PROSPECTS AND CHALLENGES OF CAMPUS BROADCAST STATIONS IN NIGERIA: A CASE STUDY OF UNIQUE 88.5 FM
It is not just good enough to obtain license, establish and start running a community radio station.The success of any organization is hinged on the fulfillment of the objectives of that organization.It is based on this premise that this research work is carried out to examine the present operational nature of University of Port Harcourt Community Radio Station 88.5 Unique FM in comparison with the Objectives of its establishment, trying to find out the challenges (if any) and prospects of the radio station in the process with the hope that it will be useful to the university management and the Department of Mass Communication on issues concerning the operation of the radio station, policy adjustments, funding and equipping.
TABLE OF CONTENT
Table of content……...…v
CHAPTER ONE 1
1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY 1
1.1.2 BRIEF HISTORY OF RADIO IN NIGERIA 3
1.1.3 HISTORY/INTRODUCTION OF FM RADIO IN NIGERIA 5
1.1.4 COMMUNITY RADIO 5
1.1.5 SIGNIFICANCE OF COMMUNITY RADIO 7
1.2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM 10
1.3 OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY 11
1.4 RESEARCH QUESTIONS 12
1.5 SCOPE AND LIMITATIONS 12
1.6 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY 14
1.7 A BRIEF HISTORICAL ACCOUNT OF THE CASE STUDY 14
1.8 DEFINITION OF KEY TERMS 16
CHAPTER TWO 17
LITERATURE REVIEW 17
2.0 INTRODUCTION 17
2.1 DEFINITION OF COMMUNITY RADIO 18
2.2 COMMUNITY RADIO IN THE CONTEXT OF THE GLOBALIZATION OF MEDIA 22
2.3 A BRIEF ACCOUNT OF COMMUNITY RADIO IN THE WORLD 23
2.4 INTERNATIONAL APPROACHES TO FUNDING COMMUNITY CAMPUS RADIO 28
2.5 FUNCTIONS OF A COMMUNITY RADIO 30
2.6 AFFILIATION TO THE DEPARTMENT OF COMMUNICATION 33
2.7 COMMUNITY BROADCASTING IN AN EDUCATIONAL ENVIROMENT 34
2.8 THE NBC CODE ON COMMUNITY (CAMPUS) RADIO 35
2.9THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK 36
2.10 DEVELOPMENT MEDIA THEORY 36
2.11 THE LINK BETWEEN THE THEORY AND THE STUDY 40
CHAPTER THREE 42
RESEARCH METHODOLOGY 42
3.0 INTRODUCTION 42
3.1 RESEARCH METHOD 42
3.1.1 Survey Method 43
3.2 AREA OF STUDY 46
3.3 POPULATION OF STUDY 46
3.4 SAMPLING TECHNIQUE 46
3.5 SAMPLE SIZE 47
3.6 INSTRUMENT OF DATA COLLECTION 48
3.7 METHOD AND PROCEDURE FOR DATA ANALYSIS 49
3.8 JUSTIFICATIONS 49
3.9 LIMITATION OF THE METHODOLOGY 49
CHAPTER FOUR 51
DATA PRESENTATION AND ANALYSIS 51
4.0 INTRODUCTION 51
4.1 PRESENTATION AND INTERPRETATION OF DATA 51
4.2 ANALYSIS OF DATA GATHERED WITH QUESTIONNAIRE 64
CHAPTER FIVE 70
SUMMARY, CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS 70
5.1 Introduction 70
5.2 Summary 71
5.3 MAJOR FINDINGS 74
5.4 Conclusions 75
5.5 Recommendations 77
1.1 Background of the study
Broadcasting is the dispensation of audio, video orboth content to a dispersed audience through any electronic mass communications medium. Despite the wave of community broadcasting around the world, Nigeria is yet to experience typical operation ofcommunity broadcasting. Although the National broadcasting Commission the regulatory body claims thatthe campus radio stations are community radios. The operation of those stationsstill reflect top-to-bottom communication model because, the stations are mostly education curricular-based. Severalbottlenecks exist that deter campus broadcasting in Nigeria. Below are the factors that limit campusbroadcasting in Nigeria:
The 1999 constitution of Nigeria in section 39, titled Right to freedom of expression and the press provided (subsection2) that “every person shall be entitled to own, establish and operate any medium for the dissemination of information,ideas and opinions; provided that no person other than government of the federation or of a state or any other personor body authorized by the president on the fulfillment of conditions laid down by an Act of the National assembly shallown, establish or operate a television or wireless broadcasting station for any purpose whatsoever”.
