CHALLENGES OF THE FREEDOM OF INFORMATION BILL TO THE BROADCAST MEDIA ( A CASE STUDY OF NTA UYO)


CHALLENGES OF THE FREEDOM OF INFORMATION BILL TO THE BROADCAST MEDIA ( A CASE STUDY OF NTA UYO)    

ABSTRACT

One of the cardinal points upon which the freedom of information Bill is founded is the promotion of an enabling environment for unfettered access to information as it concerns the conduct of public affairs, records and documents. Considering that one of the major set backs of the growth of the Nigeria’s fledging democracy is the fact that most official transactions, both in public and private sectors are shrouded in secrecy. This study however, shall highlight the present challenges the delay in the passage of the Freedom of Information Bill pose to the media and the society. The case study for this research is NTA Kaduna network. The survey research method is used while the simple percentage is used for analyzing responses gotten from questionnaires administered.

TABLE OF CONTENTS

    Title page

    Declaration

    Approval page

    Dedication

    Acknowledgement

    Table of contents

    Abstract

    CHAPTER ONE

1.0    Introduction

1.1    History of Case Study  

1.2    Statement of General Study

1.3    Aims and Objectives of Study

1.4    Hypothesis and Research Questions

1.5    Theoretical Framework

    CHAPTER TWO

2.0    Literature Review

2.1    Democracy and its Obligation

2.2    Nigeria’s Obligation under International Law to have Access to Information Law

2.3    Freedom of Information Bill and the Media

2.4    National Security Interest and Official Secrets

2.5    Freedom Laws in two Worlds

2.6    Benefits of the Freedom of Information Bill

    CHAPTER THREE

3.0    Research Methodology

3.1    Technique and Method of Data Collection

3.1.1    Primary Data Collection

3.1.2    Secondary Data Collection

3.2    Justification for Approaches used

3.3    Data Gathering Instrument

3.4    Research Population and Sample Size

3.5    Data Analysis Technique

    CHAPTER FOUR

4.0    Data Presentation and Analysis

4.1          Analysis and interpretation

4.2    Test of hypothesis

CHAPTER FIVE

5.0    Summary, Conclusion and Recommendation

5.1    Summary

5.2    Conclusion

5.3    Recommendation

Appendix

Questionnaire

Bibliography

CHAPTER ONE

1.0    Introduction

The Freedom of Information Bill (FOI) is a bill that, if passed into law, will give every Nigerian access to information, records and documents held by government bodies and private bodies carrying out public functions.

It applies to all arms of government: the Executive, Legislature and Judiciary as well as to all tiers of government: Federal, State and Local Governments.

So far, Nigeria has no law which guarantees citizens access to public records and information. On the contrary, many Nigerian laws have secrecy clauses prohibiting the disclosure of information e.g. the official secrets Act, the Criminal Code, the Penal code e.t.c.

Restricting access to vital information starves the press of the legal authority to publish or broadcast what they know to be true. The Nigerian press has for many years been accused of sensationalism as against fact-based journalism because their reports appear to be unbacked with evidence.

The FOI Bill has gone through three readings and a public hearing and has been passed by the lower chamber of the National Assembly, and at the Senate, it has also passed through three readings and a public hearing awaiting harmonization and presidential assent to become law.

1.1    HISTORY OF CASE STUDY

In February 1962, the Broadcasting Company of Northern Nigeria known as BCNN was born. It was commissioned on 15th March, 1962. BCNN was established by the premier of the then Northern region, the Sardauna of Sokoto, Late Sir Ahmadu Bello. He wanted a medium through which he could sell his government’s policies and bring development to the whole of the north, because he felt that the existing Radio Station, the NBC was not giving adequate coverage to his government and indeed the activities of the Northern region. The Station started in monochrome. In 1963, the RTK (Radio Television, Kaduna) arm was established the combination was known and still remained as RTK (Radio Television Kaduna).

The television arm was excised from the former Broadcasting Corporation of Northern Nigeria (BCNN) with Decree No. 24 of May 1977 which took effect retrospectively from 1st April, 1976.

The station has two (2) 10KW transmitters: Larcan Transmitter installed in April, 1994 and Rhodes and Schwarz (R & S) installed in year 2000, both transmitters are located at No. 99 Isa kaita Road, Kaduna.

Objectives of NTA

The NTA derives its objectives from the overall aims of broadcasting in Nigeria. As a medium of communication, television seeks to enrich life of the average Nigerian by influencing positively his social, cultural, economic, political, and technological thinking. It also brings him news and information about national issues. Besides this, it serves as a source of entertainment. Television promotes cultural awareness and seeks to preserve Nigeria’s rich culture. Through the medium, artistic and intellectual creativity are developed. Therefore, all programmes and coverage should be audience – oriented and guided by the nation’s social, political, moral, cultural, scientific, educational and economic goals.

NTA’s Vision and Mission Vision

“To be a World-Class television Network”       

Mission

“To provide excellent television services worldwide and project the true African perspectives.”

