DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION OF 2KVA INVERTER


DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION OF 2KVA INVERTER  

ABSTRACT

This project presents the design and construction of a DC to AC inverter system. It is designed to meet up with the power demand in the offices/homes in the absence of power supply from National Supply Authority.

It is designed in such a way that it will take up to 12V DC from battery and inverts it to an output of 220V, 50Hz AC. It makes no noise during operation and not hazardous like carbon monoxide is generated to the surrounding. This is the feature makes it safe to used anywhere when compared to generator.

    Also, the circuit is capable of charging the battery [i.e 12V source] where there is power supply from supply Authority. This greatly reduces the cost of operation of the system 

TABLE OF CONTENT

TITLE PAGE 

CERTIFICATION 

DEDICATION 

ACKNOWLEDGMENT

ABSTRACT 

TABLE OF CONTENT  

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY 

1.2 PROBLEM OF STATEMENT 

1.3 AIM AND OBJECTIVE

1.4 SCOPE OF THE PROJECT 

1.5 METHODOLOGY

1.6 MOTIVATION 

1.7 LIMITATION OF THE PROJECT

CHAPTER TWO

LITERATURE REVIEW

2.0 INVERTER 

2.1 HISTORY OF INVERTER

2.2.1 GENERAL FEATURES OF THE PROTECT

2.2.1 POWER SUPPLY UNIT

2.2.2 CHANGENG OVER UNIT 

2.2.3 SWITCHING UNIT

2.2.4 UNDER AND OVER VOLTAGE PROTECTION UNIT

2.2.5 OSCILLATOR UNIT 

2.3 TYPES OF INVERTERS   

2.4 COMPARISON WITH THE GENERATOR   

CHAPTER THREE

3.0 CONSTRUCTION AND METHODOLOGY 

3.1 COMPONENTS AND FUNCTION

3.1.1 RESISTOR

3.1.2 CAPACITOR   

3.1.3 DIODE        

3.1.4  TRANSISTOR          

3.1.5 NE555 TIMER 

3.1.6 RELAY 

3.1.7 REGULATOR     

3.1.8 BATTERY             

3.1.9 SWITCHES AND SOCKET    

3.1.10 METER (VOLT/AMPERE)

3.1.11 LAMINATION 

3.1.12 FUSE  

3.1.13 TRANSFORMER 

3.2 METHODOLOGY 

3.2.1 STAGES INVOLVED IN THE PROJECT 

3.2.2 DESCRIPTION OF VARIOUS STAGE IN THE INVERTER POWER UNIT

3.2.3  POWER AMPLIFYING STAGE OR INVERTING STAGE 

3.2.4 MULTI-VIBRATOR         

3.2.5 CONSTRUCTION OF THE CASING     

3.2.6 HOUSING OF THE WHOLE COMPONENT

3.2.7 ARRANGEMENT OF COMPONENT ON VERO BOARD 

CHAPTER FOUR

4.0 TESTING, DESIGN AND DISCUSSION

4.1.1 TRANSFORMATION STAGE 

4.1.2 TRANSFORMER DESIGN  

4.1.3 FREQUENCY DIVISION COUNTER 

4.1.4 FREQUENCY UNIT    

4.1.5 COMPONENT TESTING      

4.1.6 TESTING OF THE INVERTER 

4.1.7 STAGE BY STAGE TESTING 

CHAPTER FIVE

CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION  

5.1 CONCLUSION

5.2 RECOMMENDATION 

REFERENCES 

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.2 Background of the Study 

An inverter is an electronics device or circuitry that changes direct current (D.C) to Alternating current [AC]. The device make used of an in–built automatic circuit to achieve a complete automation of the entire system. The input voltage, output voltage, frequency and overall power handling depend on the design of a specific device or circuitry. 

An inverter is very important element that cannot be neglected in this Country as it is deeply fasten into the fabric of the society for the obvious reason of inadequate power supply. It is an important element in homes to power household devices like electric bulbs, electric cooker, refrigerator, television set e.t.c. It also finds applications in various places work/offices to power devices like air conditioners, computers e.t.c.

In spite of constant repair and efforts put forward by the stake holders in electricity industry to ensure stable power supply, yet the power generation and distribution across the country is very bad, low and it very far from being enough.

However power failure has resulted in people buying generators for their daily activities. Businesses are not functioning due to failure of power supply. These are the reason that make necessary of designing and construction of inverter and other standby system that can deliver maximum output power to the load.

Statistics have shown that the number of business that have been closed down simply because of power failure, cannot be over emphasized, so mankind need inverter seriously in other to restore technology development, business and medical controls. However the background of the study lies within the reason why the construction of inverter should be forwarded the factor that increase the quality of inverter marketability.       

Finally, the success of this study will beneficial to the society. Mass production of inverters will lead to improve standard of living of the people and the nation will move forward in it pursuit of technology development (http//www.falana.tripidcom/tope/index.blog?entry id=195483copy).  

1.2 PROBLEM OF STATEMENT 

Faced with the problem of load power supply from supply authorities, noise pollution, air pollution, cost of the popular alternative, generator sets, there is need for a less noisy, pollution free and cheap solution to power problem.  Then, this project is to provides a back-up and power by 220v A.C input and change to D.C sources to charge a 12v battery and change back to AC source with a reliable power supply of 2000VA output to power a standard house/offices.  

1.3 AIM AND OBJECTIVE

The aim of this project is to design and construct a 2KVA inverter with an inbuilt charging system that take a 220V input that will be charged when there is supply from mains and change to D.C and later change back to A.C with the operation of inverter with output of 2000VA to power a standard offices/house. 

The Objective are: 

To design and construct an inverter that will be able to power essential loads in a house 

To provide a noiseless source of electricity generation 

To provide a source of electricity power with low maintenance cost and zero fuel cost 

To design and construct an alarm circuit that beeps when the load on the inverter is beyond the inverter capacity. 

1.4 SCOPE OF THE PROJECT 

The scope of this project based on the design and construction of a 2KVA inverter and its operation, with the output power rating of 2KVA an maximum 7.27A  and output voltage of 220V AC sources from a 12v inbuilt battery. This project is basically designed for single phase domestic loads.

1.5 METHODOLOGY

To study of the previous work on the project so as to improve it efficiency

Draw a block diagram 

Studying of various components of charge controller and inverter circuit 

Constructs an inverter circuit 

1.6 MOTIVATION 

With the obvious advantages of the inverter being a cheaper [in the long term] and cleaner source of energy, it is a device that can power essential leads. In the absence of supply from power supply utilities in the country. Inverter are the best when it comes to back-up since they can come up very fast and they generate little or no noise unlike generators. Even in an area with constant power supply, power outage due to natural cause and fault are usually unannounced. It therefore very important to prevent causality and loss of good will by having a reliable back-up power installed (OYETUNJITOBI,S. (2015), construction of 2KVA inverter Electrical/Electronic Engineering Project Power Option HND II Final Year Unpublished).

1.7 LIMITATION OF THE PROJECT

The major limitation of this project is that it cannot operate equipment or an electronic device that is above its rated current.

Also the used of bulky transformer instead of copper transformer which is lighter and smaller in size but more expensive is another limitation.

.

DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION OF 2KVA INVERTER



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