DESIGN AND FABRICATION OF A PILOT PRODUCTION PLANT FOR PAINTS (EMULSION AND TEXCOAT)


DESIGN AND FABRICATION OF A PILOT PRODUCTION PLANT FOR PAINTS (EMULSION AND TEXCOAT) 

ABSTRACT

          The concept of this project is to actualize a practical way of paint production using a locally design mixing machine which is design to meet a low cost and high standard paint.

The project cut across all forms of engineering, such as mechanical machine design of a simple industrial mixer, which is driven by an electrically made device, a 3 HP electric motor, chemically reacting reagents such as water, calcium carbonate, etc to produce the desired product which is aim to be used as coat for Mechanical Agricultural and Civil structures.

The project research exposes to students and entrepreneur to total knowledge necessary for the production of emulsion and texcoat using a single mixer irrespective of the volume of production.  Self help project is the only sustainable solution to the problem of unemployment.  Many unemployed youth can lay their hiring. The project research is a modest presentation of simplified facts on the for entrepreneur success at a low coat.

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Title page

Letter of transmittal

Authority page

Certification

Dedication

Acknowledgement

Abstract

Table of contents

CHAPTER ONE

Introduction

Objectives of the research work

Uses and economics

Importance of study

Benefits of the project

CHAPTER TWO

Literature review

Historical

Design of mixing machine

Recognition of need

Definition of problem

Planning for production

Planning for use

Process of design

Factors that determine choice of material

Packaging of product (ames paint)

CHAPTER THREE

Design of machine/sequence of operation

Design and construction details

Design factors/construction of the principles

Construction procedures

CHAPTER FOUR

Paint production

Latex paint

White wash

Paint composition

Paint constituents for emulsion

Quality control

Chalking, abrasion, hardness & adherence

Formation of emulsion paint 20 litres

Formation of texcoat (20 litres)

CHAPTER FIVE

Characteristics of the project

Performance of the project

Conclusion

Recommendation

References

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

    A pilot production plant for paint is a chain une of pant production, from the design of the machine, the mixing of the chemical to the packaging.  All is aim at production of both (texcoat) and emulsion (water based paints) which are basically classified as one of the two classes of paint.

PAINT CAN BE CLASSIFIED INTO

-    GLOSS PAINTS (OIL BASED PAINTS)

    These are paints that may be classified according to whether the drying mechanisms is predominantly solvent evaporation, oxidation or some chemical reaction.  Gloss paints which dry essentially by solvent evaporation, rely on a fairly hard resin as the vehicle.  Paints which dry by oxidation, the vehicle is usually an oil or an oil – based varnish, these usually contain driers to accelerate the drying of the oil.  Paint based essentially on oil with suitable pigment such as Titanium dioxide, extenders, and usually zinc – oxide and white lead are conventional outside house paints because these materials give the combination of the properties which meet this requirement.

-    EMULSION/TEXCOAT PAINTS (WATER – BASED PAINTS)

    These are paints with water soluble vehicle and they includes calcimines, in which the vehicle is glue an case in paints, in which the vehicle is casein or soybean protein.

OBJECTIVES OF THE RESEARCH WORK

    The objectives of the research project work is to study the formulation, production of a low cost simple mixing machine and the production of paints, both glass and emulsion in with the use of local pigment and extenders as raw materials.  This is highly beneficial for small scale for hence the cost of production is far reduced compared to paint produce by industries using imported machines and materials.

USES AND ECONOMICS

    Paints preserve architectural structure from weather attacks.  Uncoated wood and metal deteriorate, especially in present of soot, C. and sulphur dioxide, S02.  Thus, S02 in the atmosphere reacts with water vapour, both gases (g), to form aqueous 9aq) S02 which reacts further with water to form sulphuorus acid, H2 S04, from which S032 reacts with metals, eg copper CU2+ as follows

    (S02)    (g)    +    H20            (S02) (aq)

    (S02)    (aq)    +    H20            H2 S03

    S032-        +    CU2+            S03- + CU+

IMPORTANCE OF STUDY

    Paints also increase the attractiveness of manufactured products, as well as the aesthetic appeal of dwelling.  Thus, paints serve utility and art purpose.  In the United State of America, paints annual sales clocked N4 billion (100 billion) in 1971, industrial paints for the first time sold more than architectural paints, indicating a shift in trend.  This highlights the importance of paint ventures in a developing economy, such as Nigeria’s.

BENEFITS OF THE PROJECT

    Students and industrialists alike in developing countries lack the basic and simplified techniques on pants making; yet paints are a class of products that serves important aesthetic, protection and functional values.  The few available paints makers are so specialized or professional in presentation that the seem scaring to interested students and industrialist.  The objective of the project pilot  production plant for pant simplified paint making; thereby motivating entrepreneur aspiring in pant making given them adequate viable market as a result of low cost of production.

CHAPTER TWO

LITERATURE REVIEW

HISTORICAL

    Paint is a very ancient industry.  Noah was asked to use pitch within and without eh Ark (Genesis 6:14).  The prehistoric inhabitants of the earth recorded their activities in colour on the walls of their caves.  The crude paints were probably clays suspended in water. The Egyptians developed a variety of colours by 1500 BC and by 1000 B.C. they discovered varnish, using natural resins and beeswax for the film forming ingredient (resin).

    The early men recorded their activities in colour on the walls of the caves.  These crude paints probably consisted of coloured earths or clays suspended in water. In 200 BC, Lacquers were used to paint buildings in chain – protective coating or painting began in Europe about 1200AD Linseed oil and whit e lead, a white pigment were used by paint industry in 15th and 17th centuries respectively.  Scientific and engineering research has however revolutionized paint industry in recent years.

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DESIGN AND FABRICATION OF A PILOT PRODUCTION PLANT FOR PAINTS (EMULSION AND TEXCOAT)



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