COMPREHENSIVE DESIGN PROPOSAL AND CONSTRUCTION MANAGEMENT EXPERTISE FOR THE ACADEMIC LIBRARY
1.1 Background of the Study:
A libraryis an organized collection of sources of information and similar resources, made accessible to a defined community for reference or borrowing. It provides physical or digital access to material, and may be a physical building or room, or a virtual space, or both. The term library has itself acquired a secondary meaning; a collection of useful material for common use, and in this sense is used in fields such as computer science, mathematics and statistics, electronics and biology. Generally speaking, a library is a collection of information, sources, resources, and services. A library's collection can include books, periodicals, newspapers, manuscripts, films, maps, prints, documents, microform, CDs, cassettes, videotapes, DVDs, Blu-ray Discs, e-books, audiobooks, databases, and other formats. Libraries range in size from a few shelves of books to several million items.(Gupta, 2002).
A library is organized for use and maintained by a public body, an institution, a corporation, or a private individual. Public and institutional collections and services may be intended for use by people who choose not to or cannot afford to purchase an extensive collection themselves, who need material no individual can reasonably be expected to have, or who require professional assistance with their research. In addition to providing materials, libraries also provide the services of librarians who are experts at finding and organizing information and at interpreting information needs. Libraries often provide quiet areas for studying, and they also often offer common areas to facilitate group study and collaboration. Libraries often provide public facilities for access to their electronic resources and the Internet.(Halsey, et al., 2009).
Modern libraries are increasingly being redefined as places to get unrestricted access to information in many formats and from many sources. They are extending services beyond the physical walls of a building, by providing material accessible by electronic means, and by providing the assistance of librarians in navigating and analyzing very large amounts of information with a variety of digital tools. In addition to maintaining collections within library buildings, modern libraries often feature telecommunication links that provide users with access to information at remotes sites. The central mission of a library is to collect, organize, preserve and provide access to knowledge and information. In fulfilling this mission, libraries preserve avaluable record of culture that can be passed down to succeeding generations. Libraries are an essential link in this communication the past, present, and future. Whether the cultural record is contained in books or in electronic formats, libraries ensure that the record is preserved and made available for later use. Libraries provide people with access to the information they need to work, play, learn, and govern. Therefore a library building is a structure which houses the various activities as described above. Thompson, James. (Ed.). (1980), (Gupta, 2002).
An academic library is a library that is attached to a higher education institution which serves two complementary purposes to support the school's curriculum, and to support the research of the university faculty and students. It is unknown how many academic libraries there are internationally. The support of teaching and learning requires material for class readings and for student papers. In the past, the material for class readings, intended to supplement lectures as prescribed by the instructor, has been called reserves. In the period before electronic resources became available, the reserves were supplied as actual books or as photocopies of appropriate journal articles. (Halsey, et al., 2009).
Academic libraries must determine a focus for collection development since comprehensive collections are not feasible. Librarians do this by identifying the needs of the faculty and student body, as well as the mission and academic programs of the college or university. When there are particular areas of specialization in academic libraries these are often referred to as niche collections. These collections are often the basis of a special collection department and may include original papers, artwork, and artifacts written or created by a single author or about a specific subject. The academic library today is also no longer conceived as an ivory tower would with a collection of books and non-book materials, but a dynamic instrument of education (Thompson, 1980).
The primary function of academic library is to provide facilities for study, research and teachings. The true nature and efficiency of an institution is judged by the treatment to its library. The library operates within the governing framework of that institution which is characterized by academic, financial and building policies. In line with this realization of purpose is a true measurement of its importance in academics. The academic library should therefore provide fundamental services affecting the whole university without which it ceases to function as a center for teaching, researching and learning.
1.2 Statement of the Design problem
Each city has glamorousbuildings which dominatethe urban pattern – a capital or city hall, court house or post office, cathedral, temple, tower or public library. However, a college or university may have but one, and often the library is one to wear the crown of the campus.
