IMPACT OF PRINT MEDIA AS INDICES OF SPORTS DEVELOPMENT IN NIGERIA (A Case Study of Sun Newspaper)
This study was designed to determine the perceived impact of print media as indices of sports development in Nigeria using The Sun Newspaper as a case study. The purposive and random sampling techniques were adopted in selecting four hundred and eighty (150) respondents made up of sports journalists and stakeholders in the sports industry, descriptive research design with a self-structured questionnaire was used for data collection. The chi-square (χ2) was used to test the hypothesis at 0.05alpha level. The analysis revealed that the two variables were indices of sports development.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Title page i
Table of content vi
CHAPTER ONE (INTRODUCTION)
1.1 Background of the Study 1
1.2 Statement of the problem 3
1.3 Objective of the study 4
1.4 Research question 4
1.5 Definition of terms 5
1.7 The significance to the study 6
1.7 Limitation of the study 6
2.1 Literature Review 8
CHAPTER THREE (RESEARCH METHODOLOGY)
3.1 Restatement of Research Questions 28
3.2 Research design 28
3.3 Characteristic of the Study population 28
3.4 Sample sizes 29
3.5 Sampling techniques 30
3.6 Instrument for Data Collection 32
3.7 Reliability of the Instrument 32
3.8 Validation of the Instrument 32
3.9 Method Data analysis 33
3.10 Scope of Delimitation of the Study 33
4.0 Data analysis and Presentation of findings 34
4.1 Data Analysis 34
4.2 Presentation of Findings 38
5.0 Summary, Conclusion and Recommendation 43
5.1 Summary 43
5.2 Conclusion 43
5.3 Recommendation 44
1.1 Background to the Study
The most important change that has taken place in the sport industry is the significant role the media is playing in the development of sports all over the world. Apart from the fact that the media has increased sports awareness and spectatorship among peoples of the world, it has also increased revenue generation which has enriched the various sports stakeholders. The media has been playing a catalyst role for the identification and the promotion of knowledge, information and understanding in a nation (Alimi, 2003). The mass media is regarded as the means of communication through which a large number of people could be reached. These include, newspapers, television, radio, films, handbills, posters, computer and internet (Hornby 1985).
The mass media [sharpens and re-orders] the perceptions of the readers and viewers in a particular event or happenings in the society and contributes to a reservoir of knowledge of the past and current events. Acosta (2002) pointed out that competitive sports would only survive and develop with the cooperation of the media. It is for this reason that sports must enjoy good relationship with the press, radio, and television. The relationship should be effective, continuous, personal and open.
Nigeria was created on May 27, 1967 when the restructuring of Nigeria into twelve states took place. Many media organizations have sprung up in Nigeria and because of the economic status of Nigeria and its status
as the former capital of Nigeria. The presence of many media organizations in Nigeria has confirmed her being acclaimed to be the seat of journalism in Nigeria. In essence then, it is the state where sports journalism thrives.
There is no doubt that Nigeria has witnessed tremendous development in the area of sports most especially when compared to other countries in Africa. Sports have permeated the Nigerian society through the efforts, activities and commitments of Nigerian sports journalists.
This study, therefore, was set to determine the perceived impact of print media as indices for sports development in Nigeria.
1.2 Statement of the Problem
The following are the problems that lead to the study of this project;
1. What impact do the print media have on development of sport in Nigeria?
2. What is the evolution of sport journalism in Nigeria and how can it be traced to the Sun Newspaper?
3. What are the relationship between the mass media and sport organization in the country?
1.3 Purpose of the Study
The purpose of this project work is to examine the role of the Nigeria print media in the development of sport in the country.
The study will examine the problems faced by the print media in the country and will also look into the relationship of print media and the sport agencies in the country.
