BACTERIOLOGICAL ANALYSIS OF WATER TANKS IN HALLS OF RESIDENCE IN THE UNIVERSITY OF BENIN.


BACTERIOLOGICAL ANALYSIS OF WATER TANKS IN HALLS OF RESIDENCE IN THE UNIVERSITY OF BENIN.

ABSTRACT

 An investigative study was carried out to determine the bacteriological qualities of borehole water samples in halls of residence in the University of Benin, Ugbowo Benin City. A total of five water samples were collected from the the various halls of residence in the school. Bacteriological analysis was carried out using standard methods. The total bacterial count was determined by pour plate technique and total coliform determined. Eight genera of bacteria which include Klebsiella spp., Salmonella spp. and Alcaligenes spp. were isolated from the water samples. Total bacterial count in water samples ranged from 0 to 32 x 102 cfu/ml. The total coliform count of the borehole waters analyzed ranged from 0 to 39 MPN index of coliform/50 ml. It was concluded that not all tank waters are safe for consumption and proper measures should be taken in cleaning and treating our water tanks regularly.

TABLE OF CONTENTS 

COVER PAGE ……………………………………………………………………i

TITLE PAGE ............................................................................................ii

CERTIFICATION PAGE............................................................................iii

APPROVAL ……………………………………………………………………..iv

DEDICATION............................................................................................v

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT............................................................................vi

TABLE OF CONTENT...............................................................................viii

LIST OF TABLES…………………………………………………………….….xi

ABSTRACT...............................................................................................xiii

CHAPTHER ONE

1.0 INTRODUCTION………………………………………………………….1

1.1 AIM OF STUDY………………………………………………...…………3

1.2 OBJECTIVE OF STUDY……………………………………...…………..3

CHAPTER TWO

LITERATURE REVIEW……..…………………………………………….….4

2.0    WATER……………………………..……...……...……………….…4

2.1    DRINKING WATER QUALITY……………………..………….…...5

2.2        BOREHOLE………….…………………………………….…….…...6

2.2.1.    CONDITIONS TO BE MET WHEN SITING A BOREHOLE….......7

2.3        OVERVIEW OF STORAGE WATER TANKS…………………...…8

2.4        SOURCES OF MICROORGANISMS IN TANK AND STORAGE 

   WATER…………………………………………………….………....9

2.5    WATER BORNE INFECTIOUS DISEASE……………………..….10

2.5.1.    EPIDEMIOLOGY………………………………………………..…..12

2.5.2.    PREVENTION AND TREATMENT…………………………...……14

2.5.3.    WATER BORNE PATHOGENS AND THEIR HEALTH

   SIGNIFICANCE………………………………………………...…...15

2.6    PREVENTION OF MICROBIAL CONTAMINATION OF WATER

   STORED IN TANKS…………………………………………..…….16

2.6.1.    CONTINUOUS CHLORINATION………….………………………17

2.6.2.    SIMPLE CHLORINATION…………………………………………17

2.6.3.    SUPER CHLORINATION…………………………….…………….17

2.6.4.    SHOCK CHLORINATION………………….………………………17

2.6.5.    ULTRA VIOLET RADIATION……………………………………..18

2.6.6.    OZONATION………………………………………………………..18

2.6.7.    BOILING…………………………………………………………….18

2.6.8.    PASTEURIZATION…………………………………………………19

CHAPTER THREE

MATERIALS AND METHODS

3.0   COLLECTION OF WATER SAMPLES……………………………..20

3.1       PREPARATION OF MEDIA…………...……………………………20 

3.2      BACTERIOLOGICAL QUALITY DETERMINATION……………...22

3.3      MORPHOLOGICAL AND BIOCHEMICAL

          CHARACTERIZATION……………………………………………….24

3.4      BIOCHEMICAL TESTS………………………………………………25

CHAPTER FOUR

4.0 RESULTS……………………………………………………………...28

CHAPTER FIVE

5.0 DISCUSSION………………………………………………………....34

5.1     CONCLUSION………………………………………………………..35

 REFERENCES…………………………….…………………………37

LIST OF TABLES

TABLE                                       TITLE                                   PAGE

1       Total bacterial count of water tank samples in

               the University of Benin Halls of Residence…………….….…..29

2       Coliform count (MPN) of water samples from Halls

               of Residence in The University of Benin……………………….30

    3         Prevalence of Bacteria in water samples from students

               Halls of Residence in University of Benin……………………..31

    4         Cultural characteristics and biochemical characterization

                of isolated microorganisms from water tanks in students

                halls of residence in University of Benin………………………..32

   5           Antibiotics susceptibility of Bacteria isolates from Halls of

                Residence in the University of Benin………………………………33

CHAPTER ONE

1.0    INTRODUCTION

Water is indispensable and intricately connected to life, without which there is no life. This is the reason for which water must be given the necessary attention at all times. Good drinking water is not a luxury; it is one of the most essential amenities of life itself. The supply of safe drinking water to all has therefore engaged the attention of many individuals, groups, governmental organizations and private organizations. (Adetunde et al. 2010).

