CHILD HAWKING AND EDUCATIONAL DEVELOPMENT


CHILD HAWKING AND EDUCATIONAL DEVELOPMENT  

ABSTRACT

This research study examined the prevalence of child hawking and educational development. The study was carried out in Ekpoma, Edo State. The structured and unstructured questionnaires were used to elicit information from the respondents. The sample for the study comprised of 120 subjects were drawn different communities in Ekpoma town. In chapter four, the researcher present the data and the hypotheses were analyzed using the Chi (X2) Square statistical techniques. The findings from the study showed that the incidence of child hawking is high in Ekpoma, and thus, called for serious attention. It was also found that single parenthood and child hawking, are cases of child hawking which have effect on the academic development or educational development of the child. However, it was submitted that the government and law enforcement agencies can reduce child hawking rate through adherence to the “child right act”.

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Title page………………………………………………………………….ii

Certification……………………………………………………………..iii

Dedication………………………………………………………………..iv

Acknowledgement……………………………………………………….v

Table of contents……………………………………………………….vii

Abstract…………………………………………………………………..viii

CHAPTER ONE

1.1 Background of the Study…………………………..……………1 

1.2 Statement of Problem……………………………………………..3

1.3 Objective of Study………………………...……………………….4

1.4 Research Hypothesis………………………………...……………4

1.5 Scope of Study……………………………………….…………….4

1.6   Significance  of Study…………………………….…………….5

1.7   Definition of Terms…………………………………….………….5

CHAPTER TWO

2.1 Literature Review…………………………………………………7

2.2 Child Abuse and its Causes in Nigeria………………….…7

2.3 Causes of Street Trading and Child Labour……………….14

2.4 Social Political and Educational Implications of Child Labours and Street Trading…………………………………………..18

2.5 Child Abuse and Neglect…………………………………………21

2.6 Government Policies to Avert Child Labour and Street Trading…………………………………………………………………….21

2.7 Theoretical Framework…………………………………………..25

2.8 Human Right and Child Abuse: Issues and Objectives………………………………………………………………..28

CHAPTER THREE

3.1 Methodology and Scope of Study…………………………..32

3.2 Population of Study…………………………………………...32

3.3 Sample Population/Sample Size…………………………..32

3.4 Sampling Techniques………………………………………...32

3.5 Method of Data Collection…………………………………..33

3.6 Method of Data Analysis……………………………............34

CHAPTER FOUR

4.0 Data Presentation and Analysis………………………….....35

4.1 Analysis Socioeconomic Characteristics of Respondents.36

4.2 Analysis of research questions/Hypothesis…………….….40

CHAPTER FIVE

5.1 Discussion of Findings…………………………………………..47

5.2 Conclusion……………………………………………………….…48

5.3 Recommendations………………………………………………..49

5.4 Implication of Study…………………………………………….50

Bibliography……………………………………………………………..52

Appendix………………………………………………………………….55

CHAPTER ONE

1.1    Background to the Study

There is no generally accepted definition for the term ‘Child Hawking’. But it could simply be referred to as the abuse of a child by his parents or guardian or any other adult. Edu and Edu (1990), describe child abuse as a willful maltreatment of a child below eighteen years of age into street sales. Such treatment according to them can include acts of commission (abuse) and omission (neglect). A narrow definition of child hawking is united to life threatening, physical violence including severe beating, rape (sexually harassed) which are inflected on the children by the adult member of the community. A broader definition however lays emphasis on any treatment other than the most favorable care and include neglect sexual and or emotional abuse and exploitation .which ever this social problem is been define  the question that comes to mind is “are children who are God’s given gifts granted freedom, comfort and peace by adults in the society?

