FEEDBACK MECHANISM AS A TOOL IN DETERMINING PROGRAMMING (A CASE STUDY OF ESBS 2 FM) ENUGU
Feedback mechanism is a very important yardstick for measuring audience acceptance f and participation in programmes and messages would be missing if feedback is omitted from the source. A very important element would be missing if feedback is omitted from the basic structure of communication which contains sender, message, channel and receiver.
It is cleared that the numerous gains and or effectiveness of FM broadcasting cannot be isolated from the basic element of broadcasting as a whole these elements on their own would be incomplete without the inclusion of feedback mechanism, of education, informing and entertaining the public. This study furnishes them with better understanding of the value which feedback as a matter of necessity occupies in broadcasting.
Feedback mechanism comes in various forms, through face to face interviews, through telephone calls or through the mail; also in letters in the forms of feedback expressing condemnations, suggestions, condemnation, usually come from any angle, ranging from presentation patterns, presenter, or general organizational patterns, on subjects talked about. This study exhaustively explained the usefulness of feedback mechanism in determining programming thus: To the listeners who is the ultimate consumer of media message and whose reaction and attitudes towards broadcast messages are under analysis, this study has provided answers to questions which arises in his mind regarding feedback mechanisms, its working in full broadcasting.
Also for the operative, it will have an unbiased focus on their success and failures in the areas of educating, informing and determining and failure in this assignment based on in effective use of feedback as a yard stick for determining audience participation and effectives of communicated message. It has also pointed areas of lapses and suggested measures of improvement.
On the part of mass communication students, this study has aimed putting them on a sound footing for the chosen carrier or thinks its relevance to broadcasting.
To explain this study better, the E.S.B.S 2 FM was used and letters to the management of the station, which much reference to their programme content, style and audience expectation and action analyzed. As such, the content analysis research method was used.
TABLE OF CONTENT
Title page ii
Table of content ix
1.1 Background of study 1
1.2 statement of research 3
1.3 Objective of study 4
1.4 Significance of study 5
1.5 Research question 7
1.6 Research hypotheses 7
1.7 Conceptual and operational definition 8
1.8 Assumptions 10
1.9 Limitation of study 10
Review of literature 11
1. Sources of literature 11
2. The review 112.
3 Summary of literature review 19
3.1 Research method 21
3.2 Research design 21
3.3 Research sample 22
3.4 Measuring instrument 24
3.5 Data collection 24
3.6 Data analysis 24
3.7 Expected result 26
Data analysis and results 27
4.1 Data analysis 27
4.2 Results 31
4.3 General recommendation and discussion 37
Summary and Recommendation for further study 42
5.1 Summary 42
5.2 Recommendation for further study 43
1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
Communication by definition is a two way process. It is an international experience between a communicator at one end and audience, the receiver or destination, at the other. A piece of communicated message that is not received by its targets audience is an exercise in futility.
Obviously, communication has remained the most important means of socialization. Need we say more before we understand that communication is very vital for man to success? The free flow on information, ideas and values from the source to the receiver is now made more effective due to improved communication gadgets. In the chain of communication, the message from the source to the receiver has been given very serious attention while feedback has been utterly neglected.
Feedback in communication is a product of the receivers’ reaction to messages received from eh source of mass media. Feedback can come in various forms, through face-to-face interaction like interviews, through telephone calls, or through the mail. Letters in the form of feedback expressing commendations suggestions, condemnations and criticisms, usually come from any angle, ranging from presentation patterns, presenter or general organization patters, or subjects talked about.
Whenever feedback arises from the receiver, conveying either strong or mind criticism, suggestions, and commendations, are thing that is sure is desired change. Now the question is how do the media mergers react to feedback? Do they make use of suggestions put across by the receivers?
From all indications, feedback is a very important yardstick for measuring audience acceptance of and participation in programmes and messages from the source. A very important element would be missing if feedback were omitted from the basic structure of communication, which contains sender, message, channel and receiver.
When messages are sent, it is usually a mental or physical, verbal and or non-verbal process of response by the receiver that indicates whether the message is understood and shared.
This response is called “feedback”.
1.2 STATEMENT OF THE RESEARCH PROBLEM
Feedback in broadcasting is an essential as the original message. Daily, volumes of messages are sent, out through the radio, thousands, even millions of copies are gathered for future transactions, censored and uncensored,, cajoled into forming burdening on state security, general well being even international proportions. Other times the listener is saddled with unsolicited information, his privacy is invaded and disturbed. And the media, they claim, are only performing their duty an obligation to inform, educate and entertain the listener.
A perfectly normal thing, except that media operatives do not bother to think beyond this stage of study to the stage of feedback and its importance.
Operative’s very rarely try to feedback the question on te essence of feedback or think about its relevance to broadcasting.
