FRINGE BENEFITS AND EMPLOYEES JOB SATISFACTION IN NIGERIAN PORT AUTHORITY
This research project is on Fringe Benefits and Employees Job Satisfaction in Nigerian Port Authority. This research work is generally about the Benefits and Employees Job Satisfaction Public Sector. The project has undertaken the general introduction into the research work led to the review of various literature that relates to the major variables involved in the research work especially employees Job Satisfaction. A structured questionnaire was used for the collection of data and other important information for this study. The questionnaire was structured into three (3) sections. Section A is meant to obtain information on the socio-demographic profile of respondents. Section B is centered on obtaining data related to the subject of the study. The information gathered through the administration of the questionnaire was analyzed, Analysis in this study was carried out with the help of the Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS 17.0). The findings of this study reveal that a correlation exists between perceived fringe benefits, motivation, job satisfaction, and commitment. The correlation that exists in this study among perceived workers' motivation, job satisfaction, and organizational commitment corresponds. Satisfaction might be found in "sacrificial labor," otherwise referred to as labor of love. Uppermost in our minds should be the quest for self-actualization described by Maslow. In reference to the research study on fringe benefits and employees job satisfaction in the public sector, there is a need for further review of different types of fringe benefits as practiced in both the private and public sector, the management should also review the welfare package of the members of staffs, to increase their level of motivation and job satisfaction. The result of the study reveals that Nigerian Port Authority has performed fairly well, but it can improve on its achievements making the sky its limits if these recommendations are viewed with rapt attention. The management of the Nigeria Port Authority should provide buses to convey workers from the company premises to their various homes. This will definitely reduce the degree of lateness to work, at the same time, increase their morale.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
TITLE PAGE I
TABLE OF CONTENTS III
CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION
1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY 5
1.2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM 6
1.3 OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY 8
1.4 RESEARCH QUESTIONS 9
1.5 RESEARCH HYPOTHESES 9
1.6 SCOPE OF STUDY` 10
1.7 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY 11
1.8 DEFINITIONS OF TERMS 11
1.9 ORGANIZATION OF STUDY 12
CHAPTER TWO: LITERATURE REVIEW
2.1 INTRODUCTION 13
2.2 CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK 16
2.3 THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK ON MOTIVATION 20
2.4 STRATEGIES OF MOTIVATING EMPLOYEES 28
2.5 TRENDS IN FRINGE BENEFITS 30
2.6 MOTIVATION AS A TOOL FOR EFFECTIVE JOB SATISFACTION 33
CHAPTER THREE: RESEARCH METHOD
3.0 INTRODUCTION 36
3.1 RESTATEMENT OF RESEARCH QUESTIONS AND HYPOTHESIS 36
3.2 RESEARCH DESIGN 37
3.3 POPULATION OF STUDY 38
3.4 SAMPLE SIZE AND SAMPLING PROCEDURE 39
3.5 DATA COLLECTION INSTRUMENT 39
3.6 ADMINISTRATION OF DATA COLLECTION INSTRUMENT 39
3.7 PROCEDURE FOR DATA ANALYSIS 39
3.8 LIMITATION OF THE METHOD 40
CHAPTER FOUR: DATA PRESENTATION, ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION
4.0 INTRODUCTION 42
4.1 RESPONDENTS’ CHARACTERISTICS AND CLASSIFICATION 42
4.2 PRESENTATION AND ANALYSIS OF DATA ACCORDING TO
RESEARCH QUESTIONS 47
4.3 PRESENTATION AND ANALYSIS OF DATA ACCORDING TO
TEST OF HYPOTHESES 62
4.4 DISCUSSION OF FINDINGS 66
CHAPTER FIVE: SUMMARY OF FINDINGS, CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS
5.0 INTRODUCTION 68
5.1 SUMMARY OF FINDINGS 68
5.2 CONCLUSION 69
5.3 RECOMMENDATIONS 70
5.4 SUGGESTION FOR FURTHER STUDY 71
1.1 Background of the study
The concept of employees’ commitment has received increased attention in the recent times. According to Becker (2000) research literatures are paying increasing attention to the concept of commitment as managers and organizational analysts are continually seeking ways of increasing employee retention and performance. Interest in organizational commitment has therefore been stimulated largely because evidence in the research literature has it that commitment reduces turnover and increases performance. A reduction in turnover could be an indication of a high level of commitment and performance. An increase in turnover on the other hand could amount to a low level of organizational commitment and performance. This is because a high level of organizational performance can be achieved only when an organization has a committed labour force.
With the introduction of monetization and fringe benefits policy in 2005, civil servants have been paid certain percentage of their basic salary as fringe benefits which are added to the basic salary, meaning an increment in salary of workers. Although, there is much academic debate on the extent to which additional income is a direct motivator (Nwagwu, 2007).
Job satisfaction describes how satisfied an individual is with his or her job. The happier people are within their job, the more satisfied they are said to be. Job satisfaction is not the same as motivation or aptitude, although it is clearly linked. Job design aims to enhance job satisfaction include job rotation, job enlargement, job enrichment and job re-engineering. Other influences on satisfaction include the management style and culture, employee involvement, empowerment and autonomous work position. Job satisfaction is a very important attribute which is frequently measured by organizations.