In Nigeria, for example, the rights of citizens in chapter 4 sections 30, 40 of the 1999 constitution of the Federal Republic of Nigeria guarantees every citizen’s basic and fundamental human rights. Here, the constitution does not make any destination between the rights of adults and children to trade. Thus, children are expected to enjoy these rights. With the menace of child hawking (abuse) in the country, children are being exposed to all kinds of societal hazards. This study therefore examines street hawking in Nigeria, with a view of identifying its consequences on children.

 Street trading and child hawking have become a global phenomenon and a global concern. The United Nations International Children Education Fund (NCICEF) has estimated that there are 100 and 200 million child labourers across both industrial and developing countries. Estimates for Nigeria shows that 20% of children between the age of 10 and 14 are involved in child labour and street trading. Nigeria alone is estimated to have between 12 and 15 million of child hawkers.

According to Human Right Watch (2004) Nigerians have the largest child labour force in the world. The dramatic increase in child labour and street hawking in Nigeria can be attributed to several factors. The rapid population growth of less developed countries, high rates of unemployment, inflation, low wages and deplorable working conditions have contributed to incidents of child hawking and child labour, as children attempt to help support their families (Charles and Charles 2004, Deth 1993). According to Arat (2002), the proliferation of industries can also be linked to an increase in child hawking and child labour. Social ills affecting children have been an area of active empirical investigation.

Indeed numerous studies exist on children who, along with their parents are and on weekends and holidays. This study will bring to light the dangers associated with street trading and child hawking as reported by children who engage in these practices.

1.2   Statement of Problem

Street trading and child hawking have the potential to corrupt young minds in two major ways. Firstly, a child that misses school frequently falls to benefit comprehensively from the education system. This can mean poor performance in examinations and open the door to examination malpractices for those seeking a certificate at all cost. This in turn can lead to incompetent and unlearned graduates with consequences for the nation as a whole, including increased national illiteracy.

Secondly, street trading and child hawking may also lead to behavioral patterns inimical to healthy citizenship. They may indulge in negative activities or criminal acts, such as prostitution, armed robbery, and pick pocketing and face imprisonment. (Humert, 2009 and Humphrices, 2010). Many government policies have been put in place to curb the issue of child hawking and child labour, but all to no avail. This probably is as a result of the low economic status of most Nigerians who barely earn enough to feed themselves and their children. Oruwari (1996); Okojie (1987) and Aderinto (2000) linked the phenomenon of child hawking and educational development to socio economic status of poor parents who subsist at the periphery of the urban economy.

This research will offer solutions to the menaces of child hawking and child development. It is believed that the solutions discussed below will reduce the menace to its absolute minimum in the course of this discussion this study will also attempt to address the following questions why do parent engage their children in street trading and child hawking? Are parents happy about this situation considering the dangers involved? Why have the policies of government not succeeded?

1.3    Objectives of Study

1. To examine the causes of child hawking in Ekpoma

2. To examine the consequences of child hawking on children.

3. To examine the relationship between child hawking and development.

4. To examine the relationship between child hawking and academic performance.

1.4    Research Hypothesis

1. There is a relationship between poverty and child hawking

2. There is no relationship between polygamous family and child hawking

3. There is a relationship between singly parenthood and child hawking.

1.5    Scope of Study

The scope of study shall lay emphasis on the effect and consequences of child hawking on child development in Ekpoma. Also, this study examines the relationship with child hawking and development.

Furthermore, this study examines government policies on how to eradicate child hawking in Ekpoma and Nigeria at large.

1.6   Significance  of Study

Existing literature portray little information about child hawking and development. This study is therefore important because it will reveal child hawking practices in Ekpoma. Also, the importance of this study is to give an insight to those who will like to carry out a similar research on this topic in the nearest future.

1.7   Definition of Terms 

1. Child: This is used in this study as a young human being the age of puberty. In other words, a young individual below the age of 18 years.

2. Street hawking: The act of selling of goods or foodstuffs and other items on the streets. It can also be described as act of selling, offering or exposing for sale any article in a public place.