Also the beginning of the 20th century saw a gradual change in the philosophy of the library's place in the university.
Increased research, new methods of instruction and more publications were instrumental in bringing about a change in the concept of the university library and it also became apparent that the strength of the teaching and research program was dependent upon the strength of the library. The basic function of an academic setting to educate its members is simply an invisible reality without the existence of a modern and well serviced academic library. This project borne out of the need to provide the client – Adeleke University a purpose built library facility that has a befitting structure and depicts the image of a University of international standard taking intoconsideration the incidence of technological advancement in modern libraries.
1.3 Aim and Objectives:
The aim of this study is to design a library for a new and fast growing approved private university while taking into consideration technological advancement in the design and use of modern libraries.
The objectives are to:
⦁ Study existing university library buildings;
⦁ Examine the quality, technical, functional and; behavioral aspects of the existing academic library buildings;
⦁ Examine performance standards and functional requirements in relation to library buildings;
⦁ Carry out a detailed literature review about libraries (their history, plan form and the necessary requirements for basic library design);
⦁ Based on the detailed examination of existing library buildings and literaturereview, present a detailed and specific analysis of all activities which are to beaccommodated in the proposed library building;
⦁ Produce a design that will suit the standards required for the teaching and research
Program me of the university;
⦁ Effectively use materials and building construction technologies to produce a well-balancedstructure and achieve a high level of aesthetic value.
⦁ Pay particular attention to use of computers, laptops, opac, e-library and order salient, ICT (Information and Communication technology) issues related to library design for this 21st century.
⦁ Enhance comfortable and eminent study conditions for readers and also cater for the rise in the quality of security of materials.
Adeleke University, a new and fast growing government approved private university with increased population ofstudents has a great demand in information needs. There can be no successful and meaning literacy campaign without a corresponding increase in the numbers of available libraries. Fundamentally, library is not just a building, but a service organization. The library is an integral unit of any educational programs, it not only supplements the efforts of formal education but it is also a vital instrument for self-education. The cultivation of reading habit would be of great use if adequate facilities and means of pursuing these habits were left un-provided.
The National Literacy Trust says that students who go to a library are twice as likely as those who don‘t to read well. It is not just picking up a book.
It is the social experience of reading, talking about the books, browsing, comparing what you have read with family and friends. Librarians are gate keepers in that process. They open doors to new worlds, new possibilities. They ask library visitors to evaluate the information on offer. Most importantly, they give access to narratives. Children and adults do not just need information to thrive as thinking beings, but stories. Libraries are the temple of story. They are not in decline because of some natural, historic progression, but because of the monstrous cultural vandalism of savage cost-cutting.
Today, however, the library is relinquishing its place as the top source of inquiry. Thereason that the library is losing its supremacy in carrying out this fundamental role is due, of course, to the impact of digital technology. As digital technology has pervaded every aspect ofour civilization, it has set forth a revolution not only in how we store and transmit recordedknowledge, historical records, and a host of other kinds of communication but also in how weseek and gain access to these materials.
1.5 Scope of the project
The scope of the project is to provide a comprehensive design proposal and construction management expertise for the academic library. In this capacity, the architect will be responsible for the overall design from the conception stage to the final presentation.
The primary users of the library are the staff, student, researchers and general public in search of knowledge and the secondary users of the facility are the staff and workers of the library as it‘s a place of work for them.
1.7 The Client of the Project
1.7.1 The client
The client of the proposed library is Adeleke University, Ede, Osun State, Nigeria.
1.7.2 Client’s Background: Adeleke University, Ede.
The educational venture that has today bloomed into Adeleke University had its beginning in the Springtime Development Foundation (SDF) (RC No. 8109), a not-for-profit, Non-Governmental organization (NGO) founded in 1996 by Dr. AdedejiAdeleke. The SDF came with a vision to empower disadvantaged communities, people and individuals to improve themselves and their environments. Within ten years of its existence, the SDF had registered operational presence in every state in Nigeria assisting people at the grass roots level of the populace to attain higher quality of life.
