INFLUENCE OF BEHAVIORAL COUNSELING ON DEVIANT BEHAVIOR AMONG SECONDARY SCHOOL STUDENTS IN FCT ABUJA
This study investigated the influence of behavioral counseling on deviant behaviors among secondary school student in FCT Abuja. The study adopted the descriptive survey research design method. The target population for this study consisted of secondary school counsellors in FCT. Simple random sampling technique was used to select 133 respondents across secondary schools in Abuja. The questionnaire titled “behavioral counseling and deviant behavior among secondary school student Questionnaire” was administered to the school counsellors. Both descriptive and inferential statistics were used for the data analysis. The findings revealed that deviant behaviour is caused by a lack of effective parental upbringing.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
1.1 Background of the study
1.2 Statement of problem
1.3 Objective of the study
1.4 Research Hypotheses
1.5 Significance of the study
1.6 Scope and limitation of the study
1.7 Definition of terms
1.8 Organization of the study
2.0 LITERATURE REVIEW
3.0 Research methodology
3.1 sources of data collection
3.3 Population of the study
3.4 Sampling and sampling distribution
3.5 Validation of research instrument
3.6 Method of data analysis
DATA PRESENTATION AND ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION
4.2 Data analysis
1.1 Background of the study
Deviant behaviour varies from one society to another. It is obvious that what might be seen normal behaviour in another community might be seen abnormal in another. For example, in the Northern parts of the state covering of body is a very big culture and it is highly respected as their tradition demand but, in the Southern region it is not allowed while because it is against the ethics of our cultures. But in the north it is their style of dressing and cannot be violated, if one does it has become a deviant behaviour and that person will be sanctioned or killed as their culture permits in the north. However, deviant behaviour should be stamped out to allow development and growth. Opong (2008) states that deviant behaviour is a disease that is against transparency, justice and fair play. Education is the hallmark of progress for effecting change and growth. Pertinently, it is on the basis of this, that government at all levels shows concern in making education a top most priority to ensure every person’s achieve it and also come up with effective policies that will enhance educational growth of the citizenship (Angel, 2016). The functions of education in metamorphosing the citizens cannot be overemphasized, Agi (2015) posited that education is the art of loading a person from the dark are of ignoramus into the limelight of knowledge and understanding. This means or implies that an educated person can help in transforming the society for positive growth and development. Eremus (2015) posited that rules and regulations are not obeyed in our schools as there are much cases of examination malpractice, truancy, bullying, extortion, sexual offences, dishonesty, drug offences, dressing offences and porous behaviours etc. He said this ill attitude signifies deviation from standard functionality of student’s behaviour. It is on this basis that Angel posited that school has become a place of committing different types of atrocities and also beg the government, parents and school administrators to wake up and ensure proper elimination of deviant behaviour in our educational system.Asute (2014) asserts that the importance of education in transforming the individual cannot be overemphasized; Akinade (2014) sees education as a sharp light leading people to knowledge. This implies that an educated person will help in transforming the country for positive growth and development. Solomon (2010) explained that the dos and dons are not obeyed in our schools as there are much atrocities such as cases of extortion, sexual offences, bullying assault, dishonesty, uncordialbehaviour, drug offences and dressing offences has been the cankerworm or virus that speaks volume in our society. It is also on this regard that Barr. S. (2010) asserts that deviant behaviour is a notable hindrance towards the achievement of quality education in our educational system. Secondary schools have the extraordinary difficult task of educating today‟s youth who will someday be responsible for political, economic and cultural well-being of the nation. Ideally, contentious teacher and dedicated school administration provide students with essential social and intellectual skills. With the government ban of corporal punishment in 2001 as a strategy for managing indiscipline in schools, schools administration are left with the option of suspension, expulsion and manual work but with the emphasis on guiding and counseling the victim. Guiding is more of directing, teaching and coaching. For example a tour guide is someone who directs, instructs, informs and teaches. He/she should have gone through that path many times to research and has taken time to research and familiarize with the place. A tour guide instills confidence and where need be holds one‟s hand; when one is hurt, he gives first aid. Counseling on the other hand is cultural. Culturally an older, more knowledgeable person, not only listened to client but he/she corrected and trained through proverbs, wise saying, folk tales and some songs and dances. Guidance and counseling has existed in one form or another since the very beginning of human civilization. People sought comfort and solace from family and close association. However, it is only in the recent past that Counseling has emerged as a component of educational system which has deep roots in the values of individual freedom, rights, dignity and worth as a human being (Narayama, 2002:2) Guidance and counseling are two terms which are generally used interchangeably though 2 they are different in meaning. Guidance is defined by Narayana, 2002:34 as “the assistance given to an individual in making intelligent choices and adjustment” It is concerned with promoting the civilization of one‟s own potential. In other words, it helps people to solve problems, it does not solve problems. Counseling is defined by Gustard (1953) as “a learning oriented process, carried on in a simple, one to one social environment in which the counselor, professionally competent in relevant psychological skills and knowledge, seeks to assist the client by methods appropriate to the latter‟s needs within the correct context of the total personnel programme, to learn how to put such understanding into effect in relation to more clearly perceived realistically defined goals to the end that the client may become a happier and more productive member of the society”. Guidance and counseling movement had its origin in Europe and the U.S.A in the 19th century but did not gather momentum until the beginning of the 20 th century. The Pioneers, one of whom was Frank Parsons of Boston U.S.A concentrated on the provision of occupational information in the period between 1905 and 1909.Guidance in schools in Africa is a relatively new concept. Due to economic and social 3 changes which in turn have resulted in the weakening of the structures of the traditional society, boys and girls in schools need to be fully guided regarding the relationship between health and the environment, life-learning skills, the knowledge and attitudes that lead to success or failure in life, for instance