INFLUENCE OF AVAILABILITY OF INSTRUCTIONAL FACILITIES AND TEACHERS’ INSTRUCTIONAL METHODS ON ACADEMIC STUDENTS’ PERFORMANCE IN SHORTHAND IN COLLEGES OF EDUCATION


INFLUENCE OF AVAILABILITY OF INSTRUCTIONAL FACILITIES AND TEACHERS’ INSTRUCTIONAL METHODS ON ACADEMIC STUDENTS’ PERFORMANCE IN SHORTHAND IN COLLEGES OF EDUCATION  

ABSTRACT

This study investigated the influence of availability and use of instructional facilities and teacher‟s instructional methods on students‟ academic performance in shorthand in Colleges of Education Akwanga and Pankshin. Two sets of questionnaire were raised to guide the study, while two hypotheses were formulated and tested at 0.05 level of significance. The study assessed the variables responsible for students‟ poor performance in shorthand examinations. our research questions were raised to guide the study, while four null hypotheses were formulated and tested at 0.05 level of significant. The primary data for the study were collected through the use of questionnaire, while the secondary data for literature review were collected from available literature on the topic. Since the population of the study was not too large, the study did not adopt any sampling technique to select the respondents. The population of fifty which was manageable enough was used as sampled population for the study. The data were presented using table tabular statistical system, and analysis of the research questions was done using simple 2.50 mean criterion for acceptance of items. The Pearson Product Moment Correlation Coefficient (PPMCC) was used to test hypotheses 1, 2, and 3, while the t-test statistical analysis was used to test hypothesis 4. The findings of the research revealed that inadequate qualified shorthand teaching staff, inadequate laboratory facilities, and the use of ineffective teaching techniques by shorthand lecturers were the major causes of students‟ poor academic performance in shorthand examinations. It was also revealed that some of the few available shorthand laboratory facilities in the colleges were not functioning. The study further revealed that there was no significant difference between College of Education Pankshin and College of Education Akwanga on the impact of available laboratory facilities and teaching techniques. In view of this, the research recommended that government and college managements should equip shorthand

laboratories with adequate functional facilities, qualified shorthand lecturers should be employed while the unqualified ones should be encouraged to go for further study and attend conferences and workshops to update their knowledge on shorthand. Lecturers teaching shorthand should adopt effective teaching techniques in teaching shorthand, They are encouraged to improvise teaching-aids locally and to develop techniques of encouraging students that are hardworking so as to stimulate the weak ones to wake up.

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Page

Title Page . . . . . . , i

Declaration . . . . . . . . . . . . . ii

Certification iii

Dedication iv

Acknowledgement v

Table of Contents . . . , vi

Abbreviations x

List of Tables . . . , .   . . . . . . . . . xi

List of Appendices xii

Operational Definition of Terms xiii

Abstract . . . . . . . . . . . . . xv

CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION

Background to the Study.   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   ..   .   .1

Statement of the Problem . . . . . . . . ..   .   .3

Objectives of the Study .   .   .   .   .   .   .   ..   .   .   .   .4

Research Questions . . . . . . ..   .   .   .   .   ..4

Research Hypotheses . . . . . ..   .   .   .   .   ..   .5

Significance of the Study . . . . ..   .   .   .   .   ..   .5

1.7 Basic Assumption .   . . .   .   .   .   .   . . . . . .   . 6

1.8 Delimitation of the Study .   . .   .   .   .   .   . . . . 7

CHAPTER TWO : REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE

2.1  Theoretical Framework for the Study 8

2.2 Conceptual Framework .   .   .   .   .   . . . . . 13

2.3  Instructional Method . . . . . . . . 20

Instructional Method and Students‟ Performance..23

Instructional Facilities .....   ...   .24

Instructional Facilities and Students‟ Performance ...26

Empirical Studies . . ......   ....27

Summary of Literature Review ....   ...   .32

CHAPTER THREE: RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODOLOGY

Research Design....   .......34

Population for the Study35

Sample Size, and Sample Technique35

Instrument for Data Collection ..   ......35

3.4.1 Pilot Study . . . . . .   . . . . . . 36

Validity of the Instrument..   ......36

Reliability of the Instrument .. ......37

Procedure for Data Collection ...   ....37

Procedure for Data Analysis ...   ....   .38

CHAPTER FOUR: PRESENTATION AND ANALYSIS OF DATA

Analysis of Data to Answer the Research Questions ..39

Research Question 1 . . . . . . 39

Research Question 2 . . . . . . . 42

Research Question 3 43

Research Question 4 . . . . . . 44

Hypotheses Testing........45

Hypothesis 1 . . . . . . 45

Hypothesis 2 . . .