3. Child labour: This simply means the use of children by other adults e.g. parents/guardians for economic purpose that brings income to such adults. UNICEF defines child labour as work that exceeds a minimum number of hours depending on the age of a child (especially those below 18 years) and on the type of work.

4. Abuse: As used in this study mean maltreatment of a person in an unjust or undesired manner. Therefore, the term child abuse refers to the physical or emotional or social mistreatment of children. World Health Organization (WHO, 2009) define it as any act or failure to act that which violates the rights of the child, to endanger his/ her optimum health, survival and development.

 2.1 Literature Review

In a research work of this magnitude, there ought to be existing work in the form of literatures to assist the researcher. But unfortunately there are quite a few. However, this research work with the existing literature in this area of study will add to the existing work on the subject matter. 2.2     Child Abuse and its Causes in Nigeria Different forms of child abuse have characterized the history of hitherto existing society. Viewed from the western matrix, child abuse extends to maltreatment of children; mostly with regards to functions relating to certain responsibilities as child labour either in the form of “framework”  “street hawking”, which many children in African embark upon as an acquired work role in an extended family system. But however, this study basically is on child hawking, as it affect educational development of the child. One aspect of child maltreatment that has attracted serious attention of researchers (Gill 2000 and Abbee, 2000) is physical abuse It then follows that the whom issue of child hawking requires a thorough assessment for the purpose of justification of terms, C.P Ekpe and Bowls (2006) saw child hawking and neglect as acts consisting of commission or omission, which interfere with the chance to develop their normal potentials as human beings. He went further to itemized child hawking as that which implies physical or mental injury, negligent treatment or maltreatment. In this case the child suffers from lack of attention by parent manifested by malnutrition and lack of stimulation, Chris postulated that any definition of child abuse should take cognizance of the form of abuse including physical assault, psychological or emotional and sexual abuse. Ewuruigwe and Naidu (2008) have discovered that there is a direct relationship between child hawking and poverty. They found out that the need for survival often pushes some children to secure employment outside the home. According to Naidu (2004) poverty and irregularity are the major causes of child hawking that of other factor of child labour like psychological, social and cultural factors are interdependence with the economic system in which these factor operate, “Ewuruijwe (1998) identified the causes of child hawking that all other factors of child labour like psychological, social and cultural factors are interdependent with the economic system in which these factors operate.” Ewuruigwe (1998) identified the causes of child hawking in a number of factors. In his words poverty, the interesting of global network capitalism, shifting family structure, the nature of the state and mode of production as well as religion. Egbigbo (2002) also stated that in eastern and western parts of Nigeria children trade for their house madams and parents to help in the family economy. Some also earn their school fees by hawking those who attended afternoon schools hawks in the morning and those who attend morning school hawk in the afternoon. On the cultural aspect of child abuse, Naidu and Obikeze (1986) stressed the role of culture in child upbringing Obikeze pointed out that the children are reared in Nigeria in such a way that they are made to practice or do domestic works that are commensurate with their age, soc and physical ability such activities serve to provide the child with accessory skills and training required for future life. Vinolia and Fubara (1996) had it that: here in Nigeria our child-rearing pattern has been affected by our culture/ethnic setting as well as our social class. Each social class tends to have its social values and expectation likewise the ethnic groups. They further added that because children are seen as God sent, African parents give birth to too many children as to have many helpers. Schilakrout (1998) in her stuck of Kano cultural practices stated that “while a clear relationship scale among the majority of family in the middle income range, many cultural factors intervenes which are independent of economic factors”. More so, in a study carried out by prime people magazine (Jan 26th and Feb 1st 2003) almost half of the respondents 50% agreed the fact that female hawkers entice man with their mode of dressing when hawking. And this they say sometimes, lead to the ungodly act of rape and early unwanted pregnancy among female hawkers. In fact, many scholars are of the view that the nature of society influence child labour; and that child labour in recent times became an instrument of class oppression in spite of the increasing cases of child abuse world wide, leaders every where have not thrown up their hand in pair. On November, 20 1959 the 44th generation assembly of the united nation adopted the convention on the rights of the child. The convention