different vocational avenues, understanding the requirement, demands, limitations and prospects of vocational development (Narayana, 2002). In Kenya guidance is becoming increasingly important because the country is faced with many new problems requiring special psychological or social service which are peripheral to education (Mutie and Ndambuki 1999:11). The students in our Kenyan schools have not been exceptional. The Kenyan youth in our contemporary society are facing major immerging issues like HIV / AIDS, poverty, child abuse, I internally displaced people due to tribal clashes and a lot of malpractice in counseling. Counseling assists in opening educational and vocational opportunities to students. It helps them acquire the right values and attitudes that will make them productive and useful citizen. It will also help them acquire self-esteem, a sense of identity, values and beliefs that can guide their behaviour and form their characters. Lack of effective or proper guidance and counseling in schools may hinder students from discovering themselves, their potential and interest. Some students may go to school, and leave without any idea of the kind of jobs upon their “blink” future. Therefore, young people need guidance and counseling than ever before, for they are living in a considerably more complex world than it was ten years ago (Makinde, 1984:177). In schools, if the collaboration between teachers and students is good, students learn in a 4 practical way. Young people develop degrees of freedom in their lives as they become aware of options and take advantage of them. At it‟s best, counseling should enable people to throw off chains and manage life situations effectively (UNESCO, 2000:10). The term counseling is used is used number of ways. For instance, counseling may be viewed as a series of definite direct contacts between a counselor and client aimed at offering the client assistance in adjusting effectively to himself / herself and the environment, as a series of intentions or as a psychological process in terms of its goals (June, 200:3-4). The counselor must therefore go beyond mere interest in the subject and equip himself/herself with the relevant knowledge because counseling deals with complex domain of human behavior.
1.2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
The Government of Nigeria in 2004 through its national policy on education highlighted the need for guidance and counseling services in Nigeria’s educational system to address the young people’s apparent lack of awareness concerning potential career choices and skills on how to deal with some social problems. This called for the training of teachers in the field of guidance and counseling (Republic of Nigeria, 2007). This study calls for an evaluation on follow-up of what has transpired in our schools since then, for reports of rampant students‟ riot and property destruction have continued to feature up to this moment. There seems to be a real social problem and this study actually seeks to find out the cause of this predicament, if it has to do with lack of adequate training among the teacher counselor or limitations put forward by the school administration or the laxity of the parents, the students deviance, or poor governance
1.3 OBJECTIVE OF THE STUDY
The main of objective of this study is to ascertain the influence of behavioral counseling on deviant behaviors among secondary school student in FCT Abuja. But to aid the completion of the study; the researcher intends to achieve the following specific objectives;
i) To ascertain the influence of behavioral counseling on the behavior of secondary school student
ii) To examine the effect of behavioral counseling in curbing deviant behavior among secondary school student in FCT
iii) To evaluate the role of school guardian and counseling on student academic achievement
iv) To examine the role of government in ensuring that every secondary school in FCT has a qualified counselor
1.4 RESEARCH HYPOTHESES
To aid the successful completion of the study, the following research hypotheses were formulated by the researcher;
H0:behavioral counseling does not have any influence on the behavior of secondary school student
H1:behavioral counseling does have an influence on the behavior of secondary school student
H02:behavioral counseling does not play any role in curbing deviant behavior among secondary school student in FCT
H2:behavioral counseling does not play a role in curbing deviant behavior among secondary school student in FCT
1.5 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
It is believed that at the completion of the study, the findings will be of great importance to the management of secondary schools in Abuja metropolis, this is because the study seek to explore the influence of behavioral counseling on deviant behaviors among secondary school students, the study will also be useful to the minister of FCT and federal ministry of education in formulating and implement policies that will aid the employment of counselors in all secondary schools in Abuja metropolis.
The study will also be of importance to potential researchers who wishes to embark on a study in a similar topic as the study will serve as a reference point for further research, finally, the study will be useful to student, teachers lecturers and the general public as the study will contribute to the pool of existing literature on the subject matter.
1.6 SCOPE AND LIMITATION OF THE STUDY
The scope of the study covers the influence of behavioral counseling on deviant behaviors among secondary school students in FCT Abuja. In the cause of the study, there were some factors which limited the scope of the study;
a)AVAILABILITY OF RESEARCH MATERIAL: The research material available to the researcher is insufficient, thereby limiting the study
b) TIME: The time frame allocated to the study does not enhance wider coverage as the researcher has to combine other academic activities and examinations with the study.
c) FINANCE: The finance available for the research work does not allow for wider coverage as resources are very limited as the researcher has other academic bills to cover
1.7 OPERATIONAL DEFINITION OF TERMS
Counseling psychology is a psychological specialty that encompasses research and applied work in several broad domains: counseling process and outcome; supervision and training; career development and counseling; and prevention and health.
Deviant Behavior is a peer-reviewed academic journal which focuses on social deviance, including criminal, sexual, and narcotic behaviors.
Behavioral counseling (BC) is a modality of counselingand psychotherapy using behavioral theory as the predominant method. These are the theories pioneered by Ivan Pavlov, John Watson, B.F
1.8 ORGANIZATION OF THE STUDY
This research work is organized in five chapters, for easy understanding, as follows Chapter one is concern with the introduction, which consist of the (overview, of the study), statement of problem, objectives of the study, research question, significance or the study, research methodology, definition of terms and historical background of the study. Chapter two highlight the theoretical framework on which the study its based, thus the review of related literature. Chapter three deals on the research design and methodology adopted in the study. Chapter four concentrate on the data collection and analysis and presentation of finding. Chapter five gives summary, conclusion, and recommendations made of the study..