Hypothesis 3 . .

. . . 47

. . . 48

Hypothesis 4 . . . . . . 49

Summary of Major Findings51

Discussion of Findings52

CHAPTER FIVE: SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATI ONS

Summary55

Contribution to Knowledge55

5.3 Conclusion . . . . . . . . . 56

Recommendations56

Suggestion for further studies57

References 58

Appendices . . . . . . .   . 63

ABREVIATIONS

FGRs  - First Group of Respondents

NBTE  - National Board for Technical Education NCE - National Certificate of Education

NCCE   - National Commission for Colleges of Education NPC - National Population Commission

TVE - Technical and Vocational Educators UBE - Universal Primary Education

NUC - National University Commission US - Unsatisfied

S - Satisfied

LIST OF TABLES

Page

Table 1: Shorthand Instructional Facilities 1 25

Table 2:

Shorthand Instructional Facilities

2

26

Table3:

Shorthand Teaching Aid

26

Table 3.1 Population of the Study 35

Table 4.1 Staff Educational Qualification 40

Table 4.2

Mean and Standard Deviation of Available Shorthand Teachers and Their Influence on Students‟ Academic Performance in Colleges of Education Akwanga and Pankshin

41

Table 4.3Mean and Standard Deviation of Teachers‟ use of Instructional Method and their Influence on Students‟ Academic Performance in Colleges of Education Akwanga and Pankshin

42

Table 4.4Mean and Standard Deviation of Available Instructional Facilities and their Influence on Students‟ Academic Performance in Colleges of Education Akwanga and Pankshin

43

Table 4.5Mean and Standard Deviation of the differences between College of Education Akwanga and College of Education Pankshin on the influence of Instructional Facilities and Teachers‟ use of Instructional Methods on Students‟ Academic Performance in Colleges of Education Akwanga and Pankshin

44

Table 4.6 Correlation Test of Available Shorthand Teachers and their Influence on Students‟ Academic Performance in Shorthand in Colleges of

of Education Akwanga and Pankshin

46

Table 4.7Correlation Test of Teachers‟ use of Instructional Methods and their Influence on Students‟ Academic Performance in Colleges of Education Akwanga and Pankshin

47

Table 4.8Correlation Test of Available Instructional Facilities and their influence on Students‟ Academic Performance in Colleges ofEducation Akwanga and Pankshin

48

Table 4.9 t-test of the differences between College of Education Akwanga and College

of Education Pankshin on the influence of Instructional Facilities and Teachers‟ use of Instructional Methods on Students‟ Academic Performance in Colleges

of Education Akwanga and Pankshin 50

LIST OF APPENDICES

Pages

Appendix

„A‟

Letter of Introduction

63

Appendix „B‟ Introductory Letter to the Respondents 64

Appendix „C‟ Questionnaire for the Teachers 65

Appendix „D‟ Introductory Letter to the Respondents 70

Appendix „E‟ Questionnaire for Students 71

Appendix „F‟ Akwanga College of Education Business Education Department

Students‟ Shorthand Academic Result 2011 – 2014 75

Appendix „G‟ Pankshin Federal College of Education, Business Education Department Students‟ Shorthand Academic Result in Shorthand Examinations

2011 – 2014 76

Appendix „H‟ Correlation Analysis of Hypotheses 77

Operational Definition of Terms Academic Performance in Shorthand:

Refers to the students‟ ability to pass the prescribed test or examination with high grade in shorthand.

Adequate: In this research, adequate means the availability of instructional facilities in qualitative and quantitative terms, and also qualified shorthand teaching staff.

.Equipment: This term refers to the things needed for a particular purpose.

