DESIGNING OF POTABLE WATER DISTRIBUTION SYSTEMS TO MEET WATER DEMAND REQUIREMENTS (A CASE STUDY OF KWARA STATE POLYTECHNIC PERMANENT).
The management of natural resources receives increasing attention all over the world on the unsustainable exploitation and supply of natural resources endangering the existence and welfare of current and future generations; one of these resources is water, which has increasingly become a locus of concern in several countries. The efficient management of water resources is vital for its sustainable access and use; therefore adequate management practices are needed (Balint, et al. 2002).
In Nigeria several factors including lack of coherence in water policy formulation has led to problems in major cities of Nigeria making water scarce and has to be transported over long distances by road or on foot and sometimes not available for some period of time, the cost of drinking water absorb a significant proportion of the average daily income of poor consumers. In fact, the problem of water supply shortage is among the problems which require greater attention and action despite the various strategies to make water accessible to all inhabitants in Kwara State Polytechnic permanent site yet the gap between supply and demand increased while demand for portable water on the campus was on the rise and the supply systems were degenerating. The purpose of this research is to do gain a better understanding on how an adequate and well implemented design of water supply structure in Kwara State Polytechnic permanent site will contribute to excellent operations of water supply in the institute as the main source of water for both industrial and domestic users.
Access to adequate water supply is not only a fundamental need and human right; it also has considerable health and economic benefits to households and individuals. The lack of access to water contributes to deaths and illness, especially in children. Access to water also means that the considerable amount of time consumers i.e. students spend for fetching water could be spent more effectively on other tasks, improving their economic and academic productivity, a key component in poverty alleviation efforts (Water Aid Ghana, 2008).
According to Fuest and Haffner (2007) lack of compliance with proposed reforms on the part of some actors of the public agencies involved in urban water supply and the fact that the reforms did not sufficiently address the important issues of sector coordination in the face of weak national institutions and structural interdependencies based on patronage relations among the government, regulator, provider and clients contribute to the perennial problem of water shortage.
Engineers and other decision-makers within a Water Services Authority, and those working for and on behalf of the Water Services Authority, should be aware of the social and organizational constraints in the provision of potable water. The issues relating to these constraints must be addressed in the objectives of any water supply project, keeping in mind that the sanitation arrangements for a community are inextricably bound to the process.
The principles of sustainability, affordability, effectiveness, efficiency and appropriateness should be kept uppermost in supplying water to a community. These and other important issues are dealt with under the relevant headings in this work.
1.2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
Water is one of the most essential natural resources which both plants and animals cannot do without in a day. Water, being used by human for various purposes like; commercial, agricultural, and domestic and etc. has become increasingly scares such that many people in most part of the world have to travel a long distance before they can be accessableto potable and palatable water for their daily needs.
Several factors including lack of coherence in water policy formulation has led to problems in major cities in Nigeria making water scares and has to be transported a long distance by road or on foot and sometimes not available for some period of time.
The scarcity of potable and palatable water for the inhabitant of KwaraState Polytechnic permanent site which necessitate my interest in the research work is as a result of lack of adequate design of potable water supply system for such an institutional setting.
1.3 AIM AND OBJECTIVES
The sole aim of this project is to establish the purposes of water supply system inKwaraState Polytechnic Permanent Site, Ilorin, which will convey sufficient quantity of treated water up to the consumer’s tap with same degree of purity and repaired pressure head that will be economical both in operation and maintenance.
The objectives of the project work:
The objective of this water supply system project includes the following:
⦁ The improvement of the quality of the existing supplies (protection of the sources being the first consideration);
⦁ The provision of water for domestic consumption and personal hygiene in terms of the Water Services Authority’s by-laws (government policy requires that a minimum of 25 liters per person per day be provided);
⦁ The improvement of the economic potential of the community (e.g. small-scale agriculture and industries)
⦁ The improvement of the availability of water to the community (both reliability and accessibility);
1.4 JUSTIFICATION OF THE PROJECT
The failure of the existing strategies used in the provision of potable water to those studying in Kwara State Polytechnic Permanent Site has left many students to lack safe water, although the location is in a rural area which is known to be strong center for lack of potable water but never the less as an institutional setting and a state owned institution, potable water supply should not be a problem as a result of finance because the worst potable water supply and shortage conditions exist in the vast urban informal poor settlement due to high population densities in such locations where supply will become more and more expensive as a result of continuous increasing population.
The outcomes and associated outputs of this project work would enable governing council of the institute to equip its partners, other sector players, board of administrators and community to engage with the sector providers and policy makers to enable the governing council and partners to contribute to creating demand and supply alongside accountability in this very sector of governance.
Finally, this study has stimulate research in new and under researched area that is likely to provide useful data to inform policy making, planning decision and advocacy efforts in the institution.
1.5 SCOPE OF WORK
This project work is limited to the procedures involve in designing a potable water distribution systems to meet water demand requirements in Kwara State Polytechnic Permanent Site and putting in mind the shortcomings of the existing water distribution system in the institution.
1.6 DESCRIPTION OF THE PROJECT AREA
Kwara State Polytechnic Ilorin permanent site is located along university of Ilorin teaching hospital, old Jebba road, Ilorin east local government area, Ilorin Kwara state.
Figure 1: LOCATION MAP OF THE PROJECT AREA.