THE DETERMINATION OF THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN HEIGHT AND HEARTBEAT OF MALE AND FEMALE STUDENTS IN DELTA STATE UNIVERSITY, DELSU ABRAKA
This study examined the relationship between height and heart beat of male and female students in Delta State University, Abraka. The objective seeks to find out the relationship between height against the heart beat of male and female students. Calibrated stadiometer and Pulse Auximeterwas used to obtain the height and heart beat measurement of randomly selected 90 volunteers made up of 45 male and 45 female students. Total height of the individuals were measured in centimeters while pulse rate was obtained based on the number of times of beat of the heart. Statistical analyzing were conducted using mean, student t-test and Spearman rank. Results obtained from this study revealed that there is significant difference between Height of male and female students, there is a significant difference between heartbeat of male and female students, the spearman correlation showed that there is a relationship between the Height and heartbeat of male student (r = 0.026), the spearman correlation showed that there is a relationship between the Height and heartbeat of female student (r=0.134) and also the result further showed significant relationship between height and heartbeat for male student.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
COVER PAGE i
TITLE PAGE ii
TABLE OF CONTENTS vi
CHAPTER ONE 1
1.0 INTRODUCTION 1
1.1 Background to the Study 1
1.2 Statement of the Problem 5
1.3 Purpose of the Study 5
1.4 Significance of the Study 6
1.5 Scope of the Study 7
CHAPTER TWO 8
2.0 LITERATURE REVIEW 8
2.1 Human Height 8
2.2 Measurement of Human height 12
2.3 Methods for Measuring Human Height 12
2.4 Heart Rate 14
2.5 Measurement of Heart Rate 15
2.6 Method for Measuring Heart rate 17
2.7 Calculating the Difference between two Means and Variances of Human Height and Heart beat 18
2.8 Empirical Studies 20
CHAPTER THREE 25
3.0 MATERIALS AND METHODS 25
3.1 Study Location/Duration 25
3.2 Participants / Subjects 25
3.3 Instruments for Data Collection 25
3.4 Inclusion and Exclusion Criteria 26
3.5 Methodology 26
3.6 Anthropometric Measurement 27
3.7 Statistical Analysis 28
CHAPTER FOUR 29
4.0 RESULTSAND DISCUSSIONS 29
4.1 Results 29
4.2 Discussion 31
4.3 T-test Hypothesis 36
CHAPTER FIVE 43
5.0 CONCLUSION 43
1.1 Background to the Study
Variations in the values of the measurement of the size and proportions as well asthe normal functioning of the human body parameters are often considered as a sign of good health. Variations such as; heart rate, respiratory rate, peripheral blood flow, systolic blood pressure (SBP), diastolic blood pressure (DBP), and so on vary from one individual to the other as a result of control of function by the autonomous nervous system. Changes in physiological function occur during adolescent spurt. For many years the relationship that exists between different parts of the body and height has been of great interest to anthropologist and physicians (Ozaslanet al., 2003; Fessler, 2005).
Human height or stature is the distance from the bottom of the feet to the top of the head in a human body standing erect. It is measured using a stadiometer usually in centimetres when using the metric system or feet and inches when using the imperial system (Carter, 2008). Growth has long been recognized as a measure of the heath of individuals, hence part of the reasoning for the use of growth charts. For individuals, as indicators of health problems, growth trends are tracked for significant deviations and growth is also monitored for significant deficiency from genetic expectations. Genetics is a major factor in determining the height of individuals, though it is far less influential in regard to differences among populations.
According to Mohantyet al.(2012) height is a fundamental unit used in assessing an individual’s growth and nutrition as well as calculating their body surface. It constitutes an essential element in the description of the human population. Average difference height is relevant to the measurement of the health and wellness (standard of living and quality of life) of populations (Bolton-Smith, 2000; Ali et al., 2000; Mohantyet al., 2001).
In every human, the heart rate reflects the speed of the heartbeat measured by the number of contractions of the heart per unit of time that is, beats per minutes (BPM). This heart rate can vary considerably depending on the body's physical needs, including the need to absorb oxygen and excrete carbon dioxide. Activities that can provoke change include; physical activities, sleep, anxiety, stress, illness, ingesting, and drugs. Marked changes in heart rate (HR) reaction occur during physical exercise and during physical training interventions among different sex of individuals. The changes in HR are primarily due to alterations in autonomic tone: parasympathetic tone slows down the HR, and sympathetic stimulation increases it (Tapanainenet al. 2002).
The regular practice of physical exercises is an important factor to reduce morbidity and mortality rates of cardiovascular function and all other conditions (Myers et al., 2002).However, there also seems to have further and independent benefits from the practice of physical exercises and improvement of the aerobic condition as noted by Willians, (2001). According to Jokinenet al. (2003) the measurement of heart rate reaction has become a widely used tool for assessing the cardiovascular autonomic function in various physiological settings. This is because regular physical activity programme and good physical fitness are widely accepted as factors that improve a number of health outcomes and reduce all-cause mortality (Laukkanenet al. 2001).
The body height and heart rate of an individual are important variables in the determination of the health condition of an individual. Certain studies have shown that height is a factor in overall health while some suggest tallness is associated with better cardiovascular health and shortness with longevity (Samaras and Elrick 2002). There are, however, various diseases and disorders that cause growth abnormalities.
Gender has been reported to influence autonomic nervous functions in relation to heart rate reaction in physical activity. In cross-sectional studies, women have been reported to show higher vagal modulation of heart rate reaction as compared with men (Ryan et al. 1994). Several mechanisms or reasons may explain the controversial results or sex differences in heart rate reaction after aerobic training. This could result from a complex combination of biochemical, structural, metabolic, humoral and neural factors (Furlanet al. 1993).