has been variously described and marina carts or “bill of right: for children, it has fifty-four (54) articles detailing the individual rights of any person under eighteen (18) years of age of developing to his or her full potential free from hunger and want neglect exploitation or other abuses. Four of the convention articles specified signatory of national of which Nigeria is one, are obliged to recognize that every child has the inherent right to life and ensure the full survival and development of the child. Nigeria became a signatory of this convention in 1980. But twenty years before the federal government has operated the children any young persons law section 31 of the 1958 law forbid street trading among children. Apart from providing a penalty and firm of N10,000.000 or six (6)months jail terms of both for an offender, the law further states that where a parent or guardian of a child contributes to the willful default of law, such parent on conviction may be fined N10,000.000 or in default or payment of three (3) months jails. Based on these declarations at home and abroad, it is now a law that a child has the right to assistances before developing his full potentials and to be protected from all harms. A child has the right to a good food, educations, good health, shelter, free play, he also has the right to participate, according to his capability in decision affecting him and the interest of the child should be taken into consideration when decision concerning such child is taken. Therefore, any serious denial of any of these rights by a community an individual, or a nation is offensive. The African Network for the prevention and protection against child abuse and neglect (ANPPCAN) also drafted the African character on the rights and welfare of the child and was adopted by the African Union (A.U) then the A.U went to a head a named “June 16th of every year as the day of the African child. This also constituted a central agenda in an A.U meeting held in Abuja Nigeria recently. Street trading and child labour have become a global phenomenon and a global concern. The United Nations international children education fund (UNICEF) has estimated that there are 100 to 200 million child labourers across both industrials and developing countries. Estimates for Africa shows that 20% of children between the age of 10 to 14 are involved in child labour and street trading. As such, children have come to comprise 17% of Africa’s total labour force. Nigeria alone is estimated to have between 12 and 15 million child labours. According to human right watch (2004), at 15 million India has the largest child labour force in the world while Pakistan records 7.5 million child labourer an Senegal about 500,000 The dramatic increase in child labour and street trading in Nigeria can be attributed in several factors. The rapid population growth of many loss developed countries, high rate of unemployment, inflation, low wages and deplorable working conditions have contributed to incidents of street trading and child labour as children attempt to help support their families (Charles and Charles, 2004, Deth, 1993). According to Arat (2002), the proliferation of industries can also be linked to an increase in street trading and child labour. Social ills affecting children have been area of active empirical investigation. Indeed numerous studies exist on children who along with their parents are homeless, and children who hawk in the street before, after school and on weekends and holidays. This study will bring to light the dangers associated with street trading and child labour as reported by children who engage in these practices. The major objective will be to identify the health educational and social consequences of street trading and child labour in the Yenegoa metropolis of the Bayelsa State. In some cases children involved in child labour to help their parents or families in terms of  financial distress by paying for some or all of the family’s rent, food, clothes, utilities and so on. In addition to these expenses, national estimates put the number of children under 14 years of age working to pay for the cost of school at 8 million (fos, 2008). The same estimates reveal that about one (1) million children have been forced to drop out of school because their parents demand that they stop attending in order to boost the family income. These statistics most certainly carry consequences for manpower development and human resources of he nation.

 

.

CHILD HAWKING AND EDUCATIONAL DEVELOPMENT



TYPE IN YOUR TOPIC AND CLICK SEARCH.






RESEARCHWAP.NET
Researchwap.net is an online repository for free project topics and research materials, articles and custom writing of research works. We’re an online resource centre that provides a vast database for students to access numerous research project topics and materials. Researchwap.net guides and assist Postgraduate, Undergraduate and Final Year Students with well researched and quality project topics, topic ideas, research guides and project materials. We’re reliable and trustworthy, and we really understand what is called “time factor”, that is why we’ve simplified the process so that students can get their research projects ready on time. Our platform provides more educational services, such as hiring a writer, research analysis, and software for computer science research and we also seriously adhere to a timely delivery.