The above provision shows a rigorous approach which does not expedite the principles of participation. It thereforerestricts the entire process because in the bid to victimize certain communities (that probably did not vote in elections)the government in power could deny licenses. Also, the constitution withdraws the right of expression through provision section 39 (3) which states that: “Nothing in this section shall invalidate any other law that is reasonably justifiable ina democratic society.” The implication is that even licensed stations can be stripped of their licenses by government atwill.
The regulatory limits of campus broadcasting are related to that of the constitution. The National Broadcastingcommission provides for the commission to exert regulatory powerson the broadcast ownership and operation in Nigeria. The decree set out in clear terms the responsibilities of thecommission. The responsibilities as they relate to regulation are parts of the limits of community broadcasting.Critics have observed that the provision, most times, negate the principles of deregulation.
In broadcasting, as in every other sector in Nigeria, finance is a problem that limits campus broadcasting. Eventhough the NBC has not started issuance of community broadcasting licenses, license fee poses as a challenge to theoperation. Learning from the impact of license fees and renewal fees on the existing private stations (their inability tomake substantial profit after paying license fees ranging from 10 million to 25 Million naira); it becomes difficult for campus stations to be commercially viable in the face of the present licensing regime. In relation to this, in order tomaximise profits, since the duration of the licence (five years) is not enough to recoup investment, the tendency of overcommercialization endangers the essence of campus broadcasting. Broadcast media in Nigeria are shying away from their primary responsibilities of educating, informing and enlightening the citizenry and violets the fundamental rights of the people to receive the right type of information".
1.2 Statement of the problem
The problems of this study are:
Communities find it difficult to invest in the area of campus broadcasting because the environment hasseveral restrictions. The current structure ofbroadcasting in the country is deficient to effectively cover the whole country and provide thecritical voice for the people
1.3 Objectives of the study
This study seeks to examine the prospects and challenges of campus broadcast stations in Nigeria.
Help the Nigerian government establish a committee to ascertain the approaches to campus broadcasting. To provide more effective, legally binding campus broadcasting regime for truedemocracy, media pluralism and diversity of information sources. To provide a structure of broadcasting in the country that will effectively cover the whole country and provide the critical voice for the people.
1.4 Research questions
What are the challenges of campus broadcast stations in Nigeria? 2. Why does Communities find it difficult to invest in the area of campus broadcasting? 3. Mention any prospect of campus broadcast stations in Nigeria.
1.5 Research hypotheses
1.6 Significance of the study
This study will be beneficial to the community and national developments, educate the citizenry about campus broadcasting so that they internalize their responsibilitiesin relation to content creation and contribution to national development.
1.7 Scope/Limitations of the study
This study on immorality in churches will cover all forms of immoral activities that exist in churches today with a view of finding a lasting solution to the problem.
Limitations of study
1. Financial constraint- Insufficient fund tends to impede the efficiency of the researcher in sourcing for the relevant materials, literature or information and in the process of data collection (internet, questionnaire and interview). 2. Time constraint- The researcher will simultaneously engage in this study with other academic work. This consequently will cut down on the time devoted for the research work.
1.8 Definition of terms
Broadcast service:means a service that delivers television programs or radio programs to persons having equipment appropriate for receiving that service, whether the delivery uses the radiofrequency spectrum, cable, optical fibre, satellite or any other means or a combination of those means’. A broadcasting service does not include:
Broadcast:is the simultaneous transmission of the same message to multiple recipients..