By its charter, the SDF provides material relief to the poor and needy as well as victims of natural and social disaster. However, SDF intervention goes beyond alleviating aids. It seeks permanent solutions to the problem of poverty, diseases, hunger, and ignorance, social and political disabilities. This is where its educational intervention through the establishment of ADELEKE UNIVERSITY finds relevance. The SDF has as its mission statement “to provide appropriate physical and social basic structure upon which the less-privilege in any target people-group can be encouraged to build sustainable decent quality life”
In doing this, the SDF had certain cardinal areas of emphasis such as Community Development, Educational Services Development, Skill Development, Health Services Development and Welfare and Relief Services. In other to realize its educational services objective,
ADELEKE UNIVERSITY was established to play a vital role. The University is SDF’s response to the realization that education is the bedrock of development. It is a more important attempt at going beyond assisting students with equipment and infrastructure, providing scholarships to indigent students as well as donation of books. With the establishment of ADELEKE UNIVERSITY and the giving of its charter by the National University Commission, it has come to provide a suitable avenue for students from all nations, race, color and ethnic groups to realize their full potential. The idea is to teach people how to fish rather than giving them fishes. With the education of the younger generation, the SDF through Adeleke University believes that poverty, ignorance and diseases will give way to prosperity.
1.7.3 Faculties and Departments
The university is currently running the following Undergraduate programs,
⦁ Faculty of business and social sciences
⦁ Accounting Business
⦁ Administration Economics
⦁ Library and Information Science
⦁ Mass Communication
⦁ Political Science
⦁ Public Administration
⦁ Faculty of arts
⦁ History and international studies
⦁ Language and Literary Studies
⦁ Religious Studies
⦁ Faculty of law
⦁ Faculty of engineering
⦁ Agricultural Engineering
⦁ Civil Engineering
⦁ Electronics and Electrical Engineering
⦁ Mechanical Engineering
⦁ Faculty of health sciences
1.7.4 Client’s Motto
The motto of the university is “education, Excellence and Character”
Education:-the experience that has formative effect on the mind, character or physical ability of an individual. Most fundamental building blocks for human development.
Excellence:-Eminence, a talent or quality that surpasses ordinary standard.
Character:-distinctive quality that makes or distinguishes an individual. (http//www.adelekeuniversityedu.ng/aboutus/2015-06-04-10-55/history)
1.7.5 Client’s Mission
The pursuit of truth and preservation, advancement and transmission of knowledge through high-quality general, professional and vocational education geared towards preparing people for dedicated service to humanity.
1.7.6 Client’s Vision
Excelling in high quality teaching, research and innovative learning with the capacity to compete globally.
1.7.7 Client’s Administrative / organization structure
The administrative organs for the governance of the university are as follows:
i. The Board of Trustees
The president, spring time development foundation (SDF), acting in the consultation with general executive, is empower to constitute, appoint, remove and replace members of the university. The board of trustees of the university consists of 9 members. The current president of spring time development (SDF), Dr. AdedejiAdeleke is the chairman of the board of trustees
ii. The Council and its Committees
Subject to powers conferred on the Board of Trustees, the Council is the governing body of the University and is charged with the general control and superintendence of the policy, finances and property of the university, including the public relations. The council operates with a number of committees including:
⦁ The Finance and General Purposes Committee
⦁ The Development Committee
⦁ Audit Committee and
⦁ Three Appointment Committees in charge of the appointments and promotions of Junior, Senior, Teaching and Non-Teaching Staff.
iii. The Senate and its committees
It is the responsibility of the senate to organize and control:
⦁ The teaching activities of the university
⦁ The admission to undergraduate and post-graduate courses
⦁ The promotion of research in the university.
iv. The Congregation
The congregation consists of the vice chancellor, the deputy vice chancellor, the registrar, the bursar, the full time members of the academic staff and every member of the administrative staff who holds a degree of any University recognized by the Vice Chancellor, not being an honorary degree. The congregation meets at least once a semester to discuss the general welfare of staff under the chairmanship of the Vice Chancellor.
