ORGANIZATIONAL CLIMATE AND EMPLOYEE MOTIVATION TOWARDS PRODUCTIVITY: A STUDY OF DAAR COMMUNICATIONS PLC ABUJA AND LAGOS STATIONS
This study concerns the organizational climate and how employees are motivated towards productivity. It was a study of Daar Communications Plc. Abuja And Lagos stations. The survey method was adopted and a questionnaire was administered to staff from both stations.
The study revealed that the organizational climate in both stations is positive and conducive, as both Abuja and Lagos respondents say that communication flows in the stations are effective with senior management; it also revealed that they are trusted as respondents from both stations agree to this fact.
Also, the research revealed further that staff of Daar Communications Plc. are not adequately motivated, it also revealed that management is not doing enough in the area of building and sustaining confidence, commitment to motivating members of staff to boost productivity, aside from these negatives, the research revealed that the organizational climate in both stations is positive.
On the basis of these, the researcher recommends great attention be paid to elements that will help improve management-staff relations and ensure all welfare-related issues for staff are treated as a priority because: as satisfaction is derived, productivity is boosted.
TABLE OF CONTENT
Table of content………vii
1.1 Background Of The Study - - - - - -
1.2 Statement of the Problem - - - - - -
1.3 Objectives of the Study. - - - - - -
1.4 Research Questions - - - - - - -
1.5 Significance of the Study - - - - - -
1.6 Delimitation - - - - - - -
1.7 Limitation of Study - - - - - - -
1.8 Definition of Terms - - - - - - -
REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE
2.0 Introduction - - - - - - - -
2.1 Review of Concept - - - - - - -
2.2 Review of Opinions - - - - - - -
2.3 Review of Studies - - - - - - -
2.3.1 Study I - - - - - - - -
2.3.2 Study II - - - - - - - -
2.3.3 Study III - - - - - - - -
2.4 Theoretical Framework - - - - - -
2.4.1 Herzberg’s Two-Factor Theory - - - - -
2.4.2 Abraham Maslow’s Hierarchy Of Needs - - - -
3.0 Introduction - - - - - - - -
3.1 Research Method - - - - - - -
3.2 Sample Size and Sampling Procedure - - - -
3.3 Description of Research Instrument - - - - -
3.4 Validity of Research Instrument - - - - -
3.5 Reliability of Research Instrument - - - - -
3.6 Method of Data Collection - - - - -
3.7 Method of Data Analysis - - - - - -
DATA PRESENTATION ANALYSIS AND DISCUSSION OF FINDINGS
4.1 Data Presentation And Analysis - - - - -
4.2 Discussion Of Findings - - - - - -
SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION
5.1 Summary of Findings - - - - - - -
5.2 Conclusion - - - - - - - -
5.3 Recommendations - - - - - - -
1.0 Background of the Problem
Communication is a common phenomenon that cuts across the daily activities of all humans. As food and water are very important to man’s survival, so is communication. It is a unique feature that differentiates the living from the dead. In organizations as in individual or group life, effectiveness guarantees continuity. The extent to which an organization is adjudged effective is the extent to which it affects its community positively. Many things are responsible for an organization’s effectiveness or other wise, but top on the list for ensuring effectiveness is effective communication. Communication, especially organizational communication is many pronged and multi-dimensional as communication involves everything that goes on in an organization.
The word communication has been described as a chameleon word, changing its meaning to suit each new user of the term. As such, there exists an array of definitions. Enighe (2010. p.448) has defined communication as;
A relationship or interaction to make something known by means of understood symbols between people or groups that have something in common with each other.
To Umeh (1998), Communication is the process by which “information is passed between individuals and or organizations by means of previously agreed symbols” (p.271). Soola (1998) further describes communication as “the only means by which employee relationships are established, extended, nurtured and sustained” (p.12). Goldlaber in Soola (1998) calls communication “an organizational embalming fluid” whereas Bel-Molokwu (2000) has it that communication is of pedestrian essence: an everyday thing (perhaps an every moment thing) because it pervades our very essence, our very routine of living, Bel-Molokwu goes on to state that “communication goes on in virtually every facet of our being: motherhood, fatherhood, manhood, womanhood, adulthood, “geriahood” and “morihood”. (p.1). He concludes by saying
Communication therefore can be described in simple terms as the process of saying something and getting heard. Effective communication by deduction is saying something, getting heard and getting understood.
Communication is a process, which involves all acts of transmitting messages to channels which link people to the languages and symbolic codes, which are used to transmit such messages. It is also the means by which such messages are received and stored. It includes the rules, customs and conventions, which define and regulate human relationships and events, Ugboajah (2001). In its simplest form, however, communication is the transmission of a message from a source to a receiver…or the process of creating shared meaning, Baran, (2004:4). Communication is from a Latin word- COMMUNIS, which means common or shared understanding. Communication therefore is a purposeful effort to establish commonness between a source and receiver, Schramn (1965). Whatever is being shared could be associated with knowledge, experience, thought, ideas, suggestion, opinions, feelings etc.
