THE LIBEL AND THE MEDIA


THE LIBEL AND THE MEDIA  

ABSTRACT

The study examined the effect of libel on the media and how to libel risk on the press. The objective of the study is to examine the procedures used to minimize libel risks in the media. Concerning methodology the study cited the population of the study area with the sampling techniques used of the sampling size for this research work. It also explained the mode of data collection and analysis; Questionnaires were used to sample people’s opinion while carrying out the survey. The researcher discarded the secondary data designs so as to get new, accurate findings and data analysis on the subject matter. 

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Title Page - - - - - - - - - i

Approval Page - - - - - - - - ii

Declaration - - - - - - - - iii

Dedication - - - - - - - - - iv

Acknowledgement - - - - - - - v

Abstract - - - - - - - - - vi

Table of Contents - - - - - - - vii

CHAPTER ONE – INTRODUCTION

1.1 Background of the Study - - - - - 1

1.2 Statement of General Problem - - - - 5

1.3 Objective of the Study - - - - - - 6

1.4 Research Questions - - - - - - 6

1.5 Significance of the Study - - - - - 7

1.6 Scope of the Study - - - - - - 8

1.7 Definition of Terms - - - - - - 8

CHAPTER TWO – REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE

2.1 Introduction - - - - - - - 10

2.2 Theoretical Framework - - - - - 11

2.3 Media policy and policy making - - - - 14

2.4 The Concept of Human Right and Press Freedom - 16

2.5 Who can sue for Libel - - - - - - 16

2.6 The Basis of Liability - - - - - - 17

2.7 Who can be sued for Libel - - - - - 20

CHAPTER THREE – RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

3.1 Introduction - - - - - - - 32

3.2 Research Design - - - - - - 32

3.3 Area of the Study - - - - - - 32

3.4 Population of Study - - - - - - 33

3.5 Sample size and Sampling Techniques - - - 33

3.6 Instrument for Data Collection - - - - 33

3.7 Validity of the Instrument - - - - - 33

3.8 Method of Data Collection - - - - - 34

3.9 Method of Data Analysis - - - - - 34

CHAPTER FOUR – DATA PRESENTATION AND ANALYSIS

4.1 Introduction - - - - - - - 36

4.2 Testing Hypothesis - - - - - - 46

CHAPTER FIVE – SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION

5.1 Summary - - - - - - - - 54

5.2 Findings - - - - - - - - 57

5.3 Recommendations - - - - - - 58

References --------61

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY

Viewed from legal prism and pinnacle, libel in general represents written and recorded firm in a firm or less permanent nature like photography, cartoon, statue, picture, caricature, moving cinematography, television, pictures or images, documentary, etc designed to expose an individual to hatred, ridicule or contempt, cause him to be shunned or avoided, disparage him in his office, profession or trade and again, lower him in the estimation of right thinking members of the society generally.

One despicable issue that has over the years taken the industrial time of both medieval and contemporary media practitioners revolve on how possible to avert the mention of libel in their ceaseless and priceless publications.

This intractable issue, no doubt, has driven the print media to guard their information intended publications like the only egg of the fowl while exercising its constitutional functions of education, entertainment, information and cultural correlation of the parts of the society. These essential and cardinal functions have further been evaluated by the engagement of well tested and proven scholars exhumed from different academic strata to man and decisively checkmate unintended libelous words and statements that may find the way into print media page. This, to an extent, unveils the unwillingness of the print media to romance the tides of libel action. Again, the writ of corrigendum and apology further indexes the print media preparedness to create the enabling environment to work and protect the integrity and privacy of the government and every right-thinking member of the society generally. However, the constitutional rights of the mass media especially the print keeps aglow for it to keep its heterogeneous audience on the quinine on the goodies and dangers of the environment. This is why the gate keeping exercise “has remained a barometer to access editors and their cohorts.”Sequel to this, one is made to observe that the constitutional rights of the media to inform, educate and entertain members of the society do not approve the application of malice, hatred and unjust attack in the art of news reporting and publications.

Legally, the law of defamation exists to guide the media and protect the reputation of the individual in both his moral and professional reputation from unjustified attack. The law, as it is, refers to a set of rules by which citizens of a state regulate their conduct in relation to their fellow citizens and to the state. It is wide, severe and punitive. This is why it has become imperative for the journalist, the publisher and distributor of newspapers - indeed for everyone that earns his living with words to be conscious of the perils associated with the law of defamation. In view of this, the law recognizes in every man a right to have estimation in which he stands in the opinion of others unaffected by false and defamatory statements and imputations.

