CAUSES OF POVERTY AND UNDERDEVELOPMENT IN KOGI STATE: A CASE STUDY OF KABBA-BUNU LOCAL GOVERNMENT


CAUSES OF POVERTY AND UNDERDEVELOPMENT IN KOGI STATE: A CASE STUDY OF KABBA-BUNU LOCAL GOVERNMENT

ABSTRACT

The essence of reforming local government system was to bring about stable increases in the income, productivity, diversification of economy and general quality of lives in the rural areas. But the ability of the local governments to accomplish these tasks will depend extensively on their autonomy and financial positions. The problem of local governments in Kogi State  is usually associated with by certain underlying factors like overdependence on statutory allocations from the Federation Account, autonomy, corruption, finance, qualify staff etc. The objective of this study focuses on finding out the causes of poverty and underdevelopment in Kabba-Bunu local government and to recommend appropriate solution. The data used for this study were collected through two main sources, namely; Primary and   Secondary sources. The primary sources involves use of questionnaire administered directly to respondents and oral interview conducted to serve as veritable instrument for collecting facts and figures while the secondary source include: textbooks, journals, internet and conferences. to demonstrate considerable good governance and affect the lives of the rural people through consistent service delivery as the primary policy, Kabba-Bunu local government should minimize it total dependence on the federal allocation, and increase their efforts towards generating more revenue through the diversification of their internal revenue sources, minimize corruption, autonomy should be granted.

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Title page     ………………………………………………………………………………………….....i      

Declaration……………………………………………………………………………………………..ii

 Dedication …………………………………………………………………………………………….iii

Certification................................................................................................................................i

Acknowledgements………………………………………………………………………………...v

Abstract…………………………………………………………………………………………………vii    

Table of contents……………………………………………………………………………………viii  

CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION  

1.1 Background To The Study..............................................................................................1                                      

1.2 Statement Of Problems………………................................................................................3                                            1.3 Objectives Of The Study....................................................................................................5

1.4 Significance Of The Study …………………………………………………………………….6     

1.5 Research Questions.............................................................................................................6

1.6 Scope And Limitations Of Study.....................................................................................7

1.7 Organization Of The Study..............................................................................................7               References....................................................................................................................9

CHAPTER TWO: LITERATURE REVIEW/THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK

2.1 Literature Review................................................................................................................10

2.1.1 The Concept local government...................................................................................10

2.1.2 The Concept Of Development.....................................................................................16

2.1.3 The Concept Of Underdevelopment.........................................................................17

2.2 Theoretical Framework....................................................................................................19

References.......................................................................................................................23

CHAPTER THREE: RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

3.1 Introduction……………………………………………………………………………………….25

3.2 Research Design...................................................................................................................26

3.3 Primary Sources Of Data...................................................................................................26

3.4 Population Of The Study………………………………………………………………………26

3.4.1 Historical Background Of Kabba-Bunu Local Government…………………………..27

3.5 Sampling Method…………………………………………………………………………………31

3.5.1 Sampling Technique………………………………………………………………………….32

3.6 Research Instrument……………………………………………………………………………32

3.7 Secondary Data……………………………………………………………………………………33

3.7.1 Significant Of The Secondary Data……………………………………………………..34           References........................................................................................................................35

CHAPTER FOUR:  DATA PRESENTATION AND ANALYSIS

4.1   Data Presentation..............................................................................................................38

4.2 Data Analysis.........................................................................................................................45

References  ...................................................................................................................58

CHAPTER FIVE: SUMMARY, RECOMMENDATIONS AND CONCLUSION

5.1 Summary.................................................................................................................................61

5.2 Recommendations...............................................................................................................62

5.3 Conclusion…………………………………………………………………………………………..64

         Bibliography..........................................................................................................

 CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1 Background to the study

     A blue-print for social transformation and development of a people should begin with an examination of their social conditions and the progress they have attained in terms of human development indicators. It is from such a concrete analysis that it becomes possible to know where the people are and then elaborate a vision of progress and development for the people in this case the people of  Kogi state and Kabba-Bunu in particular Adamolekun, L. (2006).

   This study attempts to provide an analysis of crises of governance and development in with particular focus on Kabba-Bunu people. Its brings out a graphic state of ‘human development’in the state which is part of the story of the larger Nigerian society in which poverty thrives in the midst of plenty. The rationale behind this study is to highlight the enormity and depth of socio-economic backwardness of the Kabba-Bunu people and to provide a subsequent blue print for social transformation and people-centered development in the local government area. In addition to the depiction of the material social conditions of the people of Kabb-Bunu provided in this study, the study also provides the state of social services in the areas of health and education  to indicate the level of progress attained and the gaps in order to provide the basis for policy response proposed at the conclusion.

       Kogi State was created in August 1991. Since its creation, the people have witnessed successive government, both military and civilian. Over the period, successive government have attempted to harness the material and human resources of the state to develop the state. This study recognizes their good intentions and sense of purpose, but equally underscores the big gaps in these efforts and the huge deficits in the development aspirations of the people. This study will provide a summary of bad-governance and mal-administration in Kogi State with particular focus on Kabba-Bun local government.

            Furthermore, a picture of the social conditions of the people is provided  in the face of abundance  resources and the huge statutory revenue accruing from the federal government to the coffers of the state. It is an analysis that seeks to bring into bold relief, broad indications of progress or lack of it, for the purpose of addressing  the threats and problems that the people confront on daily basis.

     This study also examined the challenges faced by the state and Kabba/Bunu Local Government Area, this has affected the general performance and the ability of the local government system to deliver dividends of democracy to the people at the grass roots.