Furthermore, there is one general view that very little use is made of feedback the listener is continually bombarded with materials and presentations that the listener considers irrelevant to his immediate comfort, environment, state of mind and stations.
Also, that unpopular presenters and programmes are never changed. Conclusively, the notion is that little consideration is given to audience preference in programming.
The question this study seeks to answer therefore is: Does feedback bring about change in programming? If so, to what extent? Definite answers to this question or even an impartial attempt at answering it as candidly as possible would go a long way in enhancing the value of feedback in broadcasting.
1.3 OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY
Since inception in Nigeria, the FM broadcasting has continued to take the lead in entertainment charts. Opening new frontier for an ever-increasing opportunities for listeners, advertisers and media operators.
The medium offers media operative a wonderful avenue for the exhibition of professionalism per excellence. It also provide advertisers the medium for products reach and awareness of their products while for he listeners, it affords him recreation and at the same time allowing him an opportunity through feedback to exercise his basic right of choice and preference.
The numerous gains and or effectiveness of FM broadcasting cannot be isolated from the basic element of broadcasting as a while. These elements on their own are incomplete without the inclusion of feedback mechanism, of educating informing and entertaining the public. This study win furnish them with better understanding of the role in the society and the place of value which feedback should as a matter of necessity occupy in the broadcasting.
1.4 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
This study will be significant to three groups of people in the society:
1. The listeners
2. Broadcasters and media managers and
3. Mass communication students.
To the listener who is the ultimate consumer of media message and whose reaction and attitude towards broadcasting messages are under analysis, this study will provide answers to question which mechanisms, it working in FM broadcasting.
For the operatives, this study will have an unbiased focus on their success and failures in the areas of educating informally and entertaining and failure in this assignment based on in effective use of feedback as a yardstick for determining audience participation and the effectiveness of communicated messages. This study will also point areas of lapses and suggest measures of improvement.]
On the part of mass communication students, the study will ai m at putting them on a sound footing for the chosen carrier or think its relevance to broadcasting.
There is a general misconception that very little use is made of feedback, the media managers always run the risk of bombarding and disturbing the listeners comfort, state of mind with programme packages which the listeners deems irrelevant. Also programmes and presenters remain unchanged. One may at this point say that the listener does not have choice as to the pattern and style of programming. The question, which this study seeks to answer, therefore is:
Does feedback bring about changes in programming? If yes, to what extent?
Definite and impartial answer to this question will surely go a long way in improving the value of feedback mechanism in broadcasting.
1.5 RESEARCH QUESTION
1. Is feedback mechanism used in evaluating FM stations programming?
2. Does effective feedback mechanism help in enhancing audience participation in FM station programming?
3. Does feed back mechanism help managers in programme packaging?
1.6 RESEARCH HYPOTHESES
H1- Feedback mechanism tends to be used in evaluating FM stations programming.
H0- Feedback mechanism is not used in evaluating FM stations programming.
H2- Effective feedback mechanism tends to enhance audience participation n FM stations programmes.
H0- There is no difference in the enhancement of audience participation with or without feedback mechanism.
H3- Feedback tend to help media managers in programme packaging.
H0- Feedback mechanism does not make any difference to media mangers in programme packaging.
H4- Feedback mechanism tends to help assessing programme performance.
H0- Feedback mechanism does not make any difference in the assessment of programme performance.
1.7 CONCEPTUAL AND OPERATIONAL DEFINITION
CONCEPTUAL: Remarks about or in answer to an action process using an arrangement or process of a machine.
OPERATIONAL: This is audience reaction to the progrmmes of ESBS 2 FM through letters to the organization.
CONCEPTUAL: Calculating or judging the value or degree of an action or process.
OPERATIONAL: To analyze the degree of programme performance based on audience performance and acceptance.
Frequency modulation (FM) station:
CONCEPTUAL: A broadcasting station whose system of broadcasting is usually on VHF, in which electric signal that carries sound waves has a wave that is always of the same straight but comes at a varying number of times per second, provided very clear words and music for the listener.
OPERATIONAL: The Enugu State Broadcasting Service FM station.
CONCEPTUAL: A complete plan showing performance one made up of several different parts.
OPERATIONAL: Programme plan for a certain period of times as would be broadcast on as ESBS2FM is effected by audience choice, preference and the management decision.
It was assumed in this study that age, occupation and educational background are no prerequisites to listening to the radio since the respondents did not make these available, they were not considered.
Also the other assumptions were also made
1. Feedback mechanism is used to evaluate FM stations programming.
2. Effective feedback mechanism enhances audience participation in FM stations programming.
3. Feedback mechanism help in assessing programme performance.
1.9 LIMITATION OF THE STUDY
The study is limited to one of the major services are of ESBS2FM, Enugu. It could not arise in handling enormous samples and sampling area, like: co-ordination and finance..