THE ROLE OF SOCIAL STUDIES EDUCATION IN THE DEVELOPMENT OF LEADERSHIP QUALITIES IN SECONDARY SCHOOL STUDENTS
This topic of the study is the Role of Social Studies Education in the Development of leadership qualities among the secondary school students in Afikpo South Local Government Area of Ebonyi State. The purpose of this was to assess the extent to which social studies has significantly impacted on the leadership qualities among the secondary students. The population of the study was one thousand (1000) people. The sample size was two hundred (200) respondents were selected randomly from the analysis. Questionnaire was used for data collection while data collected were analyzed using simple percentage. The researcher made the following findings. The roles of social studies education in the development of leadership qualities among the secondary school students can never be over-emphasized, but it is alarming to note that the miss management of social inheritance especially in Afikpo South Local Government Area of Ebonyi State, also the research traced this problem to the lack implementation of social studies curriculum, which has contributed to the poor development of leadership qualities among the secondary school students. The researcher recommended that the school in Afikpo South local Government Area of Ebonyi State should know the implication of social studies. Curriculum on social studies should provide and improve the level of social studies taught in secondary school in order to create confidence and a sense of belonging among the secondary school students.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
TITLE PAGE ii
APPROVAL PAGE iii
CERTIFICATION PAGE iv
TABLE OF CONTENTSviii
CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION
Background of the Study 1
Statement of the Problem 6
Purpose of the Study 7
Significance of the Study 8
Scope of the Study 9
Research Question s 9
CHAPTER TWO: LITERATURE REVIEW
Conceptual Framework 10
Concept of Social Studies 11
Objective of Social Studies 14
Roles of Social Studies 15
Concept of Education 16
Concept of Leadership 17
Types of Leadership 18
Qualities of Leadership 22
Concept of Development 22
Theoretical Framework 25
Empirical Studies 27
Summary of Literature Review 42
CHAPTER THREE: RESEARCH METHOD
Design of the Study 44
Area of the Study 44
Population of the Study 45
Sample and Sampling Techniques 45
Instrument for Data Collection 45
Validation of the Instrument 45
Reliability of the Instrument 46
Method of Data Collection 46
Method of Data Analysis 46
CHAPTER FOUR: PRESENTATION OF RESULTS
Research Question 47
CHAPTER FIVE: DISCUSSION, IMPLICATION, RECOMMENDATION
CONCLUSION AND SUMMARY OF THE STUDY
Discussion of the Result 54
Educational Implication 56
Limitation of the Study 57
Suggestion for the Further Study 58
Background of the Study
Social studies is the study of man and his physical and social environments and of how man interacts with others. Oketa (2001) defined social studies as a discipline which focuses on man and his relationship or interactions with society (other men) and with his environment. Aneke (2005) stated that social studies is a programme of study which a society uses actions which it considers important, concerning the relationship human beings have with each other, their world and themselves. Social studies is an area curriculum designed specifically for the study of man and how his problems could be solved within the immediate environment, not only concern with using timely and necessary curriculum content that students perceive as being relevant, but preeminently emphasized the need for helping pupils develop the competencies and attitude essential for democratic living.
Social Studies is one of the basic education subjects in Nigerian education system. Social Studies as school subject deals with the study of man in relationship with his social and physical environment (Nnamani, 2011). Environment is anything that surrounds man which influences man’s thinking and ideas positively or negatively. The environment of man could be social economics, politics, cultural and physical (Dubey in Ndan, 2011). Social environment refers to people in our society and their relationship with each other, how man interact, provide his needs and solve his problems, while physical environment refers to physical things that surrounds man such as building, atmosphere, plains, mountains and among others that influences his behavior positively or negatively (Odedele & Egotanwa, 2012). However, Engle (2012) defines Social Studies as a discipline on its own right, drawing knowledge from all the social science disciplines dealing directly with social ideas and problems as they occur to the average citizen. Similarly, Jiboku (2012) observes that Social Studies is the aspect of learning which deals with how to get on with one’s environment, both physical and human which involves development of skills, knowledge, attitude and values that characterize responsive and responsible citizenship in a free and democratic society. It is a programme of study that a society uses to inculcate in the students the knowledge, skills, attitudes and activities that are essential in man’s survival as he interact with his environment (Enem, 2012).
Social Studies is recommended to be taught at the upper basic education levels in Nigeria. That is, JSS 1-3 respectively (Federal Republic of Nigeria, 2012). The philosophy of social studies in Nigerian school is to make students competent in decision making, problem solving, dealing with change and developing attitude appropriate for effective citizenship in a pluralist democratic society (Okobia, 2013). This philosophy cannot be achieved without effective implementation of designed curriculum. Social Studies junior secondary school level desires its contents from broad range of subjects such as Economics, Anthropology, Philosophy, Geography and History in addition to elementary or basic science as a result of the importance of science and technology in man’s day-to-day living (Bozimo & Ikwumelu, 2013). However, Okobia (2013) maintained that Social Studies at JSS level is an important subject because it is meant to prepare citizens for active participation in the society and help students acquire basic knowledge, positive attitude, values and social skills needed for responsible citizenship and contributing member of the society. Social Studies curriculum at JSS level adopted broad field approach and covers he areas like culture, time, continuity and change; people, individual and environments; individual development and identity; individual, groups and institutions, power, authority and governance; science, technology and society, global connection, social issues, civic ideas and practice (Universal Basic Education, 2015). Nevertheless, these revealed curriculum components cannot be achieved without the availability and utilization of relevant resources.
