AN ASSESSMENT OF GRAVEL PACKING METHODS USED IN THE PETROLEUM INDUSTRY


AN ASSESSMENT OF GRAVEL PACKING METHODS USED IN THE PETROLEUM INDUSTRY 

TABLE OF CONTENT

Title Page………………..i

Certification………….…ii

Dedication………………iii

Acknowledgement……….iv

Table of content……...…v

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1 AIMS AND OBJECTIVES

1.2 SCOPE AND LIMITATION

1.3 METHODOLOGY

CHAPTER TWO

2.0 LITERATURE REVIEW

2.1 GRAVEL PACKING COMPLETION

2.1.1 UNDERRATED CASING GRAVEL PACKING

2.1.2 INSIDE CASING GRAVEL PARKING OR INTERNAL GRAVEL

PACKING

2.2 PLACEMENT OF GRAVEL PACKS

2.3 GRAVEL PACK DESIGN

2.4 FORMATION SAND SAMPLING

2.4.1PRODUCED SAMPLES:

2.4.2BAILED SAMPLES

2.4.3 SIDEWALL CORE SAMPLES

2.4.4 CONVENTIONAL CORE SAMPLING

2.5 SIEVES ANALYSIS

2.6 GRAVEL PACK SAND SIZING:

2.7 GRAVEL PACK SAND

2.8 GRAVEL PACK SAND SUBSTITUTE

CHAPTER THREE

3.0   A CASE STUDY OF OBEN WELL 13 OF SPDC

3.1         A BRIEF HISTORY OF OBEN WELL 13L

3.2 A BRIEF HISTORY OF SAND PRODUCTION IN E7OA and E10A

RESERVOIR

3.3 SAND CONTROL METHOD ADOPTED IN E7OA RESERVOIR

3.4 GRAVEL DESIGN AND SELECTIONS

3.5 DEVELOPMENT OF GRAVEL PACK DESIGN

3.6 GRAVEL SELECTION

3.7 THE GRAVEL PACK DESIGN CUMULATIVE CURVE

3.8 PROCEDURES FOR GRAVEL PACK INSTALLATION IN THE OBEN 13L

CHAPTER FOUR

4.0 PRODUCTION  DATA ANALYSIS AND DISCUSSION

4.1 ECONOMIC EVALUATION

CHAPTER FIVE

5.0 CONCLUSIONS

CHAPTER SIX

6.0 RECOMMENDATIONS

REFERENCES

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

Many reservoirs are comprised of relatively young sediments, which are so poorly consolidated that sand will be produced along with the reservoir fluids unless the production rate is reduced significantly. Sand production leads to many numerous production problems including erosion of downhole tubular, valves, fitting and surface flow lines, collapsed casing because of lack of formation support. Thus a means to eliminate sand production without greatly limiting production rates is desirable.

Sand production can be controlled using different methods but the method of utmost importance to this project is the mechanical method which basically involves the use of gravel pack (GRAVEL PACKING).

This method is considered the oldest and most effective sand   control mechanism. It is simply a downhole filter designed to prevent the production of unwanted sands which involves the placement of gravel across a perforated interval in the sand screen annulus and also in the perforation tunnel to prevent the influx of sand.

Inaccurate determination of gravel pack size, could lead to sand influx which could be detrimental to both the technical and economic aspect of production which is the overall objective of this project aimed at identifying means to selectively select appropriate gravel pack sizes from formation sands produced through sieve analysis to meet optimum sand control for maximum production without any detrimental effect to production hard wares.

In a gravel pack completion, sand that is larger than the average formation sand grain is placed between the formation and a screen or slotted liner with the aim of retaining most of the formation sand, but letting  very fine particles through it and be produced.

The two most common types of gravel pack completion are the inside casing gravel packing or internal gravel packing (IGP) and underreamed gravel pack or external gravel pack (EGP). The underreamed casing gravel pack provides better conductivity through the gravel but is limited to single zone completion.

1.1 AIMS AND OBJECTIVES

This project is aimed at

To study   the various types of gravel packing methods  used in  the petroleum industry. To analyze sieve analysis data of formation sands gotten from OBEN13L in other to determine the appropriate gravel pack size used. To make conclusions on the state of OBEN WELL 13L on the basis of sieve data analysis and give possible recommendations.

1.2 SCOPE AND LIMITATION

The scope of this project is limited to the mechanical method  of sand control with more emphasis on the sieve analysis of formation sands gotten from OBEN13L.

1.3 METHODOLOGY

The method to be adopted for this project is the use of sieve analysis and sucier correlation to determine the gravel pack size to be used  for OBEN WELL 13 with formation sands gotten  from  the case study as mentioned above and useful information gotten from the internet, textbooks, petroleum journals. This method simply involves collecting core samples  and running them through different sieves with different opening sizes, usually sieves with larger openings at the top and sieves of smaller opening at the bottom and plotting each weight retained on each sieve against the sieve opening size to determine the average formation sand size which is used to find accurate gravel size using  sucier correlation.

CHAPTER TWO

2.0 LITERATURE REVIEW

Many reservoirs consist of relatively young sediments, which are so poorly consolidated that the sand will be produced with reservoir fluids, which is as a result of the formation not capable of resisting the force of the fluid movement and the lack of cement existing in younger sediments. The solution that has been used to mitigate this situation is called SAND CONTROL.

William A. Abbort (8) defined sand control as the technology and practice of preventing sand flow into the wellbore with minimal or no reduction in the rate of oil production. William Abbort further identified Nigeria as one of the areas where sand is almost always produced.

An investigation carried out by Shell Petroleum Development Company SPDC(5) showed that adequate sand selection and control(Gravel pack design) prolongs  production hard wares because of the negative effect, sand production has, which causes  more problem than corrosion. Worldwide experience has shown that gravel packing is the most effective method for sand control if appropriate sieve analysis is done to achieve appropriate gravel size for effective sand control.

.

AN ASSESSMENT OF GRAVEL PACKING METHODS USED IN THE PETROLEUM INDUSTRY



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