USERS PERCEPTION OF GATED ESTATE IN LAGELU LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA, IBADAN
There is a general concern for safety in most African cities, including Nigeria. This concern has continuously given rise to the emergence of an enclosed neighbourhood in the prevention and the control of crime, violence and incivility. This study examined users’ perception of gated estates in Largelu Local Government Area, Ibadan South East Local Government Area Ibadan. The study adopted survey research design. Simple random sampling techniques was used in selecting the respondents of the study. The data for the study were collected using questionnaire. The data collected were analysed using descriptive statistics of frequency, percentage, mean and correlation. The result from the analysis revealed that housing pattern is one of the characteristics that differentiate properties in gated estate from non-gated properties in Largelu Local Government Area. Also, the facilities infrastructure like electricity, good drainage system, water system and management system were other characteristics that differentiate gated estate from non-gated estates. The public perceived that gated estates are not affordable, not available. Also perceived that gated estate have bad security condition. However, majority of the public have indifferent perception about the affordability, availability, choice of construction design, security, location, social status and return on investment of gated estate. Furthermore, the study revealed that security, privacy, luxurious lifestyle, location, prestige and segregation, facilities and amenities, availability of infrastructure and social homogeneity are the factors influencing users’ perception of gated estates in the study area. Based on this findings, the study recommends among others that since housing pattern are some of the basic futures that differentiate gated estate from non-gated estate, gated estate should have a unified housing pattern as this will assist in distinguishing gated estate from non-gated.
In both developed and developing economies, housing holds a significant importance to households, as they are the largest fixed capital investment made by the household. The home creates a significant impact on human beings. Its functionality is not restricted to provision of shelter and security but also caters to the psychological and sociological needs of its users (1).
In the late 20th century, an ancient urban form began to reappear in modern settlements. Fortified and enclave developments have become an increasingly common feature of contemporary suburban building patterns. Older neighbourhoods in some cities are closing off streets to enhance local security and reduce traffic. In general, postmodern cities are becoming more defended, and more defensible, than were industrial cities. What Ellin calls an ``architecture of fear'' is turning the urban environment into an enclosed and privatized realm. Gated developments ``challenge the spatial, organizational, and institutional order that has shaped modern cities''.
A GC is a physical area or region that is enclosed, restricted, fenced or walled off from its environs and surroundings, controlling, monitoring or prohibiting access to the area or neighbourhood using booms or gates (2). It is a built-up residential neighbourhood with gates and walls enclosing the development, which exclude non-residents from all interior amenities and services including recreation facilities, open space, residences, and activities (3);(4). The factors that contributed to the level of residents’ safety in gated communities are an under-researched issue. More evaluative studies must be carried out on this. This study is one view of the topic and an exploration of the influences of physical and social characteristics on residents’ perception of safety in gated communities in Ibadan.
Many studies, especially from many Nigeria and African authors, had at one time or the other looked at the issues of safety and gated communities, for example, (8) studied the architecture of fear; urban design and construction, and response to urban violence. He studied how the contemporary landscape is shaped by Nigeria society’s preoccupation with fear, as apparent in home design, safety systems, gated communities and semi-public spaces.
In Nigeria, the colonial precursor to contemporary gating was the government-reserved area (GRA), a fortified enclave of residences for the rich, ruling elite, which reflected the status-related factor. In the case of Lagos, it analyses the typical generic forms of gated housing at individual and neighbourhood levels, linking the mushrooming of such ‘armored housing’ and gated estates to security concerns. He notes that, except for the palaces of traditional rulers, which have historically had gates, the concept of separation from society by creating barriers and gates, is recent to urban life in southern Nigeria, where much of urban life was predicated on the interaction and association of residents, with the street as the site for these exchanges. The ‘native’ city had walled and exclusive residences only for chiefs and other dignitaries in traditional society, as had always been the case amongst the Yoruba, who have lineage links with the ancient Benin kingdom, noted for its walled city and residences. With the introduction of gated living, there has been a significant transformation of living space and work-life rituals for the urban residents.
Furthermore, there has been a considerable growth of interest in recent years surrounding the emergence of ‘gated communities’, ‘fortified enclaves’ and other forms of privatized public space. Man being protective about land and his environment resulted in the formation or creation of residential gated communities.