The station (NTA Kaduna) has six departments

⦁    Programmes:

The Programmes Department is responsible for planning and producing programmes for transmission; the programs types are light entertainment, drama, variety and documentary.  

The department is also responsible for all OB coverages and contributions to networks programmes.

-  News Department

The News department is responsible for News and Current Affairs Programmes. It is statutorily vested with the responsibility of gathering and broadcasting News from all sources within the country some of its star programmes are News World, Weekend Panorama, Guests of the Week and Issues of the Moment.  

⦁    Engineering Department

The department is responsible for the maintenance of all equipment and daily transmission of programmes. As a Zonal Centre, it contributes to transmission of network programmes. It is equipped to cover and transmit live programmes from any location within the zone.

⦁    Administrative Department

The department is the human resource and personnel arm of the station. It is in charge of policy interpretation and implementation.

⦁    Finance Department

The finance department manages the finances of the station.

⦁    Marketing Department

The marketing department is responsible for the marketing and advertising activities of the station.

Nigerian Television Authority (NTA) Kaduna is located in the heart of the city at No. 7 Yakubu Gowon Way, Kaduna.

The station has staff strength of Ninety – Seven (97).   

1.2    Statement of General Problem

For over eight years, the protagonists of the Freedom of Information Bill have been toiling to it get passed at the National Assembly. The bill was presented initially in 1999 when the return to democratic governance heightened the expectations that there will be increased disposition towards freer information access by those in power.

By August 2004, the House of Representatives passed the Freedom of Information Bill and two years later by 2006, the Senate by a consensus vote passed the same bill.

The general problem is that corruption in Nigeria is endemic, pervasive and deep-rooted in the nation’s polity.

How easy will it be for the people who are corrupt to be the same people called upon to eliminate/minimize corruption? Unless the lid is opened on the activities of corrupt public officials, it is most likely to abate.   

1.3    Aims and Objectives of the Study

This study shall highlight some of the challenges the delay in the passage of the Freedom of Information Bill pose to the Nigerian media with a particular focus on the Nigeria Television Authority (NTA) Kaduna.

Some of these challenges include:

⦁    Depriving the media the legal authority to publish what they know to be true.

⦁    Deprives the media the right to publish or broadcast fact-based reports.

⦁    Causing a major set-back to the growth of Nigeria’s democracy because the most official transactions, both in the public and private sectors are shrouded in secrecy.

The research will however provide a premise for the applicability of the findings to other Nigerian media.

1.4    Hypothesis and Research Questions

H1:    FOI Bill will provide legal access to individuals for public information.

H2:    The FOI Bill will promote transparency and accountability in governance.

H3:    The FOI Bill will give the broadcast media the legal backing to transmit public information.   

H4:    The FOI will guides against the misuse of accessed public information.

H5:    The FOI Bill gives the broadcast media total control of accessed information.

Research Questions

R1:    What are the challenges the FOI Bill pose to the broadcast media?

R2:    What are the legal loop holes that the FOI Bill covers, that the constitution does not cover?

R3:    What are the benefits of FOI Bill?

1.5    Focus, Scope and Limitations

This study shall highlight the benefits the broadcast media would derive from the bill. It will also look at the challenges (if any) the bill will present to the broadcast media.

This study shall also review the constitutional provisions to access of information and the limitations it presents.

1.6    Theoretical Framework

This study shall be guided by the libertarian and the democratic participant media theory.

The libertarian theory later re-labeled “free press theory” is hinged on the perception for increased freedom for press. Liberal philosophers like John Stuart Mill and Milton greatly advanced the advocacy for free press.

In the main, libertarian theory prescribes that an individual and by extension the press should be free to hold and express opinions freely and publish same. The theory does not see the need for censorship since it acknowledges the great potentials of humans as rational being who can distinguish between truth and falsehood.

The theory does not advocate press immunity to the rule of law and the canons of civilized social conduct. It also advocates that the press be seen as partner with government in the search of truth, rather than a tool in the hands of government. It also advocates that:

⦁    Publication should be free from any prior censorship by any third party.

⦁    No restrictions should be placed on the collection by legal means of information for publication.

⦁    The act of publication and distribution should be open to a person or group without permit or license.

⦁    There should be no compulsion to publish.

⦁    There should be no restriction on exporting or importing sending or receiving of messages across national frontiers.

Pool (1973) asserted that; “no nation will indefinitely tolerate a freedom of the press that serves to divide the country and open the floodgates of criticisms against the freely chosen government that leads it.

Mcquail (1983) prescribed that the solution to the question of press freedom could be to free the press from adverse censorship while at the same time leaving it answerable to the law for any consequence of its activities that infringe other individual right of the legitimate claim of the society.

Democratic participant media theory is yet another theory developed by Mcquail in the event of the earlier theories to deliver the social benefits expected of them.