Man’s interaction with other human beings is a result of communication. Communication is the key around which human life revolves. Communication is also innate – every man is born with the ability, from childhood, we learn to communicate by crying, smiling, kicking etc. Communication is dynamic, and ever changing. It is made up of activities of interrelated elements which continue to function in the communication process. The fact is that the word communication is encompassing, ambiguous and pervasive.
Communication occurs everywhere and is the life wire in organizations. Without communication, it will be hitherto difficult to inform employees about new innovations or project the company intends to undertake. An organization is a social unit that is structured and managed to meet a need or to pursue collective goals. All organizations have a management structure that determines relationships between the different activities and members, and subdivides and assigns roles, responsibilities and authority to carry out different tasks. Organizations are open systems; they affect and are affected by their environments. BusinessDictionary.com (2012).
In both developed and most developing countries, there have been several job satisfaction studies of which very few of them have been focused on the job satisfaction of the university teachers in relation to their organizational climate. Organizations that have goals to achieve would require satisfied and happy staff in her workforce, (Oshagbemi,- 2000). Importantly is the fact that for any university to take off and achieve its strategic goals would strongly depend on her capacity to attract, retain and maintain competent and satisfied staff into its employment.
Unhappiness results from job structure and compensation ranging from lack of feedback regarding personnel evaluation reports, management emphasis on particular administrative style, workload, lack of support from superior in terms of mentoring to salary package which further increased job dissatisfaction among employees.
The above raises concern regarding the attitudes of staff towards their work and their levels of job satisfaction or dissatisfaction Steyn and Van Wyk, (1999).
The nature of organizational climate differs from one university to the other. Organizational climate serves as a measure of individual perceptions or feelings about an organization. Organizational climate includes management or leadership styles, participation in decision making, provision of challenging jobs to employees, reduction of boredom and frustration, provision of benefits, personnel policies, provision of good working conditions and creation of suitable career ladder for academics, Nicholson and Miljus (1992). All of these are seen as frustrating factors to academics from the results of the study.
`In a pilot research conducted on selected private universities (i.e. the fourth generation universities) in the Southwest Nigeria, the researchers’ findings indicate that there were some forms of dissatisfaction. They view their organizational climate with mixed feelings as characterized by;
(a) Unchallenging jobs; (b) Shortage of personnel where lecturers are expected to perform responsibilities, which were supposed to be performed by other employees; (c) Lack of feedback about performance and evaluation exercise; (d) Lack of recognition for work done well through merit or announcements in meetings; (e) Lack of material resources and basic infrastructure that make work environment difficult for employees to carry out duties; (f) Poor communication where there is no two-way communication between managers and subordinates; and (g) Lack of staff development activities which prevent personnel from being equipped with knowledge and skill that they need in order to provide quality service.
Job satisfaction is a complex and multifaceted concept, which can mean different things to different people. It is more of an attitude, in internal state. It could be associated with a personal feeling of achievement, either quantitative or qualitative, Mullins (1999). He examines job satisfaction (1) in terms of the fit between what the organization requires and what the employee is seeking and (2) in terms of the fit between what employees is seeking and what he/she is actually receiving. He emphasized that the level of job satisfaction is affected by a wide range of variables relating to (1) individual (i.e. personality, education, intelligence and abilities, age, marital status and orientation to work); (2) social factors (i.e. relationship with co-workers, group working and norms and opportunity for interaction); (3) cultural factors (i.e. attitudes, beliefs and values); (4) organizational factors (i.e. nature and size, formal structure, personnel policies and procedures, employee relations, nature of the work, supervision and styles of leadership, management systems and working conditions); and (5) environmental factors (i.e. economic, social, technical and governmental influences). Sweeny and Mcfarln (2002) defined job satisfaction as the result of a psychological comparison process of the extent to which various aspects of their job (e.g. pay, autonomy, work load) measure up to what they desire. Thus, the larger the gap between what employees have and what they want from their jobs, the less satisfied they are; (employees tend to be most satisfied with their jobs when what they have matches what they want.
An employee‘ overall job satisfaction is the cumulative result of comparisons that she makes between what her job provides and what she desires in various areas. The fact that perceived importance makes such a big difference in how employees feel also has implications for management.
Obisi, (2003), listed factors that contribute to job satisfaction as; adequate salary, good working conditions, parental management, job security, opportunity for growth, positive and supportive environment, friendly nature of co-workers and colleagues responsibility and cordial relationship between the superior and the subordinates. Therefore, we can conclude that job satisfaction is a person‘s evaluation of his or her job and work context.