The mind of young ones needs to be exposed to critical thinking, analysis and problem solving strategies in a fast-changing world. In striving to achieve these goals, Social Studies curriculum employs a multi-disciplinary approach that takes cognizance of the socioeconomic, political, religious, physical, scientific and technological aspects of life. The contents of Social Studies at JSS level are thematically organized in order to make teaching and learning realistic. The objectives behind this position include; to help students develop ability to adapt to his or her changing environment; becomes responsible and disciplines individuals capable and willing to contribute to the development of the society; inculcate right type of values in learner; develop a sense of comprehension towards other people, their cultures, history and those fundamental things that could make them human; develop the capacity to recognize the many dimensions of human being in different cultural and social contents and develop a sense of solidarity and sharing based on a sense of security in one’s own identity (UBE, 2015)
One of the problems of the less developed countries is the problem of qualitative leadership. This type of leadership is necessary to give the holistic touch to all sectors of the society. Different disciples that are under human sciences have contributed different theories to improve the leadership styles of governing the communities. But it is dishearten that there has little or know development in the quality of leadership among the countries of the world. What then is this quality leadership the world lack?
According to Okoli (2015) qualitative leadership that fundamental leadership that seems to improve the standard of living of the people in all ramification. This definition implies that qualitative education touches the following aspect of human life. Social, Economy, Cultural, Educational, Religious, Moral etc. These qualitative education is among the disciples that are interested in the development of the society through purposeful leadership and inculcation of fundamental principles of life among the people.
According to Uche (2014) qualitative leadership is kind of leadership that has meaningful direction, nature which is meant to bearing positive development in the society.
According to Chukwu (2015) social studies education has the following functions which when emulated by the leaders is capable of transforming the human society into a better society. Inculcation of positive vision, motivation, service to humanity, thoroughness, management ability, Team building spirit, taking risk and all round human improvement.
The above mentioned social studies education functions are equally fundamental function of a qualitative leader whose vision and mission are expected to bring a sustainable development to the people. There is a co-relation between social studies education and qualitative leadership in the society.
According to Nigeria’s National Youths development policy (2001) the student comprises all the young people who are under eighteen years and who are citizen of Nigeria within the recent year increasing attention by the government, organizations, responsible parents and professionals as well as education has been paid for the development of the discipline of social studies with social educational principles and practical skill that will enable them develop leadership qualifies saying thus “catch them young students have innate talent that need to be exploited and developed. The school is always seen as a powerful dynamic instrument for social, political scientific and technological development of nations. The development of leadership qualities through social studies has general been the corner stone of educational policies. In Nigeria past police including the National Policy on Education 1998 have been pursed with the sole objective to improving the teaching the social studies through developing the students and their qualities despite all efforts put in place, most students have not benefited from the programmes, previous committed half based or both, such that no serious impact has made on the student. Adegun (2015) Education is a form of investment of human capital which yields benefits for national transformation. He also stressed that producing more effective leader is essential to build a better society and better world. Good leader develop through a never ending process or self study, education training and experience.
Statement of the Problem
There is a long age battle for the purposeful leadership among the people of Afikpo South Local Government Area Ebonyi State which has caused some degree of underdevelopment to the society. This tussle among the community has brought enmity, hatred, jealous, infrastructural delay, and inter-communal crises among the people.
This lack of purposeful leadership has brought poor representation of the people in government or political position. It has lead to poor accessibility of educational facilities among the people. The disadvantage of purposeful leadership in Afikpo South Local Government Area of Ebonyi State can only be imaging in seen in other to find purposeful leadership to this community. Their had to be examination of cases of purposeful leadership and effect of purposeful leadership in this society. Among the human sciences we can say that the idea of purposeful leadership is imbedded in social studies education because it is a disciples that deal with human societies and activities of human beings in the society.
It is against these backdrops that the researcher want to carryout a research on the roles of social studies education in the development of leadership qualities among secondary school student in Afikpo South Local Government Area of Ebonyi State.
Purpose of the Study
The purpose of the study is to find out the roles of social studies education in the development of leadership qualities among secondary school students in Afikpo South Local Government Area of Ebonyi State.
Specifically, the researcher intended to determine:
i. to what extent has social studies impact significantly on the leadership qualities of the students in Afikpo South Local Government Area of Ebonyi State
ii. to what extent has social studies education provided qualitative leadership training in the society.
iii. what are the constraints confronting the success of leadership qualities of students in Afikpo South Local Government Area of Ebonyi State
iv. what are the remedies of improving in the leadership qualities.
Significance of the Study
The research work would be beneficial to the following people and institution, ministry of education, parents, leaders, researchers, and members of academic communities.
The ministry of education will benefit from the finding of the research which would enable them to strengthen their curriculum on social studies education so that it can become more useful in the search for qualitative leadership. The parent will find the findings of this research meaningful as they will advices their children to study social studies education at all level of education in order to become good leader.
The leaders will find this research relevant to increase their sense of leadership in the society.
The researchers on meaningful or purposeful leadership will find this research beneficial in the act of theorize qualitative leadership.
The members of academic community will find this work beneficial because it will increase their sense of leadership and carryout research on leadership.
Scope of the Study
The study is delimited to the role of social studies education in the development of leadership qualities among the secondary school students. It covers some communities in Afikpo South Local Government Area of Ebonyi State.
The following research question raised to guide the study
1. To what extent has social studies significantly impacted on the leadership qualities of the students in Afikpo South Local Government Area of Ebonyi State?
2. To what extent has social studies education provided qualitative leadership training in the society?
3. What are the constraints confronting the success of leadership qualities of students in Afikpo South Local Government Area of Ebonyi State?
4. What are the remedies of improving in the leadership qualities?.