1.4 Research Questions
The study attempted to provide answers to the following questions:
1. To what extent do sport journalism create awareness for sport to the general public?
2. To what extent will the awareness of sport promote the development of sport in Nigeria?
3. To what extent do activities of sport journalist contribute to the development of sport in the country?
4. Of what role do the print media plays in the development of sport in Nigeria?
5. To what extent do people respond to sport section in Nigeria Newspaper?
1.5 Scope of the Study
The scope of this study covers, evolution of news reporting in the Nigeria using The Sun newspaper as a basis for the research.
However, the finding of the project work can be well applicable to all Newspaper and sport industry.
1.6 Significant of the Study
The importance of this study was to determine the perceived impact of Print media in sports development in Nigeria, using The Sun Newspaper as a Case Study.
It will enable the sport stakeholders to be well aware of the role that newspaper can play in development of the sport industry thereby creating interest in them to engage in co-invest with the print media.
It also educates the sport fans, student, worker and the general public about the role of the print media in the effective development of Sport in the country.
1.7 Limitation of the Study
The limitation involved in this work includes the wide nature and time constraint of the study, which resulted in narrowing down the case study to The Sun Newspaper.
The following are the limitation that hinders the study of this research
1. Financial Constraint: There are not enough funds to fuel the study of this research work. The researcher has access to a very little source of fund.
2. Time Constraints: Due to the limited time available to carry out this research work, it is not possible to carry out the research extensively as anticipated by the researcher.
1.8 DEFINITION OF TERMS
1. Journalist: A journalist collects and disseminates information about current events, people, trends, and issues. His or her work is acknowledged as journalism.
2. Reporters: Reporters are one type of journalist; they create reports as a profession for broadcast or publication in mass media such as newspapers, television, radio, magazines, documentary film, and the Internet. Reporters find sources for their work, their reports can be either spoken or written, and they are often expected to report in the most objective and unbiased way to serve the public good. A columnist is a journalist who writes pieces that appear regularly in newspapers or magazines.
3. Mass Media: Mass media refers collectively to all media technologies, including the Internet, television, newspapers, and radio, which are used for
mass communications, and to the organizations which control these
4. A Printing Press: A printing press is a device for applying pressure to an inked surface resting upon a print medium (such as paper or cloth), thereby transferring the ink. Typically used for texts, the invention and spread of the printing press are widely regarded as the most influential events in the
second millennium AD, revolutionizing the way people conceive and describe the world they live in, and ushering in the period of modernity.
5. Community The term community has two distinct meanings: 1) A group of interacting people, living in some proximity (i.e., in space, time, or relationship). Community usually refers to a social unit larger than a household that shares common values and has social cohesion. The term can also refer to the national community or international community, and, 2, a community is a group of interacting living organisms sharing a populated environment.
SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION
This study reveals the impact of journalism on awareness and spectatorship as indices of sport -development in Nigeria. The findings revealed that (a) Journalism had impacted on sports awareness in Nigeria and (b) Journalism had enhanced sports development through the increased turn-out of spectators at competition venues and arenas.
As revealed by the study, the respondents were of the view that being aware of the happenings in the field of sports has made it possible for them to change their perceptions and attitude towards sports issues. This is in total agreement with the saying that if people are not aware of your sport activities, then nothing is happening.
It was revealed by majority of respondents that journalism has enhanced attendance of spectators at sports competition venues and respondents were of the opinion that sport reporting has further encouraged people in Nigeria to watch sports events even on television. In its totality, the respondents agreed that the rate of sports development in Nigeria could be traced to increase in sports spectatorship.
The implication of the outcome of this study is that sports journalism, through creating awareness and enhancing spectatorship, has impacted greatly on the rate of sports development Nigeria. For sport journalism to further contribute to sports development in Nigeria, and indeed
Nigeria, elite athletes should be projected to enhance awareness and spectatorship.
Furthermore, the media should also project the campaign against bad health practices that promote HIV/AIDS and Drugs in sports. This would go a long way to promote the positive contribution of sport to healthful living among participants and spectators..