v. The Convocation
The convocation consists of:
⦁ All Principal Officer of the University
⦁ The Principal Officers of the University are the Visitor, the Chancellor, Pro Chancellor/ Chairman of Council, Vice Chairman, Governing Council, Vice Chancellor, Registrar, Bursar and University Librarian
⦁ All the teaching staff of the University
⦁ All the graduates of the university registered in the Register of Members of Convocation in accordance with the relevant laws.
Professor Oluwole O.G. Amusanis the current Vice Chancellor. The current Chancellor is Senator IsiakaAdeleke. The principal officers include Professor Tijani Hakeem Ibikunle
(Deputy Vice Chancellor) Chief (Mrs) Adeleke – SanniModupe, as well as Ven. Olusegun O. Ojo, the Registrar, and other members of management.
1.8 The Design Programming
Programming is a process of identifying and defining the direct needs of a facility and
Communicating the requirement of the client to the designer. Programming involves the gathering of information, information required for design and the use of building. This definition emphasizes that;
⦁ Programming is a process of defining the problem
⦁ Programming is a process of defining the problem in a manner capable of solution
⦁ The main idea is that programming is a design process (whether pre, in and post design processing)
1.8.1 Purpose of Programming
Some of the purposes for preparing the program are to;
⦁ Design a road map for the design process, with the aim of meeting the desired goals of the project, reducing the eminent cost and schedule variability that occurs during the life of the project.
⦁ Designers need to be well informed about the brief requirement and that the proposals conform to an acceptable standard and regulation.
⦁ It provides architects and designers with a concise source of core information needed to form a frame work for detail planning of the similar building project.
⦁ It assists in establishing a basis for assigning functions to different parts of a building. It helps us to provide information of a specification for furniture and individual layout.
⦁ Providing for credibility in growths and changes in function.
1.8.2 Methods of Obtaining and Collection of Data
An in-depth data collection method will be adopted for this design and it includes the followings:
(i) A study of the significant literature dealing with university library buildings. Thisstudy is reflected in the selected references included in this report.
(ii) An attempt to define the place of the library in the university in terms of (a) philosophy, aim and functions of the library; (b) trends in university library buildings; (c) recent educational trends and their relationship to the library; (d) functions of the major divisions of a university library.
(iii) Inspection trip to Universities that have constructed new library buildings in the past few years.
(iv)Visit to Adeleke University Campus (permanent site) to get a better understanding of the site allocated for the proposed library.
1.9 Program Organization
The general outline of this programme discusses the considerations involved in the design of academic library.
Chapter one gives general introduction and background information about libraries. It also gives details of aim, vision, mission and philosophy of the client with particular emphasis on issues relating to the functions of teaching and research programs to the library.
Chapter two provides a literature review of libraries ranging from historical review to different types of library typology through survey of the literature and definition of the place of the library in the university.
Chapter three provide extensive analysis of case studies both locally and internationallyevaluating their historical antecedent, spatial organization and conceptual approaches to library typology so as to become familiar with the particular problem involved.
The chapter four of the programme deals with the design criteria, design brief, spatial and functional analysis, performance requirement and environmental and technological criteria. It also looks into legal requirements relating to the design of academic library such as planning regulation law.
Site and environmental analysis is discussed in chapter five and this covers the areas such environmental and climatic analysis of the site, topography, access and other relevant issues regarding the site. That is, it deals with site and environmental analysis, site constraints and site considerations.
Finally, the last chapter i.e. chapter six discussed the design approach and conceptadopted for the overall design, schematic of drawings and spatial analysis.
This whole process is not a simple linear sequence of logical steps leading neatly from one phase to another - of finding the right answer at each step or phase before progressing to the next - rather a series of actions comprising steps grouped for convenience into phases, some or all of which may occur simultaneously..