FACTORS THAT INFLUENCE CONSUMER PURCHASE AND CONSUMPTION OF EGGS IN ENUGU STATE
This research project was embarked upon to examine the factors that influence consumer purchase and consumption of eggs in Enugu.
The researcher used survey research method in carrying out the research. A sample size of 168 was randomly selected from the population of the study.
In this study, four hypotheses were formulated which include among others that consumers level of income influences the purchase and consumption of eggs. The researcher tested and analyzed these hypotheses and their results were extensively discussed. Also percentages and tables were used to analyze the data while chi-square was used to test the hypotheses.
Several findings were made in this research which include among others that: consumers purchase and consume eggs as a source of protein and that price positioning also influences consumers purchase decision.
In response to the findings made, the following recommendations were made. They included that consumers should always make sure they purchase eggs from a source that has fresh eggs.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Title page … … … … … … … … i
Certification … … … … … … … ii
Dedication … … … …. … … … … iii
Acknowledgement … … … … … … iv
Abstract … … … … … … … … vi
Table of contents … … … … … … … vii
1.1 Introduction … … … … … … 1
1.2 Statement of problem … … … … … 2
1.3 Objective of the study … … … … … 3
1.4 Significance of study … … … … … 4
1.5 Research Hypothesis … … … … … 5
1.6 Scope of study … … … … … … 6
1.7 Limitations of study … … … … … 6
1.8 Definitions of terms … … … … … 7
References … … … … … … … 8
2.1 Literature review … … … … … … 9
2.2 Consumer motivation and behaviour … … 9
2.3 Consumers Behaviour Models … … … 11
2.3.1 Factors influencing consumers behaviour … 13
2.4 Factors that influence consumer purchase and
consumption of eggs … … … … … 21
2.4.1 Consumer motivation … … … … … 24
2.4.2 Consumption response and market demand … 28
2.5 Consumer decision process … … … … 31
References … … … … … … … 38
3.1 Research methodology … … … … 40
3.2 Methodology … … … … … … 41
3.3 Population and sample size of the study … … 42
3.4 Instrument for data collection … … … … 44
3.5 Data collection … … … … … … 45
3.6 Methods of data analysis … … … … 46
3.7 Decision criteria for validation of hypothesis … 47
References … … … … … … 48
CHAPTER FOUR: PRESENTATION AND ANALYSIS OF DATA
4.1 Questionnaire Administration … … … … 48
4.2 Hypotheses Testing … … … … … 56
CHAPTER FIVE: SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND RCOMMENDATION
5.1 Summary … … … … … … … 64
5.2 Conclusion … … … … … … … 65
5.3 Recommendations … … … … … 67
Bibliography … … … … … … 68
Appendix I … … … … … … … 71
Appendix II … … … … … … … 74
Although all consumers purchase and consume products from time to time, it is generally agreed that there are some factors that influences the decision the consumers take when it comes to purchasing and consumption. This influence helps to shape or determine what is known as consumer behaviour.
Consumer’s decision to buy a particular product is usually subjected to a lot of influences which include the distinctive living pattern of cultural groups as well as ethnic, religious and racial backgrounds. Consumption of food products like the one under survey (egg) could be influenced by various factors such as
(a) Properties of the food
(b) Personal related factors and environmental factors
The consumers’ knowledge of nutrition of food is also every crucial factor that influences the purchase and consumption of egg in our society. Since our food consumption pattern is considered to be poor, most people look out for supplements to augment what they take especially protein thus the resort to eggs both by adults and young ones.
It is obvious that no single food contains all the nutrients needed by the body in amounts sufficient to maintain life and promote optimum growth. Nevertheless most of what we consume is carbohydrate and cannot afford other expensive means or foods to get protein. This is evident on how households and individuals include eggs in their meals regularly.
However, in recent times, eggs appear to have been gaining wider patronage among bakers and hoteliers. The need to make their products tasty and nutritious has appreciably made all they produce egg based.
