MAIZE ADJUNCT IN SORGHUM BEER BREWING.


MAIZE ADJUNCT IN SORGHUM BEER BREWING.    

ABSTRACT

The study on anaemia in pregnancy is aimed at determining packed cell volume (PCV), Haemoglobin (Hb) level and Erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) of pregnant women, as well as the severity, significance of maternal, age, educational level, occupation and gestational age to the occurrence of anaemia in pregnancy managed, diagnosed and admitted at the University of Nigeria Teaching Hospital (UNTH) Enugu.  The result showed that most of the patient had moderate to secure anaemia and that the cases were commonest in the age range 25-29 years.  Most of the patient were housewives and low-level civil servants who lived in middle and lower class residential area ad who had no formal education.  Anaemia in pregnancy was seen to occur most commonly in the third trimester.  It occurred all through the year, but mostly in the wet season and had the greatest positive association with malaria and nutritional deficiency.  Anaemia in pregnancy was seen not to be rampant in our today’s society due to the small number that tested positive Anaemia in pregnancy was also seen not to have any effect on the birth weight of babies.

TABLE OF CONTENT                           

Cover page                                   

Title page                                   

Certification                                   

Dedication                                   

Acknowledgement                               

Abstract    

CHAPTER ONE

Introduction

Epidemiology

Classification

Types of Anaemia

Pathophysiology

Aims and Objectives

Statement of Problems

Limitations/Scope

CHAPTER TWO

Literature Review

Hereditary Spherocytosis

Glucose – 6 – Phosphate

Ineffective Condition

CHAPTER THREE

Materials and method

Collection of Samples

Sterilization

Determination of Packed cell volume

Determination of Haemoglobin (Hb)

Determination of Erythrocyte

Sedimentation rate (ESR)

Determining the significance of age, Educational level, etc

Method of Data collection

Method of Data Analysis

CHAPTER FOUR

Results

Distribution of pregnant women

Distribution of patients according to their occupation

Distribution of patients according to their educational level

Distribution of patients according to severity.

CHAPTER FIVE

Discussion

Distribution

Distribution of pregnant women by age

Percentage of  Anaemia in pregnancy etc.

CHAPTER SIX

Conclusion / Recommendations

Action by the Government etc.

References

Appendix

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

DEFINITION:  The world health organisation (WHO) index for anaemia in pregnance is when the haemoglobin  level in the peripheral blood is Hg/dl or less. However, from practical experience in tropical obstetrics it is generally accepted that anaemia in pregnancy Exist when the Haemoglobin level is less than in loglde or the packed cell volume less than 30%

EPIDEMIOLOGY:

    Anaemia in pregnancy presents a world-wide problem but it is uncommon in developed world.  the importance of anaemia in pregnancy in the tropics lies firstly in its greatly increased incidence, and secondly in the seventy of the anaemia with which the patients commonly present for treatment.  Both combine to make this complication of pregnancy a major cause of matanal and fetal death in the tropics.  A third important problem  posed by anaemia in the tropics is polymorphism.  In almost all cales, the anaemia is caused by multiple factors whole individual importance varies from area to area.  This makes rational prophylaxis and treatment much more difficult.  Complicaion of pregnancy in the for at belt of West Africa, between January and April 1955.  it was directly responsible for more than 20% of all matanal deaths in patients under the car of the Department of obstetrics, university college Hospital, Ibadan.  It also contributed to many other deaths from Antepartum haemorrhage, postpartum haemorrhage and puerperal sepsis.  In Nigeria it is a frequent complication, its incidence is high and its severity is staggering.  The clinical feathers of anaemia in pregnancy in Nigeira are different from those encountered in temperate countries not only because of the severity of symptoms but also because of the concomitant autuminosis such as marked glossitis, Angular stomatitis and associated gross hepatomegly.  Agbola A. (1991)

CLASSIFICATION

    Anaemia in pregnancy could be mild, moderate or severe based on the haemoglobin level in the peripheral blood as well as the clinical manifestations and the management would differ for each.

