STYLES AND DELINQUENT BEHAVIOURS OF SECONDARY SCHOOL STUDENTS (A CASE STUDY OF IKOT EKPENE LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA).
This study was all about parenting styles and delinquent behaviours of secondary school students in Ikot Ekpene Local Government Area. Three research questions and three hypotheses were formulated to guide the study. 227 students were selected for the study using a simple random sampling technique from the seven public secondary schools in Ikot Ekpene Local Government Area. In gathering data, a researcher structured questionnaire called “Parenting Style Questionnaire” (PSQ) was used and a likert scale for measuring. The findings resulted as follow, there is a significant influence of permissive parenting style on the delinquent behaviours of secondary school student; there is a significant influence of authoritarian parenting style on the delinquent behaviours of secondary school student; there is no significant influence of authoritative parenting style on the delinquent behaviours of secondary school student in Ikot Ekpene Local Government Area. The discussion brought in previous findings that were in support of this. Base on this findings, parents and guidance should adopt the healthiest parenting style which is the authoritative children should be discipline and not punished all in the name of training up the child.
Table of Contents
Title - - - - - - - - - - - i
Certification - - - - - - - - - - iii
Dedication - - - - - - - - - - iv
Acknowledgement - - - - - - - - - v
Table of contents - - - - - - - - - vi
List of tables - - - - - - - - - - ix
Abstract - - - - - - - - - - x
CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION
1.1 Background of the study - - - - - - - 1
1.2 Statement of the study - - - - - - - 4
1.3 Purpose of Study - - - - - - - - 5
1.4 Research Question - - - - - - - - 6
1.5 Hypothesis - - - - - - - - - 7
1.6 Significance of Study - - - - - - - 7
1.7 Delimitations of the study - - - - - - - 8
1.8 Limitations of the Study - - - - - - - 8
1.9 Assumptions of the Study - - - - - - - 8
1.10 Definition of Terms - - - - - - - - 10
CHAPTER TWO: REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE
2.1 Theoretical Framework - - - - - - - 12
2.2 Conceptual Review - - - - - - - - 18
2.3 Empirical Review - - - - - - - - 23
2.4 Summary of Related Literature Reviewed - - - - 24
CHAPTER THREE: RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
3.1. Research Design - - - - - - - - 26
3.2 Area of the Study - - - - - - - - 27
3.3 Population of the Study - - - - - - - 28
3.4 Sample and Sampling Technique - - - - - - 29
3.5 Instrumentation - - - - - - - - 29
3.5.1 Validation of Instrument - - - - - - - 30
3.5.2 Reliability of Instrument - - - - - - - 30
3.5.3 Administration of Instrument - - - - - - 30
3.6 Method of data Analysis - - - - - - - 31
CHAPTER FOUR: DATA ANALYSIS, INTERPRETATION AND DISCUSSION OF RESULT
4.1 General Description of Data - - - - - - 32
4.2 Hypothesis by hypothesis Analysis of Data - - - - 33
4.3 Discussion of Findings - - - - - - - 37
CHAPTER FIVE: SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS
5.1 Summary of the Study - - - - - - - 40
5.2 Conclusions - - - - - - - - - 41
5.3 Recommendations - - - - - - - - 42
5.4 Suggestions for Further Research - - - - - - 43
1.1 Background of the Study
Authorities on child development have generally accepted the assumption that parents as primary care-givers exerts the original and perhaps the most significant influence on the development of the child’s present and future emotional health (Pretorious, 2000 in Leslie 2004). A child’s development is therefore strongly influenced by immediate family- home environment, social environment and the culture in which they grow up (Louw and Van Ede, 2002). The development of children’s learned social skills and behaviours is subjected to significant moulding and modification by the environments in which they grow and develop. Therefore, the relationship between a parent and a child is of utmost importance - the nature of interaction, discipline and dealing with the child’s behaviour and emotions have an impact on the developing child. The example set by parents is extremely important as a basis for interpersonal relations and social behaviour.
According to Gottman (2001), children have become more nervous and irritable, sulkier and moody, more depressed and lonely, more impulsive and disobedient, truant and withdrawn. This was found by a nationwide random sample of more than two thousand American children as rated by parent and teachers. The question arises whether similar scenarios occur within Nigeria, AKWA Ibom State and posting down even in Ikot Ekpene education zone. There are variety of behavioural and emotional problems experienced by children which include aggression, truancy, fighting telling lies, lack of responsibility’ lack of respect for adults, inability to delay gratification, lack of motivation, lack of empathy for others and the child being over assertive.
The behaviour of secondary school student within the secondary school system as well as the interactive styles between these students and their parent indicates that parents do not have the necessary skills to cope with these children, which causes more problems for the teachers.
The ways, methods and standard parent use in rearing and raising a child is titled parenting styles. Several authors agree upon four parenting styles namely; the Authoritarian, the Authoritative, the Permissive and the uninvolved parenting styles.
The authoritarian parenting style is an extremely strict form of parenting that expects a child to adhere to rules and regulation s set out by the parents with little or no input or communication from the child.
The authoritarian parenting style is one that communicates in a warm, accepting and nurturing manner. With love, understanding and respect for their children, they provide the importance structure needed in the family environment.
