EFFECTS OF PETROLEUM LEVEL (WASTE OIL) ON SOIL FERTILITY IN THE VICINITY OF A MECHANIC WORKSHOP
Table of Content——–vii
1.0 Introduction ——-1
1.1 Statement of Problem——4
1.2 Purpose of the Study——5
1.3 Significance of Study——8
1.5 Scope of Study——-11
2.0 Review of Related Literature —-12
2.6 Summary of Literature Review—- 19
3.0 Research Methodology and Procedure—22
3.1 Population ——–22
3.2 Sample and Sampling Technique—-22
3.3 Validation of the Instrument —-23
3.4 Reliability of the Instrument —–23
3.5 Data Analysis——-23
4.0 Presentation and Discussion of Result—24
4.1 Analysis and interpretation of Data—25
4.2 Discussion of Results——38
5.0. Summary, Conclusion, and Recommendation –40
1.0 INTRODUCTION -
Used motor oil is a very dangerous polluting product. It contains PAH’s and high levels of metals. PAH’s such as benzo[a]pyrene, are well known for their high carcinogenity. Considerable quantities of heavy metals such as Pb, Zn, Cu, Cr, Ni, and Cd are contained in used crankcase oil, these metals are highly toxic to organisms
In Nigeria, it is common among motor mechanics to dispose waste oils into gutters, water drains and soil (Okonokhuaet al., 2007). Waste oils is defined as used lubricating oils obtained after servicing and subsequently draining from automobile and generator engines. Spent oils contain high percentage of aromatic and aliphatic hydrocarbons, nitrogen and sulphur compounds and metals (magnesium, calcium, zinc, lead) than fresh oils, these metals are introduced into the oil as a result of wear and tear of the engine (Mohdet al., 2011) (Mohd. MozamilBhat; Shiv Shsankar, Shikha, Mohammad Yunus and Shukai R. N (2011): Remediation of hydrocarbon contaminated soil through microbial degradation – FTIR based prediction. Advances in Applied Science Research 2(2): 321 – 326.).
Waste oils cause great damage to soil.
It creates unsatisfactory condition for life in the soil
It causes poor aeration,
It causes immobilization of soil nutrients and
It lowers the soil pH (Ugoh and Moneke, 2011) (Ugoh, S.C and Moneke, L.C (2011), isolation of bacteria from engine oil contaminated soils in auto mechanic Workshops in Gwagwalada, Abuja, Fct-Nigeria. Academia arena. 3(5): 28-33.)
It has been shown that marked changes in properties occur in soil contaminated with hydrocarbon; this affects the physical, chemical and microbiological properties of the soil (Okonokhuaet al., 2007) (Okonokhua, B. O, Ikhajiagbe B, Anoliefo G. O and Emede T. O (2007), The effects of waste oils on soil properties and growth of maize (zea mays l.) J. Applied .sci. Enviroment management. 11(3): 147-152).
At low concentrations, some of these heavy metals are essential micronutrients for plants, but they can cause metabolic disorders and growth inhibition when the concentration is high. Therefore, there is the need for bioremediation of hydrocarbon contaminated soil to make it fertile for plants to grow
Waste oil is produced from automobile mechanic shops and mechanical or electrical engine repairers’ shops (Anoliefo and Vwioko, 2001) (Anoliefo GO, Vwioko DE (2001). Tolerance of chromolemaodorota (L.)K and R grown in soil contaminated with spent lubricant oil. J. crop Bioscience. 1:20-24.) after servicing the vehicles engines, generating set and other types of engines. It has dark brown to black color and it is harmful to the soil environment (Adedokun and Ataga, 2007) (Adedokun OM, Ataga AE (2007). Effect of Amendment and Bioaugumentation of soil polluted with crude oil Automotive Gasoline and Waste oils on the growth of cowpea (Vignaunguiculata L. walp). Scientific. Res. 2(5):1147-1149.). This is because it contains a mixture of different chemicals including low to high molecular weight (C15-C21) compounds, lubricants, additives and decomposition products and heavy metals which have been found to be harmful to the soil and human health (Duffus, 2002) (Duffus JH (2002). Heavy metals “a meaningless Term” (IUPAC Technical Report).Pure. Appl. Chem. 74:793-807.).
