

Physically, a porous medium can be distinguished from other materials including other porous media by its porosity, or the size of its pores. Materials with low porosity are less permeable and typically have smaller pores, making it more difficult for gas or liquid to pass through them, while materials with high porosity have large pores and are easily permeated (Dullien, 1992). Porosity is an important consideration in filtering, since if enough to effectively trap them. Geologists also consider the porosity of the surrounding stone and soil when conducting observations of soil and natural gas reservoirs. Natural gas trapped in low-porosity stone is known as “tight gas” and is more difficult to access than other reserves (Athy, 1930).

Water quality refers to the chemical, physical, biological and radiological characteristics of water. It is a measure of the condition of water relative to the requirements of one or more biotic species and or to any human need or purpose. It is most frequently used by reference to a set of standards against which compliance can be assessed. The most common standards used to assess water quality relate to health of ecosystems, safety of human contact, and drinking water.

1.1 BACKGROUND OF STUDY

Porosity or void fraction is a measure of void (i.e. “empty”) spaces in a material, and is a fraction of volume of voids over the total volume, between 0 and 1, or as a percentage between 0 and 100%. There are many ways to test porosity in a substance or part, such as industrial CT scanning.

The term porosity is used in multiple fields including pharmaceutics, ceramics, metallurgy, materials, manufacturing, earth science, soil mechanics and engineering

Soil can be described in many different ways, such as heavy, light, sandy, clay, loam, poor or good. The relative proportion of sand, silt, clay determines soil texture and small rocks (pebbles) found in a given sample. The soil sample gotten from the urban-rural location was found to be gritty. The sample gotten from the Rural location was found to be smooth and slippery to the touch when wet and the individual particles are much smaller than those of the Urban. These individual particles can only be seen with the aid of a microscope. Clay is sticky and plastic like to handle when wet.

Porosity is an important measurement in areas where drinking water is provided by groundwater reserves (Horgan, 1998).

Testing the water allows a knowledgeable approach to address the specific problems of a water supply. This helps ensure that the water source is being properly protected from potential contamination, and that an appropriate treatment system is selected and is operating properly.

It is important to test the suitability of your water quality for its intended purpose, whether it is livestock watering, irrigation, spraying, or drinking water. This will assist you in making informed decisions about your water and how you use it. The purpose of this section of RWQIT is to provide water quality testing information that will assist rural residents using a private water supply. It provides information on the importance of water quality monitoring and how you can get it tested.

1.2 AIM AND OBJECTIVES

The aim of this project is to determine porosity of the three main soil types which were gotten from three different land uses: urban, rural and urban rural. Determine the water quality gotten from three different well locations (urban, rural and urban-rural). Comparethese samples if they have same porosity and water quality in their different land uses.

THE OBJECTIVES ARE:

To compare porosity of different types of soil from various land uses which ae urban, rural and urban rural. To compare the water quality gotten from various well use which are located at Urban, Urban-Rural and Rural. To identify the uses and various characteristics of different types of soil gotten from the three different land use. To discuss the role of porosity in the different types of soil from different land uses.

1.3 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY

One obvious significance of porosity is that it is an upper limit of volumetric water content. It is similarly essential to the definition of degree of saturation, “Ɵ” divided by porosity (Adamson and Gast, 1997).

Another significance is that within the pore space, the compliment to Ɵ is gas content. That is, volumetric gas content is difference between Ɵ and the porosity (Burdine et al., 1950).

We need to understand water quality in order to protect our health, and also the health of eco systems. Water quality helps us understand what is going on in the subsurface. What geochemical reactions are occurring?

1.4 SCOPE OF STUDY

The extent of coverage of the subject matter includes:

v Porosity in earth sciences and construction

v Types of geologic porosities

v Experimental procedure of measuring porosity

v Water Quality

v Industrial and domestic use?

v Experimental procedure in determining water quality

1.5 BASIC ASSUMPTIONS

Apart from any other scientific assumption made in this report, the following were assumed:

a)     That all information supplied by the cited references are correct

b)    Data, samples and opinions gathered are reasonably good.

 

.

POROSITY OF SOIL WITH WATER ANALYSIS IN THREE DIFFERENT LAND USES



TYPE IN YOUR TOPIC AND CLICK SEARCH.






