IMPACT OF TELEVISION BROADCASTING ON ELECTIONEERING CAMPAIGNS
1.1 Background of the Study
That the mass media plays a vital role in the development process of a country is not again saying. The mass media generally regarded as a channel of communication that are capable of reaching heterogeneous audience simultaneously with uniform message. They regularly cover all sorts of issues such as health, music, fine art, crime, sport, entertainment, political events among others (Meyer, 2002, Soela 2004). The mass media transmits ideas and new information to target audience in the society. Tosanisunmi (2004) has observed that the mass media educate, inform and entertain beyond these functions as they also persuade and catalyze for social mobilization. In other words, the mass media can be regarded as powerful service of information because they have the capability to penetrate every segment of society. They have the ability to disseminate messages about issue, ideas and product.
Furthermore, the mass media has that capability to create awareness and knowledge about issues of national interest. The traditional mass media usually consist of radio, television, newspaper and magazine while the news media involves the internet technologies. Contextually, these media have the responsibility to mobilize for national development. In other words, social mobilization for development largely depends on the media for success. Crusade for change and dissemination of useful information against corruption, bad governance and terrorism depend on the mass media. Ogwezzy (2010) states that it is a common knowledge that the media is the engine of mass communication and the avenue through which the public could be reached.
In the other hand, election is an important element of democracy; elections enable the individual to express a sense of belonging to a political system. Elections provide forum for the discussion of public opinion on important issue. Elections allow an exchange of influence between leaders and the electorate (Nwaozuzu 1999:18-22). This statement captures the relevant functions of the broadcast media in elections which serves as a mobilizing of all the different people in society and at the same time to co-ordinate the activities as they are made to express their views about candidates who are contesting for political position. The broadcast media through their programmes create avenue through which the people express their views about candidates. There may be phone calls in programmes like radio link, state of the Nation, or debate programmer responsible or otherwise and has made people pass on topical political issues. Also the broadcast media (Radio and Television) provide platforms through which individuals or member of society contribute on issues of public interest. They may be based on stewardship of political offices holders wishing to recontest for elections or it may have to do with electoral law that are perceived to be capable of fermenting violence. Ebo (1997:132) maintain that: the broadcast media play decisive roles in the lives of the citizens no matter where they are located and whatever their stage of development. The broadcast media are the most potent and sensitive sector of the communication industry considering the reach and influence they have on their viewers and listeners.
This statement succinctly explains which relevance the broadcast media is to all the components of the society, a power it acquired from its inception and not only during political campaigns. It is this power that grants it the ability to mobilize people and make them participate in mass in political processes. To further explain the power of the broadcast media in mobilizing the citizens towards conforming to expected behavior and participation in electoral processes. The media force attends to certain issues, they build up images of political figures, they are constantly presenting objects, suggesting what individuals should think about, know about, having feelings about. Clang an Lang 1959:103- 112).
This means the dominant thought that the people carry about, is influenced by the media‟s constant projection of what they should be thinking especially concerning the electoral process. This comment conforms to the agenda setting thereby which provides explanation to what or how the media can sway the behavior of the people in the society. Given this power therefore, it will not be out of place to say that, the failure of success of any electoral process lies largely in the hands of the mass media, to which the broadcast media is a strong component. Innis (2003:298) in support of this state that; while an unbiased and responsible system can contribute to the success of the electoral process, a bias and irresponsible media contributes to the failure of elections.
On the same power of the media, Orhewere‟s (2003:140) argues; the Nigerian media in the past did not show enough commitment to professional ethic there by contributing to electoral crisis in Western Nigerian in 1965 and subsequent elections. The relevance of Orhewere‟s comment is that not only does the Nigerian Broadcast media posses‟ enormous powers, but its role as an instrument of mobilization dates back to as far as 1965. In other words, the media has been a very active instrument in democratic processes in Nigeria over a stretch of time, until the military dictatorship took the shine from it. However, with the re-entry of civilian rule in 1999, the media viz the broadcast media have resumed its active role of mobilizing the populace for elections. The media or broadcast media played very important role in elections written 1999 and 2003, Therefore, to print out that, the roles the media often plays is either responsible or otherwise and has made people pass judgment or often ascribed to failed outcome of elections ascribed to failed outcome of elections to it. That is the success or failure of elections are often judged by the role of the media for instance, Chinua Achebe (1993:78) allege that; the two previous at conducting election under civilian rule generated crisis, which culminated to the collapse of the republics due to several electoral frauds some of which allegedly were aided and abetted by the media. Chinua Achebe‟s comment however begs for serious questions at to, how does a watch dog become a conspirator. In other words, how does a media aid and abet fraud, perhaps they will form another basis for a study. However, it is important to note that, indeed the broadcast media has very strong roles to play in elections. To this Burns (1977:45) state that; The media in a civilized society occupy a very important and powerful position with capacity that can easily influence the opinion of the masses. While Rivers (1971) state that, it is expected to be the condolence of the people where divergent views are expressed in order to serve as a check against autocratic and totalitarian rule
Therefore, it is against the above background that this project seeks to examine the impact of television broadcasting on electioneering campaigns using 2011 presidential campaigns on NTA Abeokuta.