However, the emergence of libelous remarks in any given publication reveals an index of malice contrary to the harmony talked about by the law as the seeming rapport between the government, media and the general public. Media vigilance arising from constant gate keeping has for some time now remained futile in what media kith and kin in the learned world described as innocuous statement. A legal school of thought sees innocuous statement as one embracing more than one meaning; a statement that is innocently tailored but capable of defamatory meaning by virtue of the surrounding circumstances. Again, ecclesiastics school of thought differ from the legal school of thought in that it consider as distinguishing defamation from injurious falsehood, innuendo, abuse or vulgar words that may be defamatory in nature.

Despite this glaring differences, the fear of uncertainty encapsulating libel actions like cost of damages, the circumstantial nature of innuendo and lack of standard measurement to establish the worth of a man’s good reputation or at least, the extent to which it was in danger of being libeled by a false statement of unfair criticism) ushers danger to careless and provocative publications. Libel, although not much more permanent in character, bites more in harming the reputation of the affected plaintiff.Libel, of course, manifests in the form of criminal, blasphemous, seditious and obscenity. These branches of libel constitute a rock of headache to any media outfit that hobnobs with reports devoid of fairness and justification and objectivity. Believing the fact, in every wrong there is a corresponding remedy basically to avert injuria sine damno a media outfit so caught in the web of libelous act can seek redress by applying the principle of fair comment, justification, rolled-up-plea, absolute privilege, consent or volenti non fit injuria etc.

1.2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM

The problem that led to the study of Libel and News Media are numerous. The basic problem of the media arises from not having access to some information protected by the government. Media practitioners do not have access to some information and thereby give false report of such information in some cases to the general public. This study will identify the problems and suggest some solutions to it.

1.2 RESEARCH OBJECTIVES

1. To examine the procedures used to minimize libel risks in the media.

2. To determine libel charges on the media.

3. To analyze ways of cubing libel risk on the media.

4. To determine the level of libel on the media in Nigeria.

1.4 RESEARCH QUESTION 

1. Are there procedures used to minimize libel risks in the media.

2. What are the libel charges on media?

3. How can libel risks be cubed?

4. What is the level of libel on the media in Nigeria?

1.5 RESEARCH HYPOTHESIS

H0: The level of libel on the media is low in Nigeria.

H1: The level of libel on the media is high in Nigeria.

1.6 SCOPE OF THE STUDY

The scope of this research work is limited to the Nigerian News Media covering both print and electronic media in the industry. However the principles defined in this study may be well applicable in some other cases than the set target.

1.7 LIMITATION OF THE STUDY

The following are the limitation that hinders the study of this research work;

1.  Financial Constraint: There is not enough funds to fuel the study of this research work. The researcher has access to a very little source of fund.

2. Time Constraints: Due to the limited time available to carry out this research work, it is not possible to carry out the research extensively as anticipated by the researcher.

1.8 DEFINITION OF TERMS

1. JOURNALIST: A journalist collects and disseminates information about current events, people, trends, and issues. His or her work is acknowledged as journalism. 

2. REPORTERS: Reporters are one type of journalist; they create reports as a profession for broadcast or publication in mass media such as newspapers, television, radio, magazines, documentary film, and the Internet. Reporters find sources for their work, their reports can be either spoken or written, and they are often expected to report in the most objective and unbiased way to serve the public good. A columnist is a journalist who writes pieces that appear regularly in newspapers or magazines. 

3. MASS MEDIA: Mass media refers collectively to all media technologies, including the Internet, television, newspapers, and radio, which are used for mass communications, and to the organizations which control these technologies. 

4. PRINTING PRESS: Printing press is a device for applying pressure to an  inked surface resting upon a  print medium (such as paper or cloth), thereby transferring the ink. Typically used for texts, the invention and  spread of the printing press are widely regarded as the most influential events in the second millennium AD, revolutionizing the way people conceive and describe the world they live in, and ushering in the  period of modernity. 

CHAPTER TWO

LITERATURE REVIEW

2.1 INTRODUCTION

Obviously there are important legal and practical differences between the positions of newspapers and the broadcasting media. As far as the law is concerned, it must be remembered that the latter are relatively tightly regulated, in that, first, a license must be granted before a commercial broadcaster, whether of radio or television, is free to operate; secondly, broadcasting legislation imposes a number of detailed programme requirements; and thirdly (at the time of writing), the Broadcasting Complaints Commission controls, among other matters, the fairness of programmes. 