 Drinking water free of pathogenic organisms is fundamental to breaking one of the principal transmission routes of infectious disease. This fact has stimulated worldwide investment in the construction of water systems that are designed to meet stringent water quality standards. (Trevett, 2004).

 Waterborne pathogens, including a variety of viral, bacterial, algal and protozoan agents, account for much of the estimated 4 billion cases and 2.5 million deaths from endemic diarrheal disease each year. (Kosek et al. 2003).

 Increase in human population has exerted an enormous pressure on the provision of safe drinking water, especially in developing countries (Umeh et al. 2005). Unsafe water is a global public health threat, placing persons at risk for a host of diarrheal and other disease as well as chemical intoxication (Hughes et al. 2005). Unsanitary water particularly has devastating effects on young children in developing world. Each year, more than 2 million persons, mostly children less than 5 years of age, die of diarrheal disease (Kosek et al. 2003; Parashar et al. 2003).

 Nearly 90% of diarrheal-related deaths have been attributed to unsafe or inadequate-water supplies and sanitation conditions affecting a large part of the world’s population (Hughes et al. 2005; WHO 2004). An estimated 2.6 billion persons lack access to adequate sanitation (Okonko et al. 2008).

The University of Benin, Benin City, has 5 main halls of residence (halls 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5). There are also various staff quarters in the school: Junior Staff Quarter, Senior Staff Quarter, Dentistry Quarter and Doctor’s Quarter. These halls depend on borehole water stored in overhead tanks for their water supply.

1.1    AIM OF THE STUDY:

 This study is aimed at the bacteriological analysis of the water from these tanks.

1.2    OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY:

1. To attain the total bacterial count of the water samples.

2. To determine the coliform counts (Most Probable Number) of the water samples.

3. To determine the species of bacteria present in the water.

CHAPTER TWO

LITERATURE REVIEW

2.0    WATER

Water is life and it is essential for living, yet millions of people around the world face water shortage. Water is a major solvent in the body and account for 65-75% of the total weight of an average human being. (Annan, 2005; Idiata, 2006 and Fox, 1996). A person can live more than a month without food, but only about a week, depending on the conditions, without water. 66% of the human body is water, 75% of the brain is water. A person must consume 2.5 quarts of water per day from all sources (drinking, eating) to maintain health. Water regulates the Earth’s temperature, it also regulates the temperature of the human body, carries nutrients and oxygen to cells, cushion joints, protects organs and tissues, and removes wastes. (EPA, 2004). Water borne diseases such as cholera, typhoid fever, bacillary and amoebic dysentery kill at least 3.4 million people every year. Most cases of cholera and abdominal infections being reported in hospitals in recent times were traceable to the consumption of harmful particles and microorganisms, in water and beverages (Agha, 2006).

2.1    DRINKING WATER QUALITY 

To safeguard human health, the World Health Organization (WHO) set international water quality (WQ) standards as a guideline of drinking water monitoring. These WQ standards are sets of qualitative and quantitative criteria designed to maintain and enhance the quality of water. The standards prescribe which substances can be in drinking water and maximum concentration of these substances (WHO, 2006). 

Water Quality is determined by the concentration of biological, chemical and physical contaminants. A contaminant becomes a pollutant when it exceeds an acceptable concentration advised by WHO guidelines. Other than infectious diseases, some of the effects of pollutants on human health are; blue baby syndrome caused by higher levels of nitrates and poisoning caused by heavy metals (WHO, 2011). 

Water quality standards have been developed to minimize known chemical and microbial risks. The term "safe" drinking water does not mean risk free; it simply means risks are very small, at or below our ability to quantify them, or that water quality limits cannot be lowered further by water treatment processes (Chia et al., 2013).

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BACTERIOLOGICAL ANALYSIS OF WATER TANKS IN HALLS OF RESIDENCE IN THE UNIVERSITY OF BENIN.



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