EVALUATION OF GUIDANCE AND COUNSELING IN SECONDARY SCHOOLS IN NIGERIA
This research assessed guidance and counseling service in Abubakar Gumi College, Sabo Kaduna. Efforts were made to assess the conditions the quality of the available counselors and awareness created in the students. The results showed that the Guidance Counselor, through qualified, is not efficient and adequate. The guidance programme is poor organized with no facilities such as guidance counseling offices, large enough for group counseling libraries, computers, and shelves etc. students also do not show any interest in the programme since their interests were not aroused. All of these shortcomings have contributed to student’s poor academic performance in both internal and external examination.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Title page - - - - - - - - - i
Declaration - - - - - - - - - ii
Approval page ---------iii
Dedication - - - - - - - - - iv
Acknowledgement - - - - - - - - v
Abstract - - - - - - - - - - vi
Table of Contents - - - - - - - - vii
CHAPTER ONE: Introduction
Background of the study - - - - - - - 1
Purpose of the study - - - - - - - 2
Significance of the study - - - - - - - 3
Research Questions - - - - - - - - 5
Scope and Delimitation of the study - - - - 5
CHAPTER TWO: Literature Review
Introduction - - - - - - - - - 7
Concept of guidance and counseling - - - - 8
Disparity between Guidance and counseling - - - 13
Brief History and development of guidance and
In Nigeria Counseling - - - - - - - 16
Review of Guidance Practice of the National
Policy on Education - - - - - - - - 18
Need for guidance and counseling in Nigeria school - 21
The school guidance service - - - - - - 27
Problems militating against effective guidance - - 33
Strategies for improvement of Guidance counseling - 38
Previous research findings on guidance counseling - - 40
Summary of the chapter - - - - - - - 42
CHAPTER THREE: Research Methodology
Introduction - - - - - - - - - 43
Research design - - - - - - - - 43
Area of the study - - - - - - - - 43
Population of the study - - - - - - - 44
Sample and sampling procedure - - - - - 44
Instrument for data collection - - - - - - 45
Instrument for Data Analysis - - - - - - - 46
Validity and Reliability of instrument - - - - 46
CHAPTER FOUR: Data Presentation & Analysis
Introduction - - - - - - - - - 47
Summary of Data - - - - - - - - 47
Presentation and Analysis of Data - - - - - 48
Discussion of Results - - - - - - - 53
CHAPTER FIVE: Summary, Conclusion, Recommendation and Suggestion
Introduction - - - - - - - - 57
Restatement of the problem - - - - - - 57
Summary of procedure-------
Major finding - - - - - - - - 58
Discussion and findings - - - - - - - 59
Summary and Conclusion to the chapter - - - - 63
Recommendation - - - - - - - - 64
Recommendation for further study- - - - - - 65
Reference - - - - - - - - 66
Questionnaire - - - - - - - - 69
Background of the Study
It has been very glaring that Guidance and Counseling has been lacking in our educational system, until recently, this discipline has been grossly omitted in the system. Due to the absence of career guidance, many students have not got the proper skill to function effectively in the world of work. A good number of students have not been able to examine their potentialities and attempt to find career that will bring them job satisfaction; this may be attributed to either not Listening to a guidance counsel or not receiving counsel at all. It is therefore imperative to expose out students to various methods or ways of choosing the right career, this cannot be over emphasized. It has been discovered that most schools do not have a functional guidance and counseling rather what exist is a miniature office occupied by teaching staff who offers skeletal guidance occasionally to students a wall as still teach his/her complete weekly periods, hence not having time for the guidance and counseling services.
In view of this schools are encouraged to have a solid and functional guidance and counseling programme being headed bya qualified counselor to meet the individual needs of the students.
Abubakar Gumi College, Kaduna is situated in the South of Kaduna in Chikun Local Government within Sabo Locality.
The school is fairly a large one with a population of approximately two thousand, eight hundred students hence, it obviously needs the services of more than one qualified guidance counselor, to meet the guidance needs of the students. As a staff of the school. I do agree that there exist a guidance counselor but of course this study will determine if it is continuously functional, how qualified and adequate the personnel is.
Purpose of the Study
The research is designed to examine and avert the various problems associated with students studying courses that find no relevance to our society, hence the need to enquire whether the students had no form of guidance while in secondary school. Specifically, this study.
1) Investigate current Guidance and counseling programmes practiced in our secondary schools with specific reference to Christ Ambassadors’ College.
2) Ascertain the extent to which the available guidance counselors engages in the programme as well as the extent to which students actually makes use of the available guidance counsel.