Equally, the BBC operates under a Charter and an Agreement, which impose broadly similar programme standards to those governing private channels and stations; further, it is also subject to the control of the Broadcasting Complaints Commission (BCC) in the same way as private radio and television. Broadcasters therefore operate in a culture of control and regulation, far removed from that found in the press, whether national or regional. 

.

THE LIBEL AND THE MEDIA



TYPE IN YOUR TOPIC AND CLICK SEARCH.






RESEARCHWAP.NET
Researchwap.net is an online repository for free project topics and research materials, articles and custom writing of research works. We’re an online resource centre that provides a vast database for students to access numerous research project topics and materials. Researchwap.net guides and assist Postgraduate, Undergraduate and Final Year Students with well researched and quality project topics, topic ideas, research guides and project materials. We’re reliable and trustworthy, and we really understand what is called “time factor”, that is why we’ve simplified the process so that students can get their research projects ready on time. Our platform provides more educational services, such as hiring a writer, research analysis, and software for computer science research and we also seriously adhere to a timely delivery.

TESTIMONIES FROM OUR CLIENTS


Please feel free to carefully review some written and captured responses from our satisfied clients.

  • "Exceptionally outstanding. Highly recommend for all who wish to have effective and excellent project defence. Easily Accessable, Affordable, Effective and effective."

    Debby Henry George, Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, USA.
  • "I saw this website on facebook page and I did not even bother since I was in a hurry to complete my project. But I am totally amazed that when I visited the website and saw the topic I was looking for and I decided to give a try and now I have received it within an hour after ordering the material. Am grateful guys!"

    Hilary Yusuf, United States International University Africa, Nairobi, Kenya.
  • "Researchwap.net is a website I recommend to all student and researchers within and outside the country. The web owners are doing great job and I appreciate them for that. Once again, thank you very much "researchwap.net" and God bless you and your business! ."

    Debby Henry George, Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, USA.
  • "Great User Experience, Nice flows and Superb functionalities.The app is indeed a great tech innovation for greasing the wheels of final year, research and other pedagogical related project works. A trial would definitely convince you."

    Lamilare Valentine, Kwame Nkrumah University, Kumasi, Ghana.
  • "I love what you guys are doing, your material guided me well through my research. Thank you for helping me achieve academic success."

    Sampson, University of Nigeria, Nsukka.
  • "researchwap.com is God-sent! I got good grades in my seminar and project with the help of your service, thank you soooooo much."

    Cynthia, Akwa Ibom State University .
  • "Sorry, it was in my spam folder all along, I should have looked it up properly first. Please keep up the good work, your team is quite commited. Am grateful...I will certainly refer my friends too."

    Elizabeth, Obafemi Awolowo University
  • "Am happy the defense went well, thanks to your articles. I may not be able to express how grateful I am for all your assistance, but on my honour, I owe you guys a good number of referrals. Thank you once again."

    Ali Olanrewaju, Lagos State University.
  • "My Dear Researchwap, initially I never believed one can actually do honest business transactions with Nigerians online until i stumbled into your website. You have broken a new legacy of record as far as am concerned. Keep up the good work!"

    Willie Ekereobong, University of Port Harcourt.
  • "WOW, SO IT'S TRUE??!! I can't believe I got this quality work for just 3k...I thought it was scam ooo. I wouldn't mind if it goes for over 5k, its worth it. Thank you!"

    Theressa, Igbinedion University.
  • "I did not see my project topic on your website so I decided to call your customer care number, the attention I got was epic! I got help from the beginning to the end of my project in just 3 days, they even taught me how to defend my project and I got a 'B' at the end. Thank you so much researchwap.com, infact, I owe my graduating well today to you guys...."

    Joseph, Abia state Polytechnic.
  • "My friend told me about ResearchWap website, I doubted her until I saw her receive her full project in less than 15 miniutes, I tried mine too and got it same, right now, am telling everyone in my school about researchwap.com, no one has to suffer any more writing their project. Thank you for making life easy for me and my fellow students... Keep up the good work"

    Christiana, Landmark University .
  • "I wish I knew you guys when I wrote my first degree project, it took so much time and effort then. Now, with just a click of a button, I got my complete project in less than 15 minutes. You guys are too amazing!."

    Musa, Federal University of Technology Minna
  • "I was scared at first when I saw your website but I decided to risk my last 3k and surprisingly I got my complete project in my email box instantly. This is so nice!!!."

    Ali Obafemi, Ibrahim Badamasi Babangida University, Niger State.
  • To contribute to our success story, send us a feedback or please kindly call 2348037664978.
    Then your comment and contact will be published here also with your consent.

    Thank you for choosing researchwap.com.