1.2 Statement of the Problem
Communication is an integral aspect of human existence. Information will flow much more freely in an organization where there is a positive organizational climate, but may not flow at all, especially when it is most needed, if there is a negative organizational climate.
One of the reasons for which this research is conducted is to determine the unique importance of organizational climate in relation to the job satisfaction that boosts productivity. It is important for management of any organization to involve members of staff in the day-to-day running of the organization, create an atmosphere of supportiveness, participative decision making, build trust, confidence and credibility, encourage openness and candour, lay emphasis upon high performance and provide incentives which will encourage commitment to work and boost levels of productivity.
Gunter and Furnham (1996) state that organizational climate can directly cause work outcomes that are either positive or negative. Positive work incentives are incentives that make-work interesting, e.g.; attractive work environment, good personnel policies, provision of benefits, job structure and compensation. Enabling work environment leads to motivation, good personnel policies, favourable work environment, and provision of benefits, job satisfaction and compensation. However, negative work incentives include those incentives that make work boring, unchallenging and dissatisfying. They lead to increased absenteeism, turnover and accidents.
The absence of this can breed inferiority on the part of the employees, low motivation, job dissatisfaction and non-commitment to set goals. This is because the survival of any organization is strongly dependent on its ability to carry members of staff along. One then wonders, the extent to which organizational climate could lead to employee motivation towards productivity.
Therefore, this study hopes to establish the relationships that exist
between the different variables of organizational climate and employee motivation towards productivity in Daar Communication Plc. This study seek answer to the question: does organizational climate and employee motivation result in productivity in Alagbado Lagos and Abuja Stations of Daar Communications Plc.?
1.3 Objectives of the Study
The following are the objectives of this study:
1. To determine the existing organizational climate in Abuja and Alagbado Lagos Stations of Daar Communications Plc.,
2. To determine out the communication flow in these stations,
3. To ascertain the factors that motivate the staff of Daar Communications Plc. in Abuja and Alagbado Lagos Stations, towards productivity,
4. To examine ways management can build and sustain confidence, commitment to motivate members of staff to boost productivity, and
5. To find out if the organizational climate influence employee motivation positively or negatively.
1.4 Research Questions
This study will focus on answering the following questions:
1. What organizational climate exists in Abuja and Alagbado Lagos Stations of Daar Communications Plc.?
2. What are the communications flows in these stations?
3. What are the factors that motivate the staff of Daar Communications Plc. in Abuja and Alagbado Lagos Stations towards productivity?
4. What ways can management build and sustain confidence, commitment and motivate members of staff to boost productivity?
5. Does the organizational climate influence employee motivation positively or negatively?
1.5 Significance of the Study
The main purpose of organizational climate studies is to help the organization under study harness the emerging opportunities, readiness to confront upcoming challenges and to provide a blue print for prospective entrepreneurs and scholars in this field.
This study’s’ findings will serve as a guide for entrepreneurs on the appropriate choice of organizational climate to cultivate to get the most of employees and a reference point for scholars who will want to research in organizational climate.
By identifying areas of inefficiency and acting on performance barriers identified by employees at all levels, an organization gains a fresh and different perspective. If the recommendations of this research are anything to go by, it will profit Daar Communications Plc. to adopt the recommendations based on the findings herein.
The scope of the study is restricted to Daar Communications Plc. Abuja and Alagbado Lagos stations as they are the subject for research and data collection will be restricted to one hundred and fifty (150) staff members from Abuja station and forty seven (47) from Alagbado Lagos stations.
1.7 Limitation of the Study
The study was limited to staff of Daar Communications Plc. Abuja and Alagbado Lagos stations. Other reasons, which limited this study are; participants’ behavior towards the questionnaire, time constraint, proximity and to resource persons. Most of the time spent on this study was spent on traveling to Abuja and Alagbado Lagos to gather data. Also, the busy schedule of the employees delayed the responses and therefore, more time was spent in analyzing the results.
1.8 Definition of Terms
⦁ Below are operational definitions of terms
⦁ Organization: a social unit that is structured and managed to meet a need or to pursue collective goals.
⦁ Organizational climate: the nature of the environment in which employee work.
⦁ Employee: a person who is hired to provide services to a company on a regular basis in exchange for compensation and who does not provide these services as part of an independent business.
⦁ Employee motivation: an employee’s intrinsic enthusiasm about and drive to accomplish activities related to work.
⦁ Productivity: this is the relationship between the quantity and quality of goods and services produced and the quantity of resources needed to produce them.
⦁ A Likert-scale: an attitude measurement instrument, which allows the assigning of symbols by rate.
⦁ Daar: Dokpesi Aleoeho Anthony Raymond.