There is a general concern for safety in most African cities, including Nigeria. This concern has continuously given rise to the emergence of an enclosed neighbourhood in the prevention and the control of crime, violence and incivility. The private initiatives arose as consequences of the failure of the State and its safety apparatus to protect the life and property of its citizens, especially in most developing countries (6). Urban residents redefine urban space to a mosaic of privately controlled territories with differently installed safety strategies. The regrouping, realignment and redefinition of boundaries manifest in the socio-spatial restructuring of urban space. The forms of privatised and informal crime and social control mechanisms in most Nigerian cities include neighbourhood enclosures, neighbourhood patrol, vigilantes, private security or corporate guards, installation of Closed Circuit Television (CCTV), mob action and jungle justice. Sometimes crime suspects have been killed or molested before police arrived (8). Neighbourhood safety in GCs is a multidimensional and many-sided issue with major influence on the development and it encompasses direct combat against misconduct, crime and violence as well as aspects of urban design and land use planning (9).
The pervading state of insecurity in Nigeria including bomb blasts and kidnappings – makes the issue of gated estate even more topical.
1.1. STATEMENT OF PROBLEM
Extreme power imbalances and economic inequality frequently contribute to crime or fear of violence, as may be the case in places like Nigeria, so an insecure context may result from the failure or inability of the country to provide adequate security. There have been traced back too the early military rule ages when bulky quantities and quality weapons were shipped into the countries for military uses during and after the civil war. Some of the weapons however were high jacked by the civilians and then became their tools for mischievous acts shortly after the war such as; robbery attacks, killings of innocent minds and ritualism which is high across the country
Sometimes the country may prove too weak or preoccupied with other responsibilities to ensure security in residential neighborhoods. many countries wish to let investment and market processes operate unrestricted. in some cases, social groups that may be especially concerned about social control and separation from outsiders use enclosure to protect cultural identity,
Therefore, in the context of the state’s inability or unwillingness to guarantee security, residents’ decision to turn to Gated estates to make some strategy to protect themselves. The main problem of this research is to uncover the reasons and perception they get living in a gated estate.
This has made some residential property owners to start developing gated properties and providing better security.
The aim of this study is to evaluate user’s satisfaction in gated estate with a view to providing information that will enhance investment decision making.
The objectives of this research are to:
1. Examine the number and characteristics of gated Estates in study Area.
2. Assess user’s perception in gated estates in the study area.
3. Examine the factors influencing user’s perception in gated estate.
1.5. RESEARCH QUESTIONS
Based on the research objectives above, the following research questions will be posed.
i. What are the social economic characteristics that differentiates properties in gated estates from non-gated properties in largelu Local Government Area, Ibadan?
ii. To what extent is the perception of the public on gated estates in Ibadan Largelu Local Government Area, Ibadan?
iii. What are the satisfaction benefits of gated estates in Ibadan Largelu Local Government Area, Ibadan?
1.6. SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
This study is significant in that it will enable users/clients understand the concept of gated estates and how enormous potential its characteristics could give.
Furthermore, this study is of significance to the property owners, tenants, public in care of estate management in order to be able to take decisive measures in improving investment decisions for property owners.
In addition, the results of the study are also expected to contribute to closing the gap in literature with respect to understanding concept of gated estates.
Lastly, the study will serve as a point of reference to other researchers who might want to carry out study in relation to this field.
1.7. SCOPE OF STUDY
This study will examine the satisfaction level of gated estates in Ibadan Largelu Local Government Area, Oyo State, Nigeria will be studied. Lagelu is a local government area in oyo state. Its headquarters are in the town of Iyana offa. It has an area of 338km2 and a population of 147,957 at the 2006 consensus. The local government area is subdivided into 14 wards: Ajara/opeodu, Apartere/kuffi/ogunbode/ogo, Arulogun ehin/kelebe, ejioku/igbon/Ariku, lagelu market/kajola/gbena,lagun, Lalupon I, lalupon II, etc.
Gated estates with active owners will be selected by the researcher for the study in order to find out their perception about gated estates. The results found at Ibadan Largelu local government will enable us to generalize the result across all parts of Nigeria.
DEFINITION OF TERMS
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