CONTRACEPTIVE USE AMONG FEMALE STUDENTS OF THE UNIVERSITY OF UYO.
Over the years issues related to sexuality and contraception have been taken with great reservation by Nigerians, as a result of increase in sexual expressions and experimentation among adolescents. This therefore, investigates contraceptive use among female students of University of Benin, Benin City.
The objective of this study was to identify the status, patterned, constraints contraceptives use among female student of University of Benin, Benin City which will help to prevent some serious problems, such as unwanted pregnancy and unsafe abortions.
The population of the study was centered on female undergraduates of the University of Benin in Ugbowo Campus on full-time programme during the 2011/2012 academic session.
A well structured questionnaire whose reliability was established through test – retest reliability procedure was used. The reliability coefficient was found to be 0.74. The questionnaire was administered to 209 students that was 1/5 of the students residing in the halls of residence which was selected using the simple random sampling technique.
The analytical tool for the study included frequency counts and percentages from the data collected and analyzed, the result shows that low rate of female student of University of Benin uses contraceptives.
In view of these findings, contraceptive use should be a major part of educational programmes designed for students’ health, educators and other medical personnel should give appropriate health education on different methods of contraceptive in regards to their benefits and limitations.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Title page i
Certification ` ii
Table of Contents viii
CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION
Background to the Study 1
Statement of the Problem 5
Research Questions 6
Purpose of the Study 6
Significance of the Study 7
Delimitation of Study 8
Limitation of Study 8
Definitions of Terms 9
CHAPTER TWO: REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE
Theoretical Framework to the Study 10
Trends in Adolescents Sexuality 12
Adolescents Contraception 15
Methods of Contraceptives 21
Attitudes and Behaviour of Adolescents towards Contraceptive 32
Summary of Literature Review 34
CHAPTER THREE: METHOD OF THE STUDY
Research Design 36
The population of the Study 37
Sample and Sampling Technique 37
Research Instrument 38
Validity of the Instrument 38
Reliability of the Instrument 39
Method of Data Analysis 40
Data Presentation and Analysis 41
Discussion of Results 48
CHAPTER FIVE: SUMMARY, CONCLUSIONS AND
Background to the Study
The practice of contraception is old as human existence. Ancient writings noted on the Leahun Papyrus (1800 BCE) that the old Egyptians practice contraception by using a vaginal pessary of crocodile dung and fermented dough which may create an hostile environment for sperm.
During the early second century in Rome, Sorunus of Ephesus created a highly acidic concoction of fruits, nuts and wool that was placed at the cervical OS to create a spermicidal barrier (Wikipedia.com, 2010).
Over the years, issues related to sexuality and contraception, have been taken with great reservation by Nigerians, as a result of increase in sexual expressions and experimentation among adolescents. Studies conducted among female students in Nigeria indicate an overall awareness rate of 70.9%. Among sexually exposed students, there was contraceptive usage rate of 40.1% and an unwanted pregnancy rate of 30.5% (Adinma and Okeke, 1995).
Most adolescents who are sexually active and do not use contraceptive face the increasing risks of unwanted pregnancies and unsafe abortions. Induced abortion currently accounts for 20,000 of the estimated 50,000 of maternal death occur in Nigeria each year (Akingba, 1977; Okonfua and Liumok, 1992).
Many unwanted pregnancies by adolescents arise out of ignorance, because they receive inadequate education on sexual and reproductive health, and the source of information available on contraception are often dubious, unreliable and misleading because the information is less motivated by healthcare providers than their peers. The 1990 Demographic and Health Survey indicated that only 11% of sexually active women age 15 – 19 ever used any modern contraceptive methods.
The utilization of modern methods of contraceptive has always been shown to be poor among Nigerian adolescents. Studies from Western and Southern Nigeria have found the rates of contraceptive use among sexually active adolescents to be about 30% (Arowoju, Adekunle, Okpani and Okpani, 2000).
Although, societal and cultural inhabitation has been a great influence on the use of contraceptive, among adolescents because the use of contraceptive had been the prerogative of married women and adults in most African societies.
Fueye, Castle and Konate (2001) indicated that previously in many African societies, sexual information among adolescents is seen as sexual taboo. In general, the voluntary control of fertility is a paramount importance to a reproductive health of a woman, which can be essential to her ability to achieve her sense of well-being. The use of contraceptive to prevent unwanted pregnancy and unsafe abortion is especially important (Nuleo and Pool, 1997; Adedoyin and Adejoke, 1995; and Oladepo and Brieger, 1994).
