1.1 Background to the Study

Street hawking

is a form of selling of goods along the road from one place to the other (Umar 2009). It could also mean an act of canvassing for sale items carried by a hawker along the street, from house to house or in the public space (Ikechebebu2008) Street hawking is a veritable means of socialization in the western part of Nigeria and it is widely practiced despite the attendant moral and physical dangers for children  (Ebigbo  2003). In Nigeria, street hawking is done mostly by female children. Children hawk different items, ranging from food to different types of non-edible items. Some children have a particular spot where they stay to sell their wares. Some move from place to place along the street, while others go from door to door in residential area (Grootaert and Kanbur 1995). Child hawkers sell tray of goods on their head by moving from one street to the other. The hawker that sell similar goods walk different directions while those that sell goods that complement each other like food and drinks walk in the same direction. The youngest among these hawkers are followed by an adult child who also sells different things in order to teach the younger ones how to calculate or protect the child against any occurrence. These child hawkers shout on top of their voices to announce what they are selling in the community so as to attract the attention of intending buyer of their arrival.

Street hawking is rampant among children in Ibagi Local Government, Kogi state, Nigeria as was observed personally by the researcher. According to the local community leader, street hawking has been in existence there for a very long time. As the major occupation is farming and trading, during the time of trade by barter, when a farmer’s harvests crop, he takes from the harvested crops for food

consumption. The remaining has to be traded within the neighbourhood by the wives and children, so that they will get the money needed to purchase some other things needed in the household. Due to structural change (discovery of cruel oil), currently many people are moving out of the agricultural sector and migrating to the city for a decent job. There is not much attention for farming any longer. As a consequence most  households  nowadays  buy  things  for  the  children  to  hawk  around  the neighbourhood with their mother. By so doing, children are taught how to trade for future purposes (personal observation)

1.2 Statement of the Problem

The prevalence of child labour exist in various forms but some are clearly visible  than  the  other.  Children  are  seen  getting  involve  in  different  kind  of production work ranging from agriculture, manufacturing, industries and domestic work. In Nigeria, street hawking seems to be more popular form of child labour. Children hawk a wide range of cheap articles, edible and products such as sachet water,  vegetable,  bread,  slippers,  newspapers,  fruits  to  mention  but  few.  Street hawking is considered to be one form of child labour and exploitative because of the excessively long hour of trading by the children, hindrance of school attendance, effectiveness on child’s health (Ibanga 2007). Many Nigerian children are compelled to work because of their parents’ joblessness, poor or uneducated. Ibanga study shows that traditional custom especially polygamy contribute to poor living standard and push children into the street due to parents giving birth to many children. Some of the street hawking children spends the entire day and sometimes until late in the night  selling  goods  under  harsh  weather  condition.  These  forms  of  economic activities by children interfere with emotional, educational and social development of

children. There is a need to be specifically concerned about street hawking children. As indicated by Admassie  (2003), street hawking as a form of child labour is considered as violation children’s human rights in as much as children are force to partake in abusive, harmful and exploitative work which may affect their physical capabilities. It deprives children of their childhood freedom, that is, their right to play and recreate and of their natural development. Street hawking affects the educational development of a child and is a disinvestment in human capital formation and has negative effects on the private and social returns of a child (Admassie, 2002).

The social characteristic of household such as household income, household size, household head literacy level, sex of the household head and his/her perception of the relevance of child’s education for the future development will all be considered.

1.3 Objectives of the Study

The main objective of this research is to shed light on street hawking children in Ibagi Local Government Area of Kogi state, Nigeria and to inform policy makers  on  how  possibly to  support  these  children.  This  implies  pursuit  of  the following:

To investigate into the conditions of street hawking children in Ibagi local government, Kogi state.

To examine the influence and decision-making patterns of children, parents and/or other caretakers or peers as regards participation of children in street hawking.      To find out about efforts made to reduce street hawking or by relevant actors (government, NGOs, community and other).

To present the views of street hawking children on their situation and what they think will be an improvement for them.

To suggest ways to strengthen policy-intervention for street hawking children.

1.4 Research Questions

1. What are the forces that drive street hawking by children?

2. What are the working conditions for street hawking children?

3. What policies are in place to assist street hawking in Ibagi local government?

4. Are there interventions in support of street hawking children either from the government, NGOs or communities in Nigeria or elsewhere?

1.5 Research Hypotheses

1. There is no effect between street hawking and child academic performance.

2. Street Hawking does not have any effects on students’ academic performance.

3. The socio-economic status of parents is of no significant relationship to children’s involvement in street hawking.

1.6 Significance of the study

The main objective of this research work is to evaluate the “Prevalence and Perceived Effect of Street Hawking on Child Education in Ibagi Local Government Area”. The survey examines the extent to which Street Hawking have been felt so far affecting the Child Education in Kogi state.

1.7 Scope of the Study

Child hawking is a general social problem in Nigeria. It cuts across many states in Nigeria. However, this study covered only Ibagi Local Government

Area of Kogi state. Moreover, our study only covered street hawking as a sub-set of child labour.

1.8 Limitations of the Study

This study was limited by time. Fund was another imitating problem. The study was self sponsored by the researcher. Moreover, other educational resources and materials also posed limitations to the study.

1.9 Definition of Terms

Street Hawking: selling bags and sunglasses in the street ... Whether stationary or mobile, hawkers often advertise by loud street cries or chants

Education: is universally recognized as one of the most fundamental building blocks for human development and poverty reduction

Child Education: refers to the instruction and information given to the child for his personal development socially and psychologically.





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