EFFECT OF SPICES EXTRACT GINGER, EXTRACT GARLIC AND SALT CONCENTRATION ON THE MICROBIAL LOAD OF LOCUST BEAN SEEDS (Parkia biglobosa)
Effect of spices (garlic and ginger extract) and salt concentration on the microbial load associated with process ‘Iru’ (Pakia biglobosa) were investigated. The raw locust bean (RLB) had the highest total viable counts of 1.8 x 106 Cfu/g. Fermented locust bean (FLB) had 3.4 x 105 cfulg while FLBGIN (Fermented locust bean with giger) had 2.8 x 104 cfu/g. Femented locust bean with garlie (FLBGAR) had 3.8 x 104 cfu/g while FLBS (fermented locust bean with salt concentration) had 2.0 x 104 FLBS had the lowest bacterial load. FLB had the highest total colifiran count 6.4 x 104 cfu/g while FLBS had the lowest 1.3 x 103 cful/g. the RLB had coliform count of 4.1 x 104 cfu/g. FLBGN and FLBGAR had total coliform count 3.6 x 103 cfu/g, 7.2 x 103 cfu/g respectively. Six bacteria were associated with locust bean. They are Bacillus sp, Pseudomones sp, proteins sp, Fcauobacfesium sp, Enterobacter sp and Aeromohas sp. Fermented locust bean with salt had the least and lowest bacterial load. Salt is the best preservative on process ‘iru’ (Parkia biglobosa).
TABLE OF CONTENTCHAPTER ONE1.0 Introduction 11.1 Aims and objectives of study 2
CHAPTER TWO2.0 Literature review 32.1 Origin and geographic distribution 32.2 Legumes 3 -52.3 Preparation of legumes 5 – 82.4 Ginger 8 – 132.5 Adverse effects and toxicology 132.6 Spiritual and religious perception 14 – 19
CHAPTER THREE3.0 Materials and methods 203.1 Low chart for the processing of Iru (Locust bean) 20 – 223.2 Preparation of bacteria locust beans for fermentation 233.3 Isolation procedure 23 – 24 3.4 Method Isolation 25
CHAPTER FOUR4.0 RESULTS AND DISCUSSION 26 4.1 Result 26
CHAPTER FIVE 5.0 CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION 285.1 Conclusion 285.2 Recommendations 28References 29 – 30 s
CHAPTER ONE1.0 INTRODUCTION
The high cost of animal protein has directed interest towards several leguminous seed proteins as potential sources of vegetable protein for human food and livestock feed. Among the plant species, gain legumes are considered as the major source of direct proteins.They are consumed worldwide, especially in developing and underdeveloped countries where consumption of animal protein may be limited as a result of economic, social, cultural, or religious factors (Esenwah and Lkenebomeh, 2008).Locust bean is proteins Protein-Energy-Malnutrition (PEM) is a serious problem facing most developing nations as a result of inadequate intake of a good quality protein source such as meat, fish, and poultry product, which are out of reach to many populaces due to poor economy increase in population pressure and others natural calamities such as drought and flood ladeji et al., 1995; Nordeide et al, 1996). In these nations, about 60% of the population suffers from PEM, which results in a high rate of mortality, permanent brain damage, and a decrease in the learning capability of children (Abdullahi, 2000).Apart from protein, legumes provide a high proportion of complex carbohydrates, starch, edible oil, and fibre (Pirman et al, 2001, Chau et al; 1998).African locust bean seeds are rich in protein and usually fermented to a tasty food condiment called dawadawa which is used as a flavor intensifier for soups and stews and also adds protein to a protein–poor diet.Among the leguminous plants used by man particularly in some African countries, is the African locust bean tree (Parkia biglobosa). The seeds are well known for their uses in the production of local condiments commonly known as Dadadawa (Hausa) or Iru (Yoruba). Furthermore, Parkia biglolose is such plant legumes with an outstanding protein quality, and its protein and amino acid composition has been reported (Nordeide et al., 1996; Ega et al., Glew et al., 1997; Cook et al., 2000; Lockett et al., 2000). However, much research work has been done on the effect preservative of soy-Iru with either salt or ginger but not on processed Iru parkia biglobosa with different species and salt. In locust bean spoilage is the deterioration of food by bacteria then, locust been can be contaminated with pathogenic bacteria produce food intioxication and infection (Adams and Moss. 1999).Therefore, there are need to reduce the load and hamful effects of these pathogenic bacteria in locust bean in other to fit for consumption and to enhance its safety in consumer. This could be done by using different species extract (ginger, garlic, and salt-concentration in locust beans)1.1 AIMS AND OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY To determine the microbiological effect of ginger on processed Iru (Parkia biolobosa). To determine the microbiological effect of garlic on processed “Iru” (Parkia biglobossa). To determine the microbiological effect of salt concentration on processed Iru. To evaluate the best preservative in processed “Iru” (Parkia biglobossa). To evaluate the no of bacterial load in processed. To evaluate the bacterial load in processed Iru with salt, ginger and garlic..