Furthermore, contraceptive use among sexually active adolescents would be very important, since it saves them for high risk of unwanted pregnancies, embarrassment and disgrace. Although, they are some constraints that may affect the use of contraceptives. It is this premise that this present study seeks to examine the level of acceptance of contraceptive use among female students of University of Benin, Benin City.
Statement of the Problem
The promotion of effective contraceptive use among female students of the University of Benin is very important, if their reproductive health is to be improved, because many female students are oblivious of the adverse health consequences of ineffective contraceptives.
It should be noted that despite the wide knowledge and campaign about the use of some contraceptives such as condom, most female students still distaste such use, therefore, exposing themselves to unwanted pregnancies and unsafe abortions.
The study will therefore provide the answer to the following questions:
1. What proportion of female University of Benin Students use contraceptives?
2. What are the common methods of contraceptives used among female students of the University of Benin?
3. What are the constraints to the use of contraceptives among female students of the University of Benin?
Purpose of the Study
The purpose of the study was to investigate the use of contraceptives among the female students of the University of Benin, Benin City. To identify common contraception and constraints to the use of contraception among the students.
Significance of Study
Over the years, the rate of contraceptive use among adolescents is low, because contraceptive use has been the prerogative of married women, therefore, leaving the youngsters to face the high risks of unwanted pregnancies and unsafe abortions.
The study will help the curriculum planners to know the level of knowledge of contraception among adolescents, thus, the issues on pregnancy, contraceptive use should be a major part of educational programmes designed for students. Discussions regarding methods of contraceptive must be acknowledged and accurate information should be available to match the methods with specified choice.
This study will also help students to understand the benefits and limitations of the various contraceptive methods and to also know that efficacy of any contraceptive method can be impaired if they have access to health care professionals who will give them appropriate education on contraception.
This study was carried out among female students residing in the halls of residence in Ugbowo Campus of the University of Benin, Benin City.
The major limitation to the study was that some female students were reluctant and hesitant to give correct answers to questions particularly when sex and contraceptives are sensitive issues. And some were not wiling to talk about their sexual lives. Thus, which adversely affected the authenticity and accuracy of the information on this study.
Definition of Terms
1. Fertile Period: This is the time when contraception can occur and one might likely to become pregnant.
2. Contraceptive Prevalence Rate (CPR): A measure of extent of contraceptives use among a define population group at a point in time.
3. Sexuality: Sexuality is the development of sexual attitude and practices that creates room for sexual intimate relationship.
SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS
This chapter is concerned with the summary, findings, conclusions and recommendations of the study.
The purpose of the study was to investigate the use of contraceptives among the female students of University of Benin, Benin City. Three research questions were raised for the study of 4,184 of female students residing in the Halls of Residence, Ugbowo Campus. A 20-item self developed questionnaire was used as the main instrument for collecting data for the study and data generated were converted to frequency counts and percentage for analysis.
The followings are the main findings of the study:
1. Contraceptive use among female student of University of Benin was 36.8 percent which is relatively low.
2. The most commonly used method among the population is condom which constitutes 12.0 percent of the total methods used among the population.
3. The major factors contributing to the low rate of contraceptive use among the population is misconception about contraceptive been prerogative of women and promiscuous girls.
Therefore, inadequate health information and health education on contraception is a barrier to the use of contraceptive.
In view of the findings to the study, a low rate of 36.8 percent of female students of University of Benin, uses contraceptive and it is observed that the constraints to the use of contraceptives among the sample respondents is misconceptions towards contraceptives which includes; contraceptives are dangerous, they are for married women and promiscuous girls.
Furthermore, inappropriate or inadequate health information and education is a barrier to the use of contraceptive.
In the view of the findings to the study, the following recommendations are made:
1. The findings show that contraceptive use among the population sample is generally low. Thus, the issues of unwanted pregnancy, unsafe abortion and contraceptive use should be a major part of the educational programme designed for students.
2. There should be a school based multi-component programmes that encompasses educational and psychological interventions with contraceptive provisions.
3. Health educators and other health care providers should provide appropriate health information and education on contraception. Thus, discussions regarding methods of contraceptive must be acknowledged.
4. Accurate health information and strategies should be available to reduce the impact of misconception provided by families and peers on risks associated with contraceptive and that contraceptive is prerogative of married women and promiscuous girls.
5. Students should also know that contraceptive can yield both positive and negative results necessitated by whatever purpose or objective of such contraceptive to the individual. Hence, health care providers should dedicate themselves to the goal that a woman does have the right to control her own fertility and that she needs access to information, services and psychological support of her decisions.
Buttressing this view, contraceptive use must be adopted through a positive method with specified choice. A method that is not safe for the user can create unfortunate medical consequences..