The measurement of human height and heart rate across various sex groups has often been used as major component for estimating growth and has proven to be important strategy in assessing antecedents of diseases such as; risks of overweight/obesity, diabetes, hypertension, low bone density, CHD, as well as other human pathologies that could result in morbidity and death. Hence, this study seeks to examine the sex difference in heart rate reaction to a specified training programme.
1.2 Statement of the Problem
Data on the relationship between human height and heart beat in Abrakato be non-available to this study environment. Therefore, there is need to conduct a research of this kind so as to provide certain anthropometric information onvariations in heights and heartbeats of male and female students in the study area.
1.3 Purpose of the Study
The main purpose of this study is to examine the relationship between height and heart beat of male and female students. Specifically, the study seeks;
to find out if there is any significant relationship between the average heights of male and female students in DELSU to find out if there is any significant relationship between the average heart beat of male and female students in DELSU to determine the relationship between height and heart beat of male students in DELSU to determine the relationship between height and heart beat of female students in DELSU
1.4 Significance of the Study
The obesity incidence has increased in developed, developing and under development countries and such fact cannot be only attributed to genetic factors since the human genes have not modified lately. Habitual physical activities among humans are complex characteristics which are determined by the interaction of biological and psychosocial factors as well as the physical environment. Among the younger population, physical activity plays an important role in normal growth, maturation and development. In fact, physical activity is a central concept in ensuring physical fitness towards eliminating various risks of type II diabetes, hypertension and other chronic diseases in progressively younger individuals including children and adolescents of various sex groups. Hence, this study will be useful in educating students, educators, athletes, parents, government and the society at large on the benefit of regular exercise in enhancing heart rate reaction and reducing the risk of chronic metabolic and cardio respiratory diseases as regular physical activity for long periods may protect the body against the development of chronic diseases.
1.5 Scope of the Study
The study is delimited in Scope to Abraka and its environment in the Ethiope East Local Government Area of Delta State. The variables considered were; height and heart beats as they relate to male and female students. A target sample size of 150 subjects was measured and data obtained was statistically analyzed using chi-square technique.
2.0 LITERATURE REVIEW
2.1 Human Height
Height means stature, especially of the human body. Human height or stature is the distance from the bottom of the feet to the top of the head in a human body, standing erect. It is measured using a stadiometer, usually in centimetres when using the metric system, and feet and inches when using the imperial system (Carter and Pamela, 2008). Adult height is influenced by nutrition and health throughout his or her growing years. Although final height is limited by a child genotype, environmental influences also affect his/her adult size. Panagiotopoulouetal., (2004) noted the exact body height cannot always be determined the usual way because of various deformities of the extremities or in patients who have undergone amputations or similar injuries.
In such circumstances, an estimate of body height has to be derived from other reliable anthropometric indicators, such as; hand and foot lengths (Agnihotri, Agnihotri, Jeebun&Googoolye 2008); sitting height (Fatmah 2005) as well as pattern of stature (Bidmos 2006; Bidmos&Asala 2005). Therefore, all these anthropometric indicators that are used as an alternative to estimate body height are very important in predicting age-related loss in body height (Hickson& Frost 2003).
Height is considered an important indicator of Nutrition and health of a population (Akachi and Canning 2007; Deaton, 2007). Estimation of pattern of human height from different body parts has received great attention in anthropology and forensic sciences. Stature which means standing height (NHANES, 2007) is increasingly used as measure of the health and wellness (standard of living and quality) of population (Ashizawa, 2002). Changes in body dimensions have attracted the attention of anthropologists (Ali et al., 2000) and in children of developed countries are well documented phenomenon (Loeschet al., 2000 and Adebisi, 2008).
An interest in inequality also motivates studies of the difference between male and female heights. Stature is an important and easily measurable aspect of sexual dimorphism or differences in body composition. The differences mainly emerge at puberty; at birth males are only 1% longer than females, but in adulthood men are, on average, 7% taller (Gustafsson and Lindenfors, 2004).
The difference is primarily due to men having greater leg length in part because their pubertal period is longer than women’s. Men also have a higher fat-free mass and a lower body fat percentage for a given weight. Sexual dimorphism in shape diminishes at advanced ages; both sexes tend to lose lean mass after age 40, so that even individuals with a stable weight have a higher body fat percentage as they age. The magnitude of the sexual difference in stature and body mass varies between societies, and is susceptible to environmental, social and economic influences (Wells, 2007).
A cording to Gustafssonet al., (2007) height in both sexes at a point in time is strongly influenced by socio-economic status the degree of dimorphism will be influenced by selection into and composition of the sample. Historical research on women’s height and body mass is limited by the availability of systematic sources before the late twentieth century. Golshan, Amra&Hoghoghi (2003)pointed out that people of small stature were relatively strong as compared with tall the tall ones, and quicker because the weight decrease in proportion to cube of the size, whereas the force decrease in proportion to the square of the size, being approximately proportional to the cross sectional of the muscle. Short heavy-set people are remarkably strong and make good weight-lifters, carters and heavy labourers. The “grasshoppers” types with relatively long legs make good jumpers, runners, vaulters, hurdlers, and agility athletes.
Shamim and Singh (2002) carried out a study to ascertain the difference between physical and physiological variables of high and low performance basketball players and found that the high performance basketball players had greater height, weight, lower leg, thigh, upper arm and lower arm length. They had greater shoulder and hip width and greater calf and biceps muscle girth with greater diameter of humerus and femur biepic condyle. They are meso-ectomorph and their sitting height is greater than low performance basketball player. They had lesser sum of four-skin folds measurement than that of low performance basketball players. High performance basketball player had better body proportionality in relation to mechanical advantage. They also had lesser heart rate and greater vital capacity. However there was no significant difference in the blood pressure of high and low performance basketball players (Silventoinen, 2003)..