1.2 STATEMENT OF PROBLEM
The response and increased consumption of eggs by consumers aroused our curiosity to undertake this study. This is at variance with the historical approach and perception to the consumption of eggs in our households and communities.
The increased consumption of eggs comes as a result of some factors which influence the purchasing and consumption pattern of consumers. Some times, because of the irrational behaviour of consumers, they tend to buy frivolously.
On the other hand, due to our food pattern and its nutritious values, consumers tend to use eggs to supplement the nutritious intake of their households. Consumers also use it as a source of protein for their young ones as well as the adults.
The central problem, which this research study will tackle, is to identify and examine those factors that influence consumers’ purchase and consumption of eggs and also ascertain how consumers react to those factors.
1.3 OBJECTIVE OF THE STUDY
The following are the objectives of the study:
i. To examine the relative importance of the nutrition factors on egg purchase and consumption.
ii. To ascertain whether or not consumers of eggs are being influenced by their level of income during purchase.
iii. To examine how cultural, social, and income factors influence the purchase and consumption of eggs as it affects consumers in Enugu.
iv. To determine the extent the cultural and financial factors goes in influencing the purchase and consumption of eggs by consumers.
1.4 SIGNIFICANCE OF STUDY
This study is a thorough research into the consumption and purchasing pattern of consumers. The study points out the factors that influence consumer purchase and consumption of eggs. Therefore by knowing their factors, the supplier/producer will know how best to deal with consumers.
This research is also important because of its contribution to this growing field of knowledge because of peoples misunderstanding of consumer behaviour. This project will be an avenue to put producer/suppliers in the know about how consumers behave.
1.5 RESEARCH HYPOTHESIS
The following hypothesis is to be tested in the course of this research.
H0: That the consumers level of income does not influence his/her purchase and consumption of eggs.
H1: That the consumers level of income influences his/her purchase and consumption of eggs.
H0: That the educational level of mothers/housewives does not influence their purchase and consumption of eggs.
H2: That the educational level of mothers/housewives influences their purchase and consumption of eggs.
H0: That cultural value does not influence the consumers’ purchase and consumption of eggs.
H3: That cultural value also influences consumers’ purchase and consumption of eggs.
H0: That age distribution of a household does not influence consumer’s purchase and consumption of eggs.
H4: That age distribution of a household influences consumer’s purchase and consumption of eggs.
1.6 SCOPE OF STUDY
This work covers the factors that influence consumers’ purchase and consumption of eggs in Enugu. It X-rays the issues involved in consumer behaviour with a view to providing a detailed analysis for better understanding.
The choice of Enugu as a special reference is due to the fact that eggs are been consumed enormously in the city. This is evident in the fact that there is a large concentration of students in Enugu who eggs are important part of their meal.
1.7 LIMITATIONS OF STUDY
During this research work a lot of constraints and limitations were encountered. Some of these constraints were usual constraints encountered during the course of such academic exercise while some were unusual and boring.
The research method used in this study has a number of limitations. Concern has been expressed about a methodology, which relies on a small number of case studies for its data and the generalizationality of the findings of the study. However, the objective of the study was to provide an in-depth understanding of consumer behaviour thus the selection of individual consumer to be studied.
There were also the dangers of subjective errors in the data due to either retrospective bias or distorted perception of respondents or incomplete recording by the researcher.
Time is another limitation encountered during the course of the study. Some times, secondary data collected were not reliable, hence they were rejected. A lot of time was spent on the selection and examination of secondary data for the study.
DEFINITIONS OF TERMS
Purchase Decision: The stage of the buyers’ decision process in which the consumer actually buys the product.
Cognitive Dissonance: Buyer discomfort, caused by post purchase conflict.
Adoption: The decision by an individual to become a regular user of the product.
Consumer Buying Behaviour: This refers to the buying behaviour of final consumers – individuals and households that buy goods and services for personal consumption.