The permissive parenting style is an extremely relaxed approach where parent are generally warm, nurturing and affectionate. They are overly accepting their children’s behaviour good or bad.
The uninvolved parenting style as the name implies, the parent is totally disengaged and emotionally uninvolved in their child’s life. The child is generally expected to fend for themselves (Ayers, 2002; Louw &Van Ede 2002).
For the purpose of this study, the focus will be on the three main types of parenting styles, namely; the Authoritarian, the Authoritative and the Permissive parenting style. According to Pretorius (2002), other parenting styles have been conceptualized but these three main types are commonly studied.
Specific child rearing may lead to certain behavioural consequences such as delinquency and aggression among those whose parent are harsh, excessively lenient or inconsistent. Farriel (2005) describes how parent may have problems in coping with day-to-day life to the extent that there is little space left to devote to being an effective and loving parent. Learner et al (2005) child rearing affect the behaviours developed by a child survives, developmentally. Therefore parent must be fully engaged in all aspects of their child’s life.
1.2 Statement of Research Problems
It is believed that delinquent behaviour exhibited by secondary school student especially in the class room influence the way and manner they incorporate learning experiences (Gottman, 2001). These socially undesirable behaviours such as aggression, lies, stealing, fighting, altruism, drug addiction, juvenile delinquency, sexually deviant behaviour, disruptive behaviour and so on are found among student. They also do not know how to handle day-to -day events, low esteem and difficult in academics.
Parents are seen as been the primarily responsible for the socialization of their children, that is, for encouraging them to adapt to the values of the society and for facilitating their optimal social and emotional development. The styles which parents utilize to raise their children may have a significant impact these facts of children’s lives.
Therefore, certain parenting styles may contribute towards anti-social behaviours and pro-social behaviours. Determining the usage of the more favourable parenting style will assist educators and parents to better manage less acceptable social behaviour.
1.3 Purpose of the Study
The general purpose of this study sought to examine the influence of parenting styles on secondary school student in Ikot Ekpene education zone. Specifically, this study should examine:
1. The influence of permissive style on delinquent behaviour of secondary school student in Ikot Ekpene Education Zone.
2. The influence of authoritarian parenting style on delinquent behaviour of secondary school student in Ikot Ekpene Education Zone.
3. The influence of authoritative parenting style on delinquent behaviour of secondary school student in Ikot Ekpene Education Zone.
1.4 Research Question
The following research questions were formulated to guide the study:
1. In what way will permissive parenting style influence the delinquent behaviour of secondary school student in Ikot Ekpene Education Zone?
2. To what extent does authoritarian parenting style influence the delinquent behaviour of secondary school student in Ikot Ekpene Education Zone?
3. How does authoritative parenting style influence the delinquent behaviour of secondary school student in Ikot Ekpene Education Zone?
1.5 Research Hypotheses
1. There is no significant influence of permissive parenting style influence the delinquent behaviour of secondary school student in Ikot Ekpene Education Zone.
2. There is no significant influence of authoritarian parenting style influence the delinquent behaviour of secondary school student in Ikot Ekpene Education Zone.
3. There is no significant influence of authoritative parenting style influence the delinquent behaviour of secondary school student in Ikot Ekpene Education Zone.
1.6 Significance of the Study
The following benefits would be realized from this study if the proofs would be implemented.
This study would be able to educate parents on good parenting style to adopt in order to raise their children effectively. This would serve as a medium to correct excessive poor behavioural problems of children and enable them to emulate better ways of behaving that would impact positively on the family and the society at large.
It would also draw the attention of both the government and non-governmental organizations to organize a proper seminar towards sensitizing parents, students and siblings to learn proper methods for home training.
1.7 Delimitation of the Study
The scope of the study covered the parenting styles and influence on the delinquent behaviour of secondary school student in Ikot Ekpene Education Zone. The study would be limited to five public schools as a source of obtaining data for the study.
1.8 Limitation of the Study
In the course of this research various problems were encountered in the process. The unavailability of textbooks, financial problem, means of transportation throughout the selected school, sourcing for the materials related to this study was quite difficult. Specifically, finances were the main problem which caused the delay and stress during course of the study.
1.9 Assumption of the Study
In the course of this study, some assumptions were made as follows:
1. Parenting Styles Influence the behavioural problems of Secondary School student In Ikot Ekpene Education Zone.
2. Secondary school student have behavioural problems such as truancy, aggressiveness, fighting, stealing telling lies, delinquency, sexual deviance etc.
3. Parent exhibit different parenting styles, some of which affects children’s behaviour negatively and vice versa.
4. The respondents would provide the needed information through the questionnaire.
5. The findings will affect the generalization of the result to cover all the secondary schools in the state.
1.10 Definition of Terms
This is the way or manner in which parent train or bring up their children.
These are anti-social, misconduct or unacceptable behaviours in the society put forward by a child which is against the expected social behaviour.
Permissive Parenting Styles
Parents in Permissive fees their children are capable of making their own decision with little parental guidance.
They overly accept their children’s behaviour whether good or bad.
Authoritarian parenting style
This is the type of parenting that is harsh, rigid emotional climate and high in parental demandingness.
Authoritative parenting style
The parents love, understand and respect their children, they provide the important structure needed in the family environment..