According to (Ekundayo ET al.1989) (Ekundayo EO, Aisuen V, Benka Coker MO (1989). The effect of drilling fluids in some waste and burrow pit in western operational areas of shell petroleum Development company of Nigeria Limited on the soil and water quality of the area Environmental Consultancy Service Group, Consultancy service Unit, University of Benin, Benin City Nigeria.), Marked change in properties occurs in the physical, chemical and microbiological properties of soils contaminated with lubricant oil. Oil displaces air and water leading to anaerobic condition (Atlas, 1977) (Atlas RM (1977). Stimulated Petroleum Biodegradation.Critical Rev. Microbial. 5:371-386.). The presence of spent lubricant oil in soil increases bulk density, decreases water holding capacity and aeration propensity (Kayode et al., 2009) (Kayode J, Oyedeji A.A, Olowoyo O (2009). “Evaluation of the effect of pollution with spent lubricant oil on the physical and chemical properties of soil”. Pacific J. Sci. Tech. 10(1):387-391.). The authors also noted reduced nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, magnesium, calcium, sodium and increased levels of heavy metals in soils contaminated with spent oil.
In contrast, (Vwioko et al. 2006) (Vwioko DE, Anoliefo GO, Fashemi SD (2006). Metals concentration in plant tissues of Ricinuscommunis L. (Castor oil) grown in soil contaminated with spent lubricant oil. J. Appl. Sci. Environ. Mgt. 10:127-134).Noted buildup of essential elements such as organic carbon and organic matter and their eventual translocation to plant tissues. These conditions generally cause unsatisfactory seed germination, growth and yield in soil contaminated with waste oils. For instance, (Odjegba and Sadiq 2002) (Odjegba VJ, Sadiq AO (2002). The Environment: Effect of waste oils on the Growth parameters. Chlorophyll and protein levels of Amaranthushybridus L. J. Environ. Sci. 22(1):23-28.)Reported low yield and decreased growth of plant grown in spent lubricant oil contaminated soil. In most cities and towns in Nigeria, some farmers or residents grow vegetables, maize and other crops around the mechanic villages or sink borehole without considering the health risks involved.
Chronic pollution due to used motor oil reaches several millions of tons yearly. In contrast to petroleum pollution, used motor oil pollution is worldwide because the major sources are automotive traffic and industrial activity. Moreover, apart from hydrocarbons and heavy metals used motor oil contains other compounds that are dangerous to the environment, such as lubrication additives. Motor oil pollution can damage the soil as well as atmosphere when the waste oil is burned; these are the reasons why it is necessary to consider used motor oil pollution and petroleum pollution separately.
1.2 AIM AND OBJECTIVES:
This research is aimed at determining the effect of dispersion and spillage of mechanic waste (used motor oils) on the soil in the vicinity of a mechanic workshop.
Analysis of soil fertility parameters in the soil in the vicinity of mechanic workshop
Effect of mechanic waste (waste oils) on the soil in the vicinity of a mechanic workshop
Determination of soil fertility in the vicinity of a mechanic workshop a mechanic workshop
Extent of damage done by the waste on the soil i.e. the toxic, mutagenic and carcinogenic properties of the used motor oil
1.3 problem of the study
Environmental pollution with petroleum and petrochemical products has attracted much attention in recent decades. The presence of different types of automobiles and machinery has resulted in an increase in the use of lubricating oil. Spillage of used motor oils such as diesel or jet fuel contaminates our natural environment with hydrocarbon. Hydrocarbon contamination of the air, soil, and freshwater especially by PAHs attracts public attention because many PAHs are toxic, mutagenic, and carcinogenic.
Prolonged exposure to high oil concentration may cause the development of liver or kidney disease, possible damage to the bone marrow, and an increased risk of cancer. In addition, PAHs have a widespread occurrence in various ecosystems that contribute to the persistence of these compounds in the environment. The illegal dumping of used motor oil is an environmental hazard with global ramifications. Used motor oil contains metals and heavy polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) that could contribute to chronic hazards including mutagenicity and carcinogenicity
Although the heavy chemicals are sometimes essential micronutrients for plants, they have also caused metabolic disorders and growth inhibition when the concentration is high.