3) Identify strategies for improvement and promote effective guidance counseling programme in our secondary schools.
4) Identify strategies for improvement and promotion of effective guidance counseling programme in our secondary school.
Significance of the Study
The national Policy on Education advocated for the implementation of guidance and counseling programmes in schools’ curricula. However, since this implementation one will expect the level of discipline in our schools to rise, rather there seem to be a current upsurge in the acts of indiscipline, riots and poor academic results. It had become increasingly difficult to control large schools which Abubakar Gumi College, Kaduna is one of such.
This study, therefore, intends to look into the functionability of guidance services, the challenges involved and how it can be improved. It is expected that in secondary schools, guidance assistance offered should be very effective to enable students, attain academic success, remove personal or emotional problems and also teach them how to deal and handle complicated inter – personal relationship with others around.
The study is expected to enhance better communication between the students and the counselors as well as the authorities of schools, since communication is an important ingredient for effective and successful counseling. The research work will be useful to the government in improving guidance in our secondary schools. In addition, further researchers in this related field of study will find this research useful.
1. How much does the students known about the guidance and counseling.
2. How adequate and qualified are the personnel in change of guidance and counseling in Christ Ambassadors’ College?
3. Are there adequate facilities for guidance services?
4. Is the school providing the necessary environment and encouragement needed for the services?
5. What is the relationship between the counselor and the students well as other member of staff?
6. Does a functional guidance service exist in the school?
Scope and Delimitation of the Study
This scope examined the challenges, constraints, support and encouragement given to guidance in secondary schools.
However, due to the time constraint and duration permitted for the study, the research was restricted to Abubakar Gumi College, Kaduna only.
It examined the effectiveness of the counselor as well as the knowledge of student about the service and the relationship between the counselor, the students and the management of the school.
Concept of Guidance and Counseling
Various authors have used the term “guidance” and “counseling” either to mean different things or to mean the same thing. Due to this, many texts use the term interchangeably. However, the general consensus amongst professionals is that guidance is an umbrella name for all the helping services. To a layperson, guidance simply means to guide or direct someone toward a certain goal but to the professional guidance counselor, it involves a much deeper meaning (Oladele, 1987).
Guidance Ipaye (1983) sees guidance as an umbrella term that covers all the means whereby an institution identifies and responds to the individual needs of students, thereby helping the individual to develop his/her maximum potentials.
Durojaiye (1972) views guidance as a complex process that encompasses the total needs of the individual student to be directed or guided. Then, he said is available to the individual’s educational, emotional, vocational, health, social and physical needs as well as the individual's preparation for a suitable occupation or career.
Various authors, collectively view guidance as:
A concept (mental image) that connotes the utilization of a view to help an individual. An educational construct (intellectual synthesis) refers to the provision of experiences that helps students understand themselves. A service (action is taken to meet demand) involves the processes organized to achieve a helping situation. (Idowu, 1998)
Guidance is perceived as a process because it involves a series of actions or steps progressively moving towards a goal.
Help entails assisting to reduce human difficulties, “individuals” refers to students in a school setting or client, in a non – school setting.
Understanding of self and world menas coming to known who they are as individuals become aware of their personal identity, perceive clearly the nature of their person and the person and the people with whom they interact. As individuals, they should be able to know what opportunities are open for them in their world.
The assumption is that individuals who understand themselves and their world will become more effective, more productive and happier human beings (Adams, 1998) through guidance individuals achieve greater awareness not only of who they are but also of who they can become.
Guidance is no a haphazard activity but a planned and systematic approach towards helping the individuals to be able to make wise choices or decisions. The guidance aims at aiding the recipient to grow in his independence and ability to be responsible for himself. It is seen as a service that is universal, not confined to the school or family. It is found in all phases of life, in the business, industry, hospital, in homes, government, and anywhere there are people who need help the central idea of this definition is that it does not dictate solution to the individuals. Realizing that with appropriate guidance the counselee directs himself.
Inferring from the definitions of guidance, it is clear that its purpose is to help students understand the totality of their personal experiences, the opportunities available as well as the choice open to them and also helping them to recognize, interpret and act upon their personal weaknesses, strengths, and resources.
Understanding oneself can effectively lead to a student’s wise choice of curriculum options and appropriate occupational aspiration that would lead to the discovery and development of potentials for personal happiness first and then social usefulness.
Counseling Counseling involves a wide range of procedures including advice-giving, support in times of need or trouble, information-giving encouragement, and test interpretation. Counseling is perceived as part of the guidance programme involving a more personalized process that involves a one–on–one relationship or small groups. Counseling deals more intensively with personal and emotional issues, it is very private and confidential.