1.2 Statement of Research Problem
The role of media in every society is often to educate, inform and enlighten. It is assumed that, where those roles are adequately carried out, elections are bound to be free and fair. However, in Nigeria, several elections have been marred the question is how the mass media has mobilized the Nigerian populace. How come electoral processes have not been successful? Is the broadcast media system not commensurate to other media systems elsewhere? These and many others are questions that this study hopes to identify.
1.3 Objectives of the Study
To ascertain the level of equal media coverage given to political parties to candidates.
To ascertain the significant relationship between mass media & electioneering campaign. To ascertain the significant level of mobilization of mass media towards elections.
To determine the significant level of agenda setting programme of mass media town elections.
1.4 Research Questions
The following research questions were considered:
What is the significant level of equal media coverage given to political parties? What is the significant relationship between media coverage and a free & fair election? What is the significant level of media expose of electoral misconduct? How does the media play the role of agenda-setting during election? What is the significant level of media mobilization during electoral process?
1.5 Significance of the study
On the completion of this project the end result will benefit academics, students of communication studies and other researchers that may want to carry out further research on this study.
1.6 Scope of the Study
The scope of this research work will only cover the people within Abeokuta metropolis. This focus will be on the people living around Oke-Ilewo, Post- Office and Panseke axis of the city.
1.7 Limitations of the Study
The research work may be faced with time & fund constraints being an academic based research. The time allocated for this study is not enough as in combining the work on this study with daily academics routine. Also, the study will be limited to some areas due to the problems of funds,, shortage of texts, journals and information relevant to the study.
1.8 Operational Definition of Terms
1. Impact: This refers to a significant or strong influence on massmedia towards election.
2. Television broadcasting: This can be defined as the dissemination of information, idea, opinion, before, among others through the use of television medium.
3. Electioneering Campaign: This refers to the act or process of soliciting for support or votes for a given political party or candidate during election.
SUMMARY, RECOMMENDATIONS AND CONCLUSION
This project has extensively evaluated the Impact of Television Broadcasting on Electioneering Campaign, a case study of 2011 elections in Nigeria. A research survey using descriptive analysis and chi-square was carried out on 225 respondents. This project gave the over-all background to the study. It stated the statement of the problem of the study, the objective, and the research questions. It also featured the significant of the study, scope and limitation of the study and operational definition of term to aid the understanding of the readers of the project. The roles of the mass media in setting agenda for public discussion in terms of agenda setting theory were also reviewed. The research methodology includes research design, population of the study, sample size determination, sampling procedure, method of data collection, validity and reliability of data instrument and method of data analysis. The researcher adopted survey method which gives room for questionnaires and interview while the sampling technique was simple random sampling techniques which will allow all members of the population of the study an equal being included in the study, presentation and the analysis of data collected from questionnaire responded to by respondents. They were analyzed with arithmetic table and simple percentage using statistical Package for social sciences (SPSS). Total numbers of questionnaire released was 225. A total number of 206 administered questionnaire were retrieved from the field while 19 missed.
It is not out of place to conclude based on the findings that the mass media especially the print media have been fair in giving equal media coverage to political parties to candidate. In the cause of upholding their responsibilities as responsible media, the mass media in Nigeria have tried as much as possible to give equal chance to political parties most especially during elections. The private mass media both broadcast and print is better than the public owned media. The significant to the study is the relationship between mass media and media ownership in relation to its effects, the responsibilities during elections.
The mass media mobilize the electorates towards 2011 election in Nigeria at large. Hence, the mass media has been effective in mobilizing the electorates towards elections as seen in various programmes before, during and after the elections in Nigeria. Various political programmes in media towards elections in Nigeria are evidence to the fact that they are playing their agenda-setting roles in Nigeria towards successful, free and fair election in Nigeria. No doubt the degree of the political issues been brought forward for public discussion will determine the level if exposing electoral misconduct as rigging, results manipulation, thuggery ballot box snatching among others. This is evidence in the 2011 elections as the mass media were on top of the situation that almost destroyed the election result.
Obviously, there is signification relationship between the mass media coverage and a free and fair election in Nigeria at large. The findings from this research work and other empirical studies confirmed that, the media coverage can also determine if an election will be free and fair.
As a result of the findings from this research work, the following recommendations have been suggested:
· Since it has been discovered that there is a direct relationship between media coverage and elections result, the mass media should endeavor to give equal media coverage to political parties and their candidates. In other word, the mass media should allow political parties and their candidates a level playing for their campaign.
· The significant relationship between mass media coverage and election results has made imperative media ownership both public and privates should do more to free the media practitioners to carry out their sacred responsibilities towards elections without any interference.
· It is not a gain saying to establish that the mass media have been four in mobilizing the mass media have been fair in mobilizing the electorates during elections. However, the mass media should improve on the mobilization of electorates during elections as reliable and valid results of elections large depend on this process.
· Agenda-setting programmes of mass media towards elections is an effective way of mobilizing, educating and enlighten the public and the electorates on electoral process, hence, the mass media practitioners should endeavor to package more of agenda setting programmes to ensure a free and fair elections in Nigeria.
· The mass media should endeavor to be proactive in their coverage to expose electoral misconduct among Politicians, government officials and electoral officers.
· The responsibilities of the mass media is a sacred one saddled on them by the Nigerian and the constitution, hence, they should endeavor not
to be partisan in politics but be responsible, pursue a free and fair elections in Nigeria..