BROADCAST MEDIA AND SALES PERFORMANCE OF FAST MOVING CONSUMER GOODS IN PORT HARCOURT
1.1. Background of the study
The term ‘broadcast media’ is quite often mentioned these days. It is a new phenomenon and one would probably imagine that everyone knows or understands what it means. Nearly ninety percent (if not more) of all online or internet users use broadcast media in one way or the other (Kietzmann and Kristopher, 2011; Dolwick, 2009). The emergence of broadcast media began in the early days of internet when people started sharing information and communicating with one another (Boyd and Ellison, 2010) but unfortunately; the platforms used then were more ‘technology intensive’ and required some level of expertise before use. Hence, the number of people using broadcast media platforms then was limited.
Over a period of time as technology advanced, platforms that are less sophisticated were developed thus, enabling billions of regular internet users, without any technology background, to use the services (Boyd et al., 2010; Baden, Bender, Spring, Bhattacharjee and Strain, 2009) and this marked a turning point in the history of the media, making the media all inclusive in such a way that people no longer remain silent spectators to the content being dished out to them. Now, they could create their own content, share it with others, respond to people, collaborate with them and many more (Andreas and Haenlein, 2010). This user interaction is what gave impetus to the today’s increasingly emerging broadcast media platform.
Broadcast media medium such as, the radio and television now allow member individuals to interact with one another and to build relationships even many companies across the world have joined but they joined only the fastest growing networks such as Facebook and Twitter, so as to connect with their customers (Trattner and Kappe 2012). The broadcast media networks act so fantastically as the vehicle helping companies to gain traffic or attention to their product and service usually through the use of Links via the adverts they place on the broadcast media (Chinag and Chung, 2011; Deis and Hensel, 2010). It also acts just as the traditional Word of Mouth in mainstream marketing does. Corporate messages conveyed through broadcast media spread very fast from users to users and presumably resonate in favour of the company (Deis and Hensel, 2010). In these regards, broadcast media networks, ever since 2002, have become the new 21st century paradigmatic market medium for businesses to exploit (IMAP, 2010) and influence their customers’ purchasing behaviour more. This is because, globally, a survey report reveals that about half of the 170 million Nigerians regualary make use of the broadcast media(Oracle Retail, 2010) and sequel to this notion, virtually all businesses now employ broadcast media networks as an extension of their existing corporate marketing strategies especially the retail industry in order to capture and serve customarily those active users with a broad range of lifestyle brands of products across the universe. And in the light of this, many firms in Nigeria also have started plunging into using these platforms. This current study thus seeks to explore thepatronage behaviour of Nigerian consumers via these growing broadcast media networks especially from those companies that utilize them for their marketing activities.
1.2. Statement of the problem
One of the purposes of using the broadcast media is to create awareness of the products advertised. In order to achieve this aim, producers frequently advertise their products (Jonathan1995). Despite the advertising of shopping goods such as men’s packet shirts, women’s clothing, jewelry, television etc, consumers’ attention is not always drawn to it, because consumers in Rivers State have their areas of interest and the type of goods they buy. They prefer to buy by the road side or open market where they can bargain. Advertising seeks to build a brand preference or to educate people (Kotler, 2006). On the order hand, consumers in Rivers State show less interest in brand preference. Some consumers prefer to buy by the road side or in the open market where they can bargain. Most consumers prefer to buy used 7 product than to buy quality products from the shop. In Rivers State, there is little or no public communication media through which consumers are educated about a product. Most consumers do not get information about shopping goods that will be of benefit to them. for example when a promo or discount are given for buying a product, some consumers who do not have access to television, radio or public communication media might not be aware. Shopping goods are those goods consumers purchase after comparing quality, price, style, colour and size (Kotler, 2003). On the contrary, consumers in Rivers State prefer to consider cost, transportation and nearness to the market whenever they want to buy their products. Osuala (1987) explained that sellers advertise numerous general products, to increase sales of the products category. But consumers in Rivers State consider advertised products that are sold in the shops to be very expensive thereby prefer to buy in the open market. Advertising based on sizes, colour, shapes, qualities of televisions may influence consumers to buy, however consumers who do not watch TV advertisement frequently will not be so influenced.
Furthermore, many consumers think it is a waste of time, those who do not have access to television may not be influenced by such advertisement, Though consumers in Rivers State consider factors such as cost, income, transportation, nearness to market etc. However consumers who buy 8 original products will prefer to buy quality products from the shops. It is important therefore to ascertain the influence of the broadcast media on the purchase of fast moving consumer goods in Port Harcourt.
1.3 Purpose of the Study
The study seeks to examine the relationship between the Broadcast Media and Sales performance of Fast moving Consumer Goods in Port Harcourt. The specific objectives are as the following:
To examine the association between Television Broadcasting and repeat Purchase of fast moving consumer goods in Port Harcourt. To examine the association between Radio broadcasting and sales volume of fast moving consumer goods in Port Harcourt.
1.4 Research Questions
The following research questions have been formulated and will be answered at the completion of this work.
To what extent does Television Broadcasting enhancesrepeat purchase of fast moving consumer goods in Port Harcourt? To what extent does Radio broadcasting enhances sales volume of fast moving consumer goods in Port Harcourt?
1.5 Study variables/Conceptual Framework
Figure 1.1 Conceptual frameworks of Broadcast Media and Sales Performance
Source: Conceptualized from literature, 2016
1.5 Research Hypotheses
An attempt to make our final answers not to look like mere assumption the hypotheses of this study will be stated as follows:
Ho1: There is no significant association between Television Broadcasting and Repeat Purchase of fast moving consumer goods in Port Harcourt.
Ho2: There is no significant association between Television Broadcasting and Sales Volume in fast moving consumer goods in Port Harcourt.