TYPES OF ANAEMIA                        HB LEVEL

Mild Anaemia in pregnancy                  9-Hg/dl

Moderate Anaemia in pregnancy          7-9g/dl

Severe Anaemia in pregnancy             7g/dl

PATHOPHYSIOLOGY

    For haemoglobin and Red blood cell synthesis, iron, folate, vitamin Biz and Vitamin c, trace elements like cobate and copper, and proteins are required. Erythroporetin produced by the renal parenchyma stimulates the bone marrow to increase erthropesis which is one of the noticeable physiological changes in pregnancy.  Barnes, F.C (1994).

    In the non-pregnant female, the total body is about 3.5-kg. 2/3 of this is Haemoglobin another ¼ is in the body stores and the remaining is in the tissue and plasma.  Iron is stored in the liver and spleen as femitin and in bone marrows haemosiderin.  Iron in the serum is bound to transfer in, a B1 – globulin and transfers is only 1/3 saturated with iron.  A good diet provides about 10-15mg of iron per a day and only 10% of this is absorbed.  Iron is mainly absorbed in the duedenuim and to some extent in the upper jejunum.  The absorption is influenced by dietary phosphates, phytaces, ascorbic acid, sugars especially frutole, Hell in the stomach and gastric factors namely factors I, II and II, iron is lost in the bile, urine, fences, sweat and during menstruation.  About 1-2mg of iron is lost daily.

    In normal pregnancy, iron demand is increased many folds.  The fetus need about 350mg, the placenta about 100mg:  the increased material haemoglobin mass about 350mg and that from lactation about 150mg.  In adding the pregnant women still excretes iron but on the credit side about 225mg of iron is available as a result of the amenorrhea of pregnancy is about 15%.  The increased iron requirement is not uniformly spread over the  period of pregnancy but as pregnancy advances from 28 weeks onwards,  the increased demand is noticed as a resultant drop in PCV or HB concentration it no iron supplementation has been given Abidu, O, Sofola (1990).

COMPLICATIONS

    In the absence of effective treatment, anaemia develops progressively as the pregnancy advances.

The following complications may occurs;

I.    CONGESTIVE CARDIAC FAILURE:  This is the main effect of anaemia muscle oxygen lacse.  The most dangerous period is during the first 12 hours after delivery.

II.    SHOCK: Severely anaemic women readity go into shock as a result of very small amount of blood loss and motality in such patients.

TREATMENT

    This disease cannot be cured, but can be managed for some extent.  Air travel during pregnancy should be avoided, especially in unpressurised air crafts sinle the resultant anorexic may cause splenic or other vital organ infection of anaemic pregnant women in our environment should be examined for worms and ova of hookworm.  However infestation of hookworm can be prevented by good food and personal hygiene and also protecting the slein from penetration for the worms by wearing fast wears.

    Blood transfusion is given with caution in cases where the anaemia is severe, that is HB less than 5g/dl or PCV less than 5% or in cases where moderate anemia co-existing with seplis or Haemorrhage is discovered late after 36 weeks or in labour or immediate pos-partum

AIMS AND OBJECTIVES

The project work is aimed at the following:

1.    To determine the haemoglobin level (HB) packed cell volume  (PCV) and erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) of pregnant women.

2.    To determine the significance of age, educational level, occupation, severity and gestational age to the occurance of anaemia in pregnancy.

STATEMENT OF PROBLEMS

1.    Most pregnant women in the rural area prefers to go to farm rather than going to atenantal, so as a result can become anemic because they are not enlightened about their nutritional intake.

2.    Because the foetus in the feeds more during 3rd trimester, so a pregnant women can appear healthy while she is anaemic, the only way to dectate such case is during laboratory test (HB, PCV, ESR) etc.

LIMITATION / SCOPE

2.    The use of HB level in the body is not the infections.

.

MAIZE ADJUNCT IN SORGHUM BEER BREWING.



TYPE IN YOUR TOPIC AND CLICK SEARCH.