1.2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEMS

There has been public outcry about the inability of Local Government Councils in kogi state to discharge their responsibilities of providing social amenities at the grassroots level. This is in-spite of several sources of revenue available to them. It is in this regard that it is essential to investigate if it is the inadequacy of funds or mismanagement that is responsible for the abysmal performance of Local Government Councils or a combination of both. Perhaps, one of the greatest problem confronting Kabba-Bunu local government today is the lopsided and unbalanced development of the environment and how best to improve the living standard of the rural dwellers.  It is incorrect to state that the gross unbalance and inequalities in the level of development between the rural and urban areas of Nigeria is enormous taking Kabba/Bunu local government area for example.

    In spite of all the orchestrated policies and programmed of successive government in Nigeria.  The problem of rural backwardness and under – development has remained unresolved.   This is evident in the persistence of agriculture stagnation, hunger, poverty, disease, unemployment, poor housing, under-employment, poor infrastructure facilities.  Most of our rural areas also suffer from inadequacy of social services, high birth rate and death rate, low life expectance, malnutrition and Ignorance, lack of productive, technical and managerial skill to improve production Gboyega, A.I. (1983).

            In the light of these problems, the researcher is therefore boarded and wants to probe into the activities Kabba/Bunu local government council to know whether they are contributing towards the development of our rural areas. Base on the forgoing the problem of this study will be clear stated:

·        lack of autonomy is the major problem of local government efficiency and

Effectiveness in Nigeria.

·        Corruption and bad leadership is also one of the major hindrances to grass root development.

·        The lack of local government autonomy hinders poverty alleviation and development in Kabba-Bunu local government.

·         Administrative control of Kabba-Bunu local government by Kogi state government affect their developmental policy.

·         the high rate of financial crisis in Kabba-Bunu local government  is one of the major problems for the inadequate infrastructural facilities in the local area

·        Low level of democracy in the grass root area also aggravate corrupt practice of Kabba-Bunu local government officials.

1.3 OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY

The general objective of this study is to examine the causes of poverty and underdevelopment in Kabba-Bunu local government. The other objectives include:

·        To know if lack of autonomy the major problem of local government efficiency and effectiveness in Nigeria.

·        To examine how Corruption and bad leadership hinder grass root development.

·        To examine how local government lack of autonomy hinders poverty alleviation and development in Kabba-Bunu local government.

·        To know whether Administrative control of Kabba-Bunu local government by Kogi state government affect their developmental policy.

·        To examine how the high rate of financial crisis in Kabba-Bunu local government  stand as one of the major problems in the provisions of adequate infrastructural facilities for the people in the local area.

·        To also know how low level of democratic practice in the grass root area aggravate corruption among Kabba-Bunu local government officials.

·        To recommend appropriate solution to the problems of Kabba-Bunu local government.

1.4 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY

The need to understudy the abysmal performance of Local Government Councils in kogi state and Kabba-Bunu in-spite of the numerous sources of revenue available to Local Government Councils cannot be over emphasized because of the strategic position of Local Government Councils as a third tier of government and more so that greater majority of Nigerians reside in rural areas. Over the years, government had set up committees/commissions with a view to bettering the living condition of people at the grassroots level. Findings from this study will enrich the current database on Local Government Administration. It will also serve as a useful document for Local Government Administrators, Practitioners and Government on how Local Governments could better be managed to serve the purpose as enshrined in the founding documents.

1.5           RESEARCH QUESTIONS

The following questions are to guide the researcher towards finding out the solutions to the problems of Kabba-Bunu local government.

·        How did lack of autonomy the major problem of local government efficiency and effectiveness in Nigeria?

·        If autonomy is granted to local government does that alleviate poverty and underdevelopment in Kabba-Bunu local government?

·        Does corruption and bad leadership one of the major hindrances to grass root development?

·        Did administrative control of Kabba-Bunu local government by Kogi state government negatively affect their developmental policy?

·        Did the high rate of financial crisis in Kabba-Bunu local government the problems for inadequate infrastructural facilities in the local area?

·        How did low level of democracy in the grass root areas aggravated corrupt practice of Kabba-Bunu local government officials?

1.6            THE SCOPE AND LIMITATION OF THE STUDY

          This study is set to examine the causes of poverty and underdevelopment in kogi state but due to its broad nature and the need for clarity of analysis, this study has been narrowed down to Kabba-Bunu local government. On the other hand, this study is limited due to lack of time, finance, transport, and other logistical constrains that might have aided this study.

1.7 ORGANIZATION OF THE STUDY

      This study on the causes of underdevelopment in kogi state is divided in to five chapters. Chapter one include background to the study, statement of the problems, aims and  objective of the study, scope and limitations of the study, significance of the study, and organization of the study. Chapter two includes conceptual and theoretical framework. Chapter three is centered on research methodology. Chapter four is data presentation, analysis and interpretations and discussion data. Chapter five is summary, recommendations and conclusion.

                                                 REFERENCES

 Adamolekun, L. (2006) Post Script Reorienting the Leadership of Governmental

                      Administration for Improved Performance in Ladipo Adamolekun

                      (ed) Politics: Bureaucracy and Development in Africa: Ibadan

                      Spectrum Books Limited.

Gboyegga, A. I. (1983) Local Government Reform in Nigeria, in P maw hood

                (ed). Local Government in the Third World. London: John Wileysons.

Nigeria, (1976) Guideline for Local Government Reform. Kaduna: Government  

                           Printer.        

Oladeji, (1995) Financial Management of Local Government in Nigeria. Ile –

              Ife: Obafemi Awolowo University Press.

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CAUSES OF POVERTY AND UNDERDEVELOPMENT IN KOGI STATE: A CASE STUDY OF KABBA-BUNU LOCAL GOVERNMENT



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