1.4 scope of the study
The study centers around the topic, effects of petroleum level(waste oil) on soil fertility in the vicinity of a mechanic workshop (Abak)
1.5 JUSTIFICATION OF STUDY
There is a growing use of petroleum products without a proper waste disposal process, which would thereby affect lands, plants, animals, leach into the environment and may finally get to man causing serious health issues, prolonged exposure to high oil concentration may cause the development of liver or kidney disease, possible damage to the bone marrow, and an increased risk of cancer. In addition, PAH’s have a widespread occurrence in various ecosystems that contribute to the persistence of these compounds in the environment. The illegal dumping of used motor oil is an environmental hazard with global ramifications environmental pollution with petroleum and petrochemical products has attracted much attention in recent decades. The presence of different types of automobiles and machinery has resulted in an increase in the use of lubricating oil. Spillage of used motor oils such as diesel or jet fuel contaminates our natural environment with hydrocarbon
The disposal of waste oils into gutters, water drains, open vacant plots and farms is a common practice in Nigeria especially by motor mechanics. This oil, also called spent lubricant, is usually obtained after servicing and subsequently draining from automobile and generator engines (Anoliefo and Vwioko, 2001) and much of this oil is poured into the soil. (Anoliefo, G.O,Vwioko, D.E (2001).Tolerance of chromolaenaodorata grown in soil contamination with spent lubrication oil journal of tropical biosciences, 1:20-24.)
There are relatively large amounts of hydrocarbons in the used oil, including the highly toxic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (Wang et al., 2000) (Wang, J.C, Wong, C.K,(2000). Characterization of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons created in lubricating oils. Water, air and soil pollution, 120: 381-396.). Also, most heavy metals such as Vanadium (V), Lead (Pb), Aluminum (Al), Nickel (Ni) and Iron (Fe), which were below detection in unused lubricating oil, have been reported by (Whismanet al. 1974). Waste lubricating oil research. In: an investigation of several re-fining methods. Bureau of mines, Bartlesville, energy research center) to give high values (ppm) in used oil. These heavy metals may be retained in soils in the form of oxides, hydroxides, carbonates, exchangeable cations, and/or bound to organic matter in the soil (yong, et al., 1992). Nevertheless, this is dependent on the local environmental conditions and on the kind of soil constituents present in the soil-water system.
Ekundayoet al. (1989) (Ekundayo, J.A, Aisueni N.I, Benka-Coker, M.O
1989). The effects of drilling fluids in some waste and burrow pits in western operational areas of shell petroleum development company of Nigeria limited on the soil and water quality of the areas. Environmental consultancy service group, consultancy services unit, university of Benin, Benin City, Nigeria).Have shown that a marked change in properties occurs in soils polluted with petroleum hydrocarbons, affecting the physical, chemical and microbiological properties of the soil. Oil pollution of soil leads to build up of essential(organic carbon, phosphorous, calcium, magnesium) and non-essential (lead, zinc, iron, cobalt, copper) elements in soil and the eventual translocation in plant tissues (Vwiokoet al., 2006) (Vwioko, D.E, Anoliefo G.O, Fashemi, S.D (2006). Metals concentration in plant tissues of ricinuscommunis l. (castor oil) grown in soil contaminated with spent lubricating oil. Journal of applied science and environmentalmanagement, 10: 127-134.).
Although some heavy metals at low concentrations are essential micronutrients for plants, but at high concentrations they may cause metabolic disorders and growth inhibition for most of the plant species (Fernandes and Henriques,1991) (Fernandes, J.C, Henriques, F.S (1991). Biochemical, physiological and structural effects of excess copper in plants.The botanical review, 57:246 -273. ) however, plants respond differently to pollutants. (Anoliefo and Vwioko 1995) (Anoliefo, G.O, Vwioko, D.E (1995). Effects spent lubricating oil on the growth of capsicum annum and lycopersiconesculentum miller. Environmental pollution, 88: 361-364.) , Reported that the contamination of soil with waste oils caused growth retardation in plants, with the effect more adverse for tomatoes.
The purpose of this review is to gain an insight into the production and fate of used motoroil, the effects of dispersion and spillage of used motor oil on the soil in the , and Finally, the toxic, mutagenic and carcinogenic properties of used motor oil.
1.6 Definition of terms
Petroleum:a liquid mixture of hydrocarbons which is present in suitable rock strata and can be extracted and refined to produce fuels including petrol, paraffin, and diesel oil; oil.
Vicinity:the area near or surrounding a particular place.
Mechanic: a skilled worker who repairs and maintains vehicle engines and other machinery.
Waste oil:is defined as any petroleum-based or synthetic oil that, through contamination, has become unsuitable for its original purpose due to the presence of impurities or loss of original properties.
Fertility: the quality of being fertile; productiveness
Soil: the upper layer of earth in which plants grow, a black or dark brown material typically consisting of a mixture of organic remains, clay, and rock particles..