RESEARCHWAP.NET
Researchwap.net is an online repository for free project topics and research materials, articles and custom writing of research works. We’re an online resource centre that provides a vast database for students to access numerous research project topics and materials. Researchwap.net guides and assist Postgraduate, Undergraduate and Final Year Students with well researched and quality project topics, topic ideas, research guides and project materials. We’re reliable and trustworthy, and we really understand what is called “time factor”, that is why we’ve simplified the process so that students can get their research projects ready on time. Our platform provides more educational services, such as hiring a writer, research analysis, and software for computer science research and we also seriously adhere to a timely delivery.

TESTIMONIES FROM OUR CLIENTS


Please feel free to carefully review some written and captured responses from our satisfied clients.

  • "Exceptionally outstanding. Highly recommend for all who wish to have effective and excellent project defence. Easily Accessable, Affordable, Effective and effective."

    Debby Henry George, Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, USA.
  • "I saw this website on facebook page and I did not even bother since I was in a hurry to complete my project. But I am totally amazed that when I visited the website and saw the topic I was looking for and I decided to give a try and now I have received it within an hour after ordering the material. Am grateful guys!"

    Hilary Yusuf, United States International University Africa, Nairobi, Kenya.
  • "Researchwap.net is a website I recommend to all student and researchers within and outside the country. The web owners are doing great job and I appreciate them for that. Once again, thank you very much "researchwap.net" and God bless you and your business! ."

    Debby Henry George, Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, USA.
  • "Great User Experience, Nice flows and Superb functionalities.The app is indeed a great tech innovation for greasing the wheels of final year, research and other pedagogical related project works. A trial would definitely convince you."

    Lamilare Valentine, Kwame Nkrumah University, Kumasi, Ghana.
  • "I love what you guys are doing, your material guided me well through my research. Thank you for helping me achieve academic success."

    Sampson, University of Nigeria, Nsukka.
  • "researchwap.com is God-sent! I got good grades in my seminar and project with the help of your service, thank you soooooo much."

    Cynthia, Akwa Ibom State University .
  • "Sorry, it was in my spam folder all along, I should have looked it up properly first. Please keep up the good work, your team is quite commited. Am grateful...I will certainly refer my friends too."

    Elizabeth, Obafemi Awolowo University
  • "Am happy the defense went well, thanks to your articles. I may not be able to express how grateful I am for all your assistance, but on my honour, I owe you guys a good number of referrals. Thank you once again."

    Ali Olanrewaju, Lagos State University.
  • "My Dear Researchwap, initially I never believed one can actually do honest business transactions with Nigerians online until i stumbled into your website. You have broken a new legacy of record as far as am concerned. Keep up the good work!"

    Willie Ekereobong, University of Port Harcourt.
  • "WOW, SO IT'S TRUE??!! I can't believe I got this quality work for just 3k...I thought it was scam ooo. I wouldn't mind if it goes for over 5k, its worth it. Thank you!"

    Theressa, Igbinedion University.
  • "I did not see my project topic on your website so I decided to call your customer care number, the attention I got was epic! I got help from the beginning to the end of my project in just 3 days, they even taught me how to defend my project and I got a 'B' at the end. Thank you so much researchwap.com, infact, I owe my graduating well today to you guys...."

    Joseph, Abia state Polytechnic.
  • "My friend told me about ResearchWap website, I doubted her until I saw her receive her full project in less than 15 miniutes, I tried mine too and got it same, right now, am telling everyone in my school about researchwap.com, no one has to suffer any more writing their project. Thank you for making life easy for me and my fellow students... Keep up the good work"

    Christiana, Landmark University .
  • "I wish I knew you guys when I wrote my first degree project, it took so much time and effort then. Now, with just a click of a button, I got my complete project in less than 15 minutes. You guys are too amazing!."

    Musa, Federal University of Technology Minna
  • "I was scared at first when I saw your website but I decided to risk my last 3k and surprisingly I got my complete project in my email box instantly. This is so nice!!!."

    Ali Obafemi, Ibrahim Badamasi Babangida University, Niger State.
  • To contribute to our success story, send us a feedback or please kindly call 2348037664978.
    Then your comment and contact will be published here also with your consent.

    Thank you for choosing researchwap.com.