RESEARCHWAP.NET
Researchwap.net is an online repository for free project topics and research materials, articles and custom writing of research works. We’re an online resource centre that provides a vast database for students to access numerous research project topics and materials. Researchwap.net guides and assist Postgraduate, Undergraduate and Final Year Students with well researched and quality project topics, topic ideas, research guides and project materials. We’re reliable and trustworthy, and we really understand what is called “time factor”, that is why we’ve simplified the process so that students can get their research projects ready on time. Our platform provides more educational services, such as hiring a writer, research analysis, and software for computer science research and we also seriously adhere to a timely delivery.

TESTIMONIES FROM OUR CLIENTS


Please feel free to carefully review some written and captured responses from our satisfied clients.

  • "Exceptionally outstanding. Highly recommend for all who wish to have effective and excellent project defence. Easily Accessable, Affordable, Effective and effective."

    Debby Henry George, Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, USA.
  • "I saw this website on facebook page and I did not even bother since I was in a hurry to complete my project. But I am totally amazed that when I visited the website and saw the topic I was looking for and I decided to give a try and now I have received it within an hour after ordering the material. Am grateful guys!"

    Hilary Yusuf, United States International University Africa, Nairobi, Kenya.
  • "Researchwap.net is a website I recommend to all student and researchers within and outside the country. The web owners are doing great job and I appreciate them for that. Once again, thank you very much "researchwap.net" and God bless you and your business! ."

    Debby Henry George, Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, USA.
  • "Great User Experience, Nice flows and Superb functionalities.The app is indeed a great tech innovation for greasing the wheels of final year, research and other pedagogical related project works. A trial would definitely convince you."

    Lamilare Valentine, Kwame Nkrumah University, Kumasi, Ghana.
  • "I love what you guys are doing, your material guided me well through my research. Thank you for helping me achieve academic success."

    Sampson, University of Nigeria, Nsukka.
  • "researchwap.com is God-sent! I got good grades in my seminar and project with the help of your service, thank you soooooo much."

    Cynthia, Akwa Ibom State University .
  • "Sorry, it was in my spam folder all along, I should have looked it up properly first. Please keep up the good work, your team is quite commited. Am grateful...I will certainly refer my friends too."

    Elizabeth, Obafemi Awolowo University
  • "Am happy the defense went well, thanks to your articles. I may not be able to express how grateful I am for all your assistance, but on my honour, I owe you guys a good number of referrals. Thank you once again."

    Ali Olanrewaju, Lagos State University.
  • "My Dear Researchwap, initially I never believed one can actually do honest business transactions with Nigerians online until i stumbled into your website. You have broken a new legacy of record as far as am concerned. Keep up the good work!"

    Willie Ekereobong, University of Port Harcourt.
  • "WOW, SO IT'S TRUE??!! I can't believe I got this quality work for just 3k...I thought it was scam ooo. I wouldn't mind if it goes for over 5k, its worth it. Thank you!"

    Theressa, Igbinedion University.
  • "I did not see my project topic on your website so I decided to call your customer care number, the attention I got was epic! I got help from the beginning to the end of my project in just 3 days, they even taught me how to defend my project and I got a 'B' at the end. Thank you so much researchwap.com, infact, I owe my graduating well today to you guys...."

    Joseph, Abia state Polytechnic.
  • "My friend told me about ResearchWap website, I doubted her until I saw her receive her full project in less than 15 miniutes, I tried mine too and got it same, right now, am telling everyone in my school about researchwap.com, no one has to suffer any more writing their project. Thank you for making life easy for me and my fellow students... Keep up the good work"

    Christiana, Landmark University .
  • "I wish I knew you guys when I wrote my first degree project, it took so much time and effort then. Now, with just a click of a button, I got my complete project in less than 15 minutes. You guys are too amazing!."

    Musa, Federal University of Technology Minna
  • "I was scared at first when I saw your website but I decided to risk my last 3k and surprisingly I got my complete project in my email box instantly. This is so nice!!!."

    Ali Obafemi, Ibrahim Badamasi Babangida University, Niger State.
  • To contribute to our success story, send us a feedback or please kindly call 2348037664978.
    Then your comment and contact will be published here also with your consent.

    Thank you for choosing researchwap.com.