They are tangible things. For the purpose of this study, equipment refers to typewriters, ICT accessories like computers, stop watch, chalkboard, student chair and desks, standby electric plant /generator, textbooks, file cabinets, radios, television, students dictating machine, typewriters, electric plant /generator, etc.

Instructional Facilities: For the purpose of this study, facilities refer to shorthand studio , typing pool, model office, library, ICT components such as network services: ICT Laboratory, staff offices, Classrooms/lecture theatres, tables, desks, computers typewriters, shorthand textbooks ( they are shorthand instructional

facilities)

Influence:: For the purpose of this study, influence refers to the force with

which facilities and equipment have affected students‟ academic performance in shorthand.

Student’s Performance: This term refers to the achievement of students in shorthand test or examination in relation to academic grades.

Shorthand: Is a core course in office education option. It is the Pitman Shorthand The act of representing spoken sound by written signs.

Instructional Method: In this study, it means the effective ways/styles of teaching skill Subjects such as shorthand. These are demonstration, drilling, lecture, Cooperative learning, drama, dictation, reading rate etc.

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

Background to the Study

Business education as a component of technical and vocational education is said to be a set of instructions that prepare students for jobs in the business world. Business education, like many other courses is aimed at providing an individual with knowledge, skills, aptitudes and methods required in business training. Thus, Business Education is the preparation of individuals for enterprises or employment. The philosophy behind business education is to prepare its graduates for work and for the development of the society. Aliyu (2004) explained that business education programme is a programme that incorporated all business courses. These include Business Administration, Marketing, Accounting, purchase and Supply, Business Studies, Secretarial Studies etc, while at the teacher education level three major components are identified, thus: Accounting Education, Distributive/Marketing Education, Office Tecchnology Management.

Adeshina and Aliyu (2011) stated that Office Education is part of Business Education programme that equips students with all office technology management domain in order to be effective and efficient. Office Education as a programme of study in Business Education programme is expected to be equipped with instructional facilities such as typewriters, computers, photocopier, scanners, projectors, standby electric plant/generator, air-conditioners, radios/tape-recorders, video recorders, television, executive tables and chairs, executive cushiness, stop watch, console head phones among others, with qualified teachers that could use varied teaching methods and techniques for teaching and learning. A pilot survey and interaction with some Business Educators and students (Office Option) in College of Education Gidan Waya

Kaduna State, revealed that some of the lecturers are ill-prepared as they are not aware of some facilities and equipment especially the emerging technologies in ICT. They seem to be aware of some of them in theory not in practice. The teaching of skill courses has shifted from traditional emphasis in chalk and talk to practical knowledge and manipulation of machines and equipment for skill acquisition.

The 2012 NCCE Minimum Guideline Standard states in clear terms the facilities and equipment required for teaching and learning office education courses at NCE level to include: Shorthand laboratory, Model Office fully equipped, Functional Typing Pools, Functional ICT laboratory, Comfortable Students Waver chairs and desks, Standby electric plant/generator, Fully equipped Staff Offices and Standard lecture theatres, Functional toiletry facilities among others. Osuala (2004) and Udoh (2010) are of the view that many colleges of education tend to prepare students with inadequate facilities and equipment, thereby, making office education graduates half-baked and incompetent to compete effectively in today‟s world of work which is full of challenges of modern equipment and facilities.

Shorthand a course taught under the Office Education option as the major thrust of this study has suffered tremendously in view of lack of adequate instructional facilities, qualified teachers and use of correct teaching methods. This has consequently led to students‟ mass failure, resulting into their mass defection from Office Option to Accounting Option. The poor academic performance in shorthand subject ma be attributed to the reason that students have preference for accounting option than secretarial option. To a large extend, it has not contributed to the achievement of the objectives for which the programme was designed.

Teaching Technique has to do with the methods and styles the teachers adopted to accomplish a desired purpose of teaching the students effectively. it implies that effective

teaching must be characterized by the use of teaching methods that are best for the attainment or development of required shorthand skills. Teaching skill requires varieties of methods such as lecture method, demonstration method. Generally, skill development requires practical demonstration and constant practice.

Based on the variables of this study upon which the background is built, the study therefore sets out to evaluate the influence of laboratory facilities, equipment and teaching methods on students‟ academic performance in shorthand in colleges of education in the North Central Zone of Nigeria.