This theory is hinged on the insistence that the present bureaucracy as well as commercial and professional hegemony in the media be broken down so as to guarantee easier media access for all users and consumers.

The theory represents people’s disillusionment against a media system that is over monopolized, centralized and elitist. The theory calls for greater attention to the needs, interests and aspirations of the receiver in a political society. In the place of monopolization, it calls for pluralism; in place of centralism, it advocates decentralization and localism. It insists that media conglomerates be replaced or at least juxtaposed with small scale media enterprises.  

.

CHALLENGES OF THE FREEDOM OF INFORMATION BILL TO THE BROADCAST MEDIA ( A CASE STUDY OF NTA UYO)



TYPE IN YOUR TOPIC AND CLICK SEARCH.






RESEARCHWAP.NET
Researchwap.net is an online repository for free project topics and research materials, articles and custom writing of research works. We’re an online resource centre that provides a vast database for students to access numerous research project topics and materials. Researchwap.net guides and assist Postgraduate, Undergraduate and Final Year Students with well researched and quality project topics, topic ideas, research guides and project materials. We’re reliable and trustworthy, and we really understand what is called “time factor”, that is why we’ve simplified the process so that students can get their research projects ready on time. Our platform provides more educational services, such as hiring a writer, research analysis, and software for computer science research and we also seriously adhere to a timely delivery.

TESTIMONIES FROM OUR CLIENTS


Please feel free to carefully review some written and captured responses from our satisfied clients.

  • "Exceptionally outstanding. Highly recommend for all who wish to have effective and excellent project defence. Easily Accessable, Affordable, Effective and effective."

    Debby Henry George, Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, USA.
  • "I saw this website on facebook page and I did not even bother since I was in a hurry to complete my project. But I am totally amazed that when I visited the website and saw the topic I was looking for and I decided to give a try and now I have received it within an hour after ordering the material. Am grateful guys!"

    Hilary Yusuf, United States International University Africa, Nairobi, Kenya.
  • "Researchwap.net is a website I recommend to all student and researchers within and outside the country. The web owners are doing great job and I appreciate them for that. Once again, thank you very much "researchwap.net" and God bless you and your business! ."

    Debby Henry George, Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, USA.
  • "Great User Experience, Nice flows and Superb functionalities.The app is indeed a great tech innovation for greasing the wheels of final year, research and other pedagogical related project works. A trial would definitely convince you."

    Lamilare Valentine, Kwame Nkrumah University, Kumasi, Ghana.
  • "I love what you guys are doing, your material guided me well through my research. Thank you for helping me achieve academic success."

    Sampson, University of Nigeria, Nsukka.
  • "researchwap.com is God-sent! I got good grades in my seminar and project with the help of your service, thank you soooooo much."

    Cynthia, Akwa Ibom State University .
  • "Sorry, it was in my spam folder all along, I should have looked it up properly first. Please keep up the good work, your team is quite commited. Am grateful...I will certainly refer my friends too."

    Elizabeth, Obafemi Awolowo University
  • "Am happy the defense went well, thanks to your articles. I may not be able to express how grateful I am for all your assistance, but on my honour, I owe you guys a good number of referrals. Thank you once again."

    Ali Olanrewaju, Lagos State University.
  • "My Dear Researchwap, initially I never believed one can actually do honest business transactions with Nigerians online until i stumbled into your website. You have broken a new legacy of record as far as am concerned. Keep up the good work!"

    Willie Ekereobong, University of Port Harcourt.
  • "WOW, SO IT'S TRUE??!! I can't believe I got this quality work for just 3k...I thought it was scam ooo. I wouldn't mind if it goes for over 5k, its worth it. Thank you!"

    Theressa, Igbinedion University.
  • "I did not see my project topic on your website so I decided to call your customer care number, the attention I got was epic! I got help from the beginning to the end of my project in just 3 days, they even taught me how to defend my project and I got a 'B' at the end. Thank you so much researchwap.com, infact, I owe my graduating well today to you guys...."

    Joseph, Abia state Polytechnic.
  • "My friend told me about ResearchWap website, I doubted her until I saw her receive her full project in less than 15 miniutes, I tried mine too and got it same, right now, am telling everyone in my school about researchwap.com, no one has to suffer any more writing their project. Thank you for making life easy for me and my fellow students... Keep up the good work"

    Christiana, Landmark University .
  • "I wish I knew you guys when I wrote my first degree project, it took so much time and effort then. Now, with just a click of a button, I got my complete project in less than 15 minutes. You guys are too amazing!."

    Musa, Federal University of Technology Minna
  • "I was scared at first when I saw your website but I decided to risk my last 3k and surprisingly I got my complete project in my email box instantly. This is so nice!!!."

    Ali Obafemi, Ibrahim Badamasi Babangida University, Niger State.
  • To contribute to our success story, send us a feedback or please kindly call 2348037664978.
    Then your comment and contact will be published here also with your consent.

    Thank you for choosing researchwap.com.