BACTERIAL COLONIZATION ON HUMAN SKIN.


BACTERIAL COLONIZATION ON HUMAN SKIN.  

ABSTRACT

The surface of human body were Scrubs with moistened swab stick, these was used to streaked the surface of prepared nutrient agar for bacterial growth and incubated at an appropriate temperature. The bacterial isolated were identified to be Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pyogene and Klebsiella aurogene.  

TABLE OF CONTENTS

TITLE PAGE                                     I

CERTIFICATION                                     II   

DEDICATION                                    III   

ACKNOWLEDGMENT                                  IV

TABLE OF CONTENTS                                 V

ABSTRACT                                         VI

CHAPTER ONE

1.0    INTRODUCTION                                1

    CHAPTER TWO

2.0    LITERATURE REVIEW                             2 – 6

2.1    PURPOSE OF THE STUDY                         6

    CHAPTER THREE

3.0    MATERIALS AND METHODS                        7 

3.1    MATERIALS USED                             7

3.2    STERILIZATION OF MATERIALS                     7

3.3    COLLECTION OF SAMPLES                         7

3.4    PREPARATION OF CULTURE MEDIA                     7

3.5    INOCULATION OF MEDIA                          8

3.6    SUB-CULTURING OF MICROBIAL GROWTH                 8

3.7    MAINTENANCE OF PURE CULTURE                     8

3.8    CHARACTERIZATION OF BACTERIAL ISOLATES             8

3.9.0    GRAM STAINING                                 8 – 9

3.9.1    CAPSULES STAINING AND SPORE STAINING              9

3.9.2    COAGULASE TEST                             9

3.9.3    CATALASE TEST                                 9

3.9.4    OXIDASE TEST                                 10

3.9.5    SUGAR FERMENTATION                         10

3.9.6    MOTILITY TEST                                 10

3.9.7    IDENTIFICATION OF BACTERIAL ISOLATES                 10

    CHAPTER FOUR

4.0    RESULTS AND DISCUSSION                         11 – 13

    CHAPTER FIVE

5.0    CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION                 14 – 15

    REFERENCES                                      16

 CHAPTER ONE

1.0                                                       INTRODUCTION

A diverse microbial flora is associated with the skin and mucous membrane of every human being from shortly after birth until death. The human body which contains about 1013 cells routinely harbours about 1014 bacteria. This bacterial population constitutes the normal microbial flora. The normal microbial flora is relatively stable with specific genera populating various body regions during particular periods in an individual’s life. Tannock (1995).

Microorganisms of the normal flora may aid the host [By competing for micro-environment more effectively than such pathogens Salmonella Spp or by producing nutrients that the host can use. It may harm the host by causing dental caries, abscesses or other infectious diseases or it may exist as commercials by inhabiting the host for long periods without causing detectable harm or benefits. Even though most elements of the normal microbial flora inhabiting the human skin, nails, eyes, genitalia and gastrointestinal tract are harmless in healthy individuals, these organisms frequently cause disease in compromised hosts.

The normal flora in human usually develops in an orderly sequence, after birth leading to the stable populations of bacteria that made up the normal adult flora. The main factor determining the composition of the normal flora in a body region is the nature of the local environment which is determined by pH, temperature, redox potential, oxygen, water and nutrient levels. Other factors such as peristalsis, saliva lysozyme secretion and secretion of immunoglobulin also play roles in flora control. The local environment is like a concern to in which one principal instrument usually dominates. For example, an infact begins to contact organisms as it moves through the birth canal. A gram positive population [Bifido bacteria] predominates in the gastrointestinal tract early in life. If the infant is breast-fed. This bacterial population is reduced and displaced some what by a gram negative flora [Entero bacteriaceae] when the baby is bottle feel. The type of liquid diet provided to the infant is the principal instrument of this flora controls, immunoglobulins and perhaps other element is breast milk may also be important.

CHAPTER FIVE

5.0                    CONCLUSION

Human skin microflora are important because it plays a strong role in regulating the feeding behaviour and the maintenance of good health. The presence of human skin microflora essential for immunity as these residence microbes defend their territory against disease causing microbes. In addition, skin microflora perform many important functions for us. It produce vitamins, help digesting of food and working as in an essential part of our immune system. Therefore care must be taken to maintain these body skin flora for the betterment of our body system and the control measure is very necessary for protection against the pathogenic and parasitic microflora.

RECOMMENDATION

Since all these organisms are responsible for one disease or the other on the skin. It should therefore recommend that proper hygiene must be monitored among the people in a community; there must be health education to the people in rural area to understand the risk of exposure to unhygienic environment. And a risk that may occur in washing skin repeatedly.   

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BACTERIAL COLONIZATION ON HUMAN SKIN.



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