Engel et al (1995), Consumer Behaviour. New York: The Dryden Press.
Grumert, K. etal (1996), Market Orientation in Food and Agriculture. Kluwer Academic Publishers.
Hutton. D. (2003), Food and Safety and the Consumer in Eu Jornada International de Seguridad Alimentaria del Productoral Consumidor Madrid.
Lancaster, K. J. (1966), A new approach to Consumer Theory. Journal of Political Economics. 74: 132 – 157.
Maccracker (1986), Culture and Consumption, a theoretical account of the structure and movement of the cultural meaning of consumer goods. Journal of consumer behaviour. 13 June: 71 – 84.
Peterson, E. (1978), Consumers as the focal priority of consumer research. Research for consumer policy N.S. Foundation M.I.T. Massachussets.
SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION
The basic aim of this study was to investigate into the factors that influence consumers’ purchase and consumption of eggs. The study covered some residents and students in Enugu metropolis and its environs.
About 200 questionnaires were administered but 168 were successfully returned showing that 80% of the questionnaires administered were successfully returned. Data received from the exercise were analyzed based on the frequency distribution of respondents’ opinions. This is shown in the tables, which were also analyzed in percentages shown in chapter four of this study. As a supplement to questionnaire, personal interviews were conducted to elicit some additional interviews not covered in the questionnaires.
Related literatures were extensively reviewed, covering such areas as consumer behaviour models, consumer motivation and behaviour, factors influencing consumer behaviour, consumer motivation etc.
Below is the summary of findings during, the field interviews and data analysis.
a. That consumer purchase and consume eggs as a source of protein.
b. That Biological factor related with innate characteristics, body weight, age etc could also influence the consumer.
c. That economic factor like price and income can also influence the consumers’ purchase and consumption of eggs.
d. That the positioning aspect of marketing strategies affects the purchase consumption of eggs. It is believed that the nearness of eggs to the consumer will influence his buying decision.
The conclusions are derived from the responses of consumers. We can observe clearly from consumers’ responses that they eat eggs in order to supplement the protein intake. They confirmed also that they tend to buy and eat more eggs if it is available around their neighbourhood.
From the findings also, it is concluded by consumers’ responses that family size, income and other factors like body size and weight influence their purchase and consumption decisions. A good number of respondents claimed that their children mostly kids are at the center of the family’s purchase and consumption of eggs.
The researcher also observed that about 95% of respondents are not aware of the negative effect of excessive consumption of eggs claiming that they don’t care how many eggs they consume in a day.
It was also discovered that most people about 95% of the respondent more often than not fry they eggs instead of boiling them. Reason being that they can add other ingredients it they fry the eggs.
From the responses of consumers, it is accepted that a good number of the respondents include eggs as part of their meal from time to time.
Finally, most consumers see the consumption of eggs as necessary since it acts as a source of nutrition citing the fact that most of our foods have less protein content.
Based on the findings of this project report, the following recommendations are made.
The nature of staple food available to an average Nigerian is rich in starch and cannot serve as a total source of nutrients for consumers, therefore consumers need to be aware of other food or dietary products like egg that can be used as a source of protein.
From the findings, it was observed that consumers purchase and consume eggs more often than not. It will be an oversight if they do not care to know the quality of eggs they buy. Consumers should always make sure they purchase their eggs from a source that has fresh products.
Based on the finding that egg has high cholesterol contents, consumers’ especially fat ones should minimize their intake of eggs. If they should consume egg they should take boiled egg rather than fry it.
Certainly the grade of the egg impacts its “quality” however, there are many their conditions. Eggs are graded as freshly laid egg. This freshly laid egg may be AA or even a C graded egg to start with. However, all eggs will begin to deteriorate upon storage. The question is to minimize storage losses. Consumers should strive to consume their eggs while it is still fresh to avoid getting spoilt..