1.2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
Commitment of worker has been described by Moser (2002) as the most important ingredient to an effective work output. Aside from completing tasks for the joy of doing them, it has been discovered that motivation drives people’s behaviour to attain a specific outcome. This explains why developing an effective and efficient compensation system becomes an important part of the human resource management process in advanced countries.
The attitude of Nigerian workers in terms of output compared to the more developed countries in recent times is becoming alarming. This could be attributed to uneven reward system, poor income, and unfavourable social, economic, and political infrastructure of the country. Rewards are an ever-present and always controversial feature of organizational life in Nigeria
The monetization policy, which was formally introduced into the Nigerian Public Service in 2005 led to monetization of those physical benefits which were added to the basic salary of workers. Despite the implementation of monetization policy in Nigeria, little has been done to clearly show the effect of the policy on the level of the performance of workers. However, their purchasing power is hardly enhanced due to the biting effects of inflation and high cost of living in the country. There is the need to know whether the addition to salary through the monetization of benefits and prompt payment of these benefits will have any effect on the workers with their disposition to their workplace.
Government employees and their immediate families have always enjoyed these benefits at her expense. Though the running cost may not cater for all the expenditure, but the expenses incurred in the course of service are refunded, most workers get their expended money back when these funds are released for offices. Now, it is not clear whether workers would want to spend their money to buy all these physical needs under monetization regime since it is now consolidated to the salary to almost become the basic salary. It is not also clear how monetization policy will lead to improved welfare condition of the workers through the provision of all the monetized needs from their new salary scale, judging from the impact of Structural Adjustment Programme (SAP) on workers.
In essence, workers commitment to their jobs and their efforts are often not addressed properly, creating room for false claims, agitations and labour conflicts.
1.3 OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY
The study examines monetization of fringe benefits and commitment of workers. The specific objectives are:
1. To examine the effect of fringe benefits on workers’ income.
2. To find out how the fringe benefits have helped in improving workers’ job satisfaction.
3. To investigate the effects of fringe benefits on employees job satisfaction.
4. To find out the management attitude to the welfare of the workers.
5. To examine the impact of employees’ participation in decision making in an organization.
1.4 RESEARCH QUESTIONS
Three questions are posed in order to explore the problem:
Is there any relationship between fringe benefits and employees’ job satisfaction? Do fringe benefits and rewards have a strong influence on workers performance? Does participation of employees’ in decision making in an organization motivate an employee? Does fringe benefits helps achieve or accomplish an organization’s goals or otherwise?
1.5 RESEARCH HYPOTHESES
Ho: Fringe benefits and reward do not have any strong influence on employee job performance.
H1: Fringe benefits and reward have strong influence on employee’s job performance.
Ho: Fringe benefits and reward does not contribute to increase job satisfaction.
H1: Fringe benefits and reward contribute to increase job satisfaction.
Ho: The participation of an employee in decision making in an organization does not motivate the employee to work hard.
H1: The participation of employee in decision-making in an organization motivates the employees to work hard.
1.6 SCOPE OF STUDY
The study therefore, focuses on the impact of fringe benefits on workers and how the exercise has increased the morale/performance of workers in their workplaces.
The scope of this study is restricted to Nigerian Port Authority. The study will see workers performance on employee’s job satisfaction: while carrying out this research, the researcher was constrained by some factors. The time schedule for the study was not enough to really study the impact of performance management on employee’s productivity. Also, the available materials and financial resources were limited to carry out the research. Also, the distribution of questionnaire and collection, coupled, with the energy it required also served as constrained to this study.
It is believed that these limitations will not, in any way, reduce the quality of the study but will, however, provide an impetus for further research.
1.7 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
The importance of this study is channeled toward realizing the effects of fringe benefits on employees’ job satisfaction. Fringe benefits are significant and positive determinants of job satisfaction. It is equally important in assisting organizations to examine the various determinants on job satisfaction. Also, it assists the management to have positive attitude to the welfare of other workers.
The study will also help to appreciate employees in Nigerian Port Authority who are doing better in their work.
1.8 DEFINITIONS OF TERMS
Job satisfaction describes how content an individual is with his or her job. It is a measure of how the conditions of service of a company meet or surpass employees’ expectation.
Motivation: This is the willingness to extent high levels of effort to reach organizational goals, conditioned by the efforts ability to satisfy some individual needs.
Productivity: Productivity represents the output of goods and services, which can be obtained from a given input of employee. It is the rate at which a company produces goods or services in relation to the amount of materials and number of employees available.
Development: This is the process of according learning to an employee in order to enable him/her acquire more skills on the job.
Employee: Individuals or persons who are into a paid employment or job. They are the human factors of production. They are agents of employers engaged by same for the purpose of attaining employers/organizational goals.
1.9 ORGANIZATION OF STUDY
Chapter one is the introductory part of this project work. Chapter two contains Literature Review. Chapter Three - research methodology deals with data collection, the type of sampling techniques. Also, it reveals if data to be collected are primary or secondary or both which are useful in the study. For the research, it is both primary and secondary sources of data. Data collected through questionnaire will be analyzed in chapter four and summary of findings, recommendations, conclusions and suggestions for further research will be dealt with in Chapter five.