TESTIMONIES FROM OUR CLIENTS


Please feel free to carefully review some written and captured responses from our satisfied clients.

  • "Exceptionally outstanding. Highly recommend for all who wish to have effective and excellent project defence. Easily Accessable, Affordable, Effective and effective."

    Debby Henry George, Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, USA.
  • "I saw this website on facebook page and I did not even bother since I was in a hurry to complete my project. But I am totally amazed that when I visited the website and saw the topic I was looking for and I decided to give a try and now I have received it within an hour after ordering the material. Am grateful guys!"

    Hilary Yusuf, United States International University Africa, Nairobi, Kenya.
  • "Researchwap.net is a website I recommend to all student and researchers within and outside the country. The web owners are doing great job and I appreciate them for that. Once again, thank you very much "researchwap.net" and God bless you and your business! ."

    Debby Henry George, Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, USA.
  • "Great User Experience, Nice flows and Superb functionalities.The app is indeed a great tech innovation for greasing the wheels of final year, research and other pedagogical related project works. A trial would definitely convince you."

    Lamilare Valentine, Kwame Nkrumah University, Kumasi, Ghana.
  • "I love what you guys are doing, your material guided me well through my research. Thank you for helping me achieve academic success."

    Sampson, University of Nigeria, Nsukka.
  • "researchwap.com is God-sent! I got good grades in my seminar and project with the help of your service, thank you soooooo much."

    Cynthia, Akwa Ibom State University .
  • "Sorry, it was in my spam folder all along, I should have looked it up properly first. Please keep up the good work, your team is quite commited. Am grateful...I will certainly refer my friends too."

    Elizabeth, Obafemi Awolowo University
  • "Am happy the defense went well, thanks to your articles. I may not be able to express how grateful I am for all your assistance, but on my honour, I owe you guys a good number of referrals. Thank you once again."

    Ali Olanrewaju, Lagos State University.
  • "My Dear Researchwap, initially I never believed one can actually do honest business transactions with Nigerians online until i stumbled into your website. You have broken a new legacy of record as far as am concerned. Keep up the good work!"

    Willie Ekereobong, University of Port Harcourt.
  • "WOW, SO IT'S TRUE??!! I can't believe I got this quality work for just 3k...I thought it was scam ooo. I wouldn't mind if it goes for over 5k, its worth it. Thank you!"

    Theressa, Igbinedion University.
  • "I did not see my project topic on your website so I decided to call your customer care number, the attention I got was epic! I got help from the beginning to the end of my project in just 3 days, they even taught me how to defend my project and I got a 'B' at the end. Thank you so much researchwap.com, infact, I owe my graduating well today to you guys...."

    Joseph, Abia state Polytechnic.
  • "My friend told me about ResearchWap website, I doubted her until I saw her receive her full project in less than 15 miniutes, I tried mine too and got it same, right now, am telling everyone in my school about researchwap.com, no one has to suffer any more writing their project. Thank you for making life easy for me and my fellow students... Keep up the good work"

    Christiana, Landmark University .
  • "I wish I knew you guys when I wrote my first degree project, it took so much time and effort then. Now, with just a click of a button, I got my complete project in less than 15 minutes. You guys are too amazing!."

    Musa, Federal University of Technology Minna
  • "I was scared at first when I saw your website but I decided to risk my last 3k and surprisingly I got my complete project in my email box instantly. This is so nice!!!."

    Ali Obafemi, Ibrahim Badamasi Babangida University, Niger State.
  • To contribute to our success story, send us a feedback or please kindly call 2348037664978.
    Then your comment and contact will be published here also with your consent.

    Thank you for choosing researchwap.com.