Ho3: There is no significant association between Radio broadcasting and Repeat Purchase in fast moving consumer goods in Port Harcourt.
Ho4: There is no significant association between Radio broadcasting and Sales Volume in fast moving consumer goods in Port Harcourt.
1.6 Significance of the study
The finding of this study would be of importance to the business operators most especially proprietors of shopping goods as it would create awareness of the importance of advertising on the sale of their products. The findings of this study would be of benefit to marketing students and lecturers in tertiary institutions as they would have a broader understanding of how advertising influence the sale of shopping goods. The findings of this study would be of benefit to the Ministry of Commerce and Information. It will give them an insight on the benefit of advertising on the sale of shopping goods. It will also assist them on how to organize training programmes for proprietors of small scale business. The findings of the study would be of immense benefit to the media organization as the knowledge gain from the findings would help them to be innovative in their various approaches to advertising designs. Finally the findings of this study would be a significant contribution to the existing body of literature in the discipline
1.7 Scope of the study
This study is restricted to the influence of broadcast media on the sales of fast moving consumer products in Port Harcourt.
1.8 Limitation of the study
Financial constraint- Insufficient fund tends to impede the efficiency of the researcher in sourcing for the relevant materials, literature or information and in the process of data collection (internet, questionnaire and interview).
Time constraint- The researcher will simultaneously engage in this study with other academic work. This consequently will cut down on the time devoted for the research work.
1.9 Definition of terms
Ø Consumer goods:goods bought and used by consumers, rather than by manufacturers for producing other goods. Ø Media:the main ways that large member of people receives information and entertainment that is television, radio, newspapers and internet. Ø Broadcast media:Broadcast media is the most expedient means to transmit information immediately to the widest possible audience, although the Internet currently challenges television as the primary source of news. Most people now get their daily news through broadcast, rather than printedmedia.
SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION
The role of advertising on the sales volume of a product is very important because oftentimes consumers’ decisions as regards what to buy is motivated by what has been seen heard of or practically used. Advertising helps in that it carries the message far and wide to a scattered target audience that the advertiser or producer could not have reach it at once so easily. It was gathered from the responses of the respondents who filled the questionnaire that the organization is unrelenting in its efforts to ensure effective advertising programmes for their various services and products. In the mind of the consumers the company was also using advertising strategies suitable for the company as well as the market in which it exists. More so, the findings reveal that the advertising position of a product or service is strong in the mind of the consumer in order to encourage repeated purchase of the product, so that the competitors will not have an edge over them. This also creates brand loyalty and product differentiation. According to various sources, the past experience and state of mind of the person subjected to advertising may determine the impact that advertising has on him/her. In an effort to improve messaging and to gain the audience’s attention, advertisers create branding and moments that will resonate with target markets and motivate the audience to purchase the advertised product or service.
In a study of consumer views on advertising carried out in 1974 by the American Association of Advertising Agency, more than half of the respondents described advertising as a channel of information from the manufacturer to the consumers. Some said it was a manipulation, propaganda and a misleading marketing instrument. While advertising can be seen as necessary for economic growth, it is not without social costs, it is increasingly invading public spaces, such as schools, hospitals, buses, etc, which some critics have argued is a form of consumer exploitation. However, the same advertising techniques used to promote commercial goods and services can be used to inform, educate and motivate the public about non-commercial issues such as AIDs, political ideology, etc. The most effective media are often very expensive; the inexpensive media may not reach your target market, thereby making it difficult for most organizations to run adverts. According to Ferguson (1974). “advertising increase barriers to entry and reduce competition as measured by increase in monopoly profit”. Moreover, according to Nickels et al (1999) advertising not only helps to maintain superior stand in the industry and profit maximization, it provides information about a products or services and also gives consumers free television and radio programmes. Giles (1997) sees advertising as non-personal communication directed at a target audience through various media in order to present and promote products, services and ideas. The cost of media space, time and advertisement production is borne by the sponsor or sponsors. Advertising gives a clear image for any product or service of a company which is a great asset. A well structured and continuous advertising might stand as one of those strategies to sustain a distinct market position. It could also help to identify strong market competitors. Advertising has taken Starcomms Plc far in their industry and built up a strong image for the company but recently, due to relent in their advertising effort, some little problems have been identified there. No matter how successful a product or service is for a company and regardless of the edge the company has in the industry, advertising is a must and should be a continuous activity.
Having analyzed, discussed and interpreted the data collected in this study, the author therefore recommends the following: Due to the competitive nature of the industry the marketing manager of Starcoms Plc must develop and formulate marketing programmes that will satisfy the needs of the consumers. Since other service providers have similar advertising messages, it is recommended that for a more distinguished and effective response from the customer, other forms of advert should be used. Regular and consistent up-to-date training on product information should be given to the advertising agency so that they will have the current knowledge and skills to handle the adverts and also to ensure that product information is being emphasized so as to enlighten the customers.
As advert campaigns are relayed from different service providers, the adverts should be used to aid the customers to identify the company’s products or service when they are making a purchase decision. The company should also ensure that advertising agencies place their product adverts on stations and places where the consumers will easily identify with them make a purchase. A good advert should be effective, persuasive and contain the necessary information on the products. For over fifteen months, there has been a slight backward shift in the market position of Starcomms Plc and also there is fall in the regular rate of increase in turnover as a result of negligence from angle of advertising. It is thereby recommended that Starcomms Plc should get back to their intensive and aggressive advertising practice to keep their pace of growth. Finally, it is suggested that market research and other studies be conducted to enable Starcomms Plc identify those areas where promotional activities with effective advertising is lacking. They should also regularly examine the segments of the market that have been appealing so as to hold strongly on to them and to look for ways of attracting more customers..