Statement of the Problem

The increasing level of poor performance of students in shorthand in tertiary institutions calls for assessing the instructional and environmental facilities and teaching method that would improve the teaching of shorthand in colleges of education in North Central Zone in Nigeria. The poor performance of students in shorthand skill is evident on apparent poor performance in shorthand. Students‟ apparent poor performance in shorthand could be observed in appendices F and G which showed clearly five years shorhthand results (2010 – 2014). The results showed five years average performance of 34.33% and 27.07%. As shown from the five years‟ statistics in the two institutions, it cannot be clearly stated what factors that influence the students‟ poor performance in the skill. The researcher therefore wants to know which particular factors are responsible for the low students‟ performance in the two colleges.

Objective of the Study

The general objective of this study is to establish the influence of availability and use of instructional facilities and the teachers‟ instructional method on students‟ academic performance in shorthand in Colleges of Education in Akwanga and Pankshin. The specific objectives of this study are to:

1. find out the extend the available shorthand teachers influence students‟ academic performance in shorthand  in colleges of education  in Akwanga and Pankshin.

2. find out the extend the teaching methods used by teachers influence students‟ academic performance in shorthand in colleges of education Akwanga and Pankshin.

3. find out the extend that the teachers‟ use of the available instructional facilities influence students‟academic performance in shorthand in colleges of education Akwanga and Pankshin.

4. establish the difference that exists between Colleges of Education Akwanga and Pankshin on the influence of teachers‟ use of available instructional facilities and instructional methods on students‟ academic performance in shorthand.

Research Questions

Considering the specific objectives of the study, the following research questions were generated with particular focus on Colleges of Education Akwanga and  Pankshin.

1. To what extent does the available shorthand teachers influence students‟ academic performance in shorthand in Colleges of Education Akwanga and Pankshin?

2. To what extent does the teachers‟ use of instructional methods influence students‟ academic performance in shorthand in colleges of education Akwang and Pankshin ?

3. To what extent does the available instructional facilities affect students‟ academic performance in shorthand in colleges of education Akwang and Pankshin ?

4. establish the difference that exists between College of Education Akwanga and College of Education Pankshin on the influence of teachers‟ use of available instructional facilities, and instructional methods on students‟ academic performance in shorthand in colleges of education Akwang and Pankshin ?

Research Hypotheses

The following four null hypotheses are formulated to aid this study:

Ho1

The available shorthand teachers in the two colleges of education will not significantly influence students‟ academic performance in shorthand in colleges of education Akwanga and Pankshin.

Ho2

The shorthand teachers‟ instructional methods will not significantly influence students‟ academic performance in shorthand in colleges of education Akwanga and Pankshin.

.

Ho3

The teachers‟ use of available instructional facilities will not significantly influence students‟ academic performance in shorthand in colleges of education Akwanga and Pankshin.

Ho4

There will be no significant difference between College of Education Akwanga and College of Education Pankshin on the Influence of teachers‟ use of available instructional Facilities and Instructional methods on students‟ academic Performance in Shorthand.

Significance of the Study

It is hoped that the results of this research will be useful to the following: government, college managements, lecturers, students and future researchers in the following ways;

The government will benefit from this study as it will be an eye opener for it on the type of instructional facilities and office technology management teachers‟ training programmes for effective teaching and learning of shorthand.

Colleges of Education managements will understand the reasons for poor students academic performance in shorthand and thereby make effort to employ adequately qualified shorthand teachers and also provide the required instructional facilities for the teaching of shorthand.

Shorthand teachers would realize their weaknesses in teaching shorthand, and therefore, adopt effective instructional methods and effectively use available shorthand instructional facilities to teach shorthand.

The provision of appropriate shorthand instructional facilities, teaching aids and adequate shorthand teachers in the colleges of education studied will go a long way in stimulating shorthand students to develop interest in shorthand and work hard for improved shorthand academic performance.

This study would be a document of reference to students and scholars in general.

Basic Assumptions

This study assumed that:

i. The available shorthand teachers in the two colleges of education Akwang and Pankshin were not  adequately qualified to teach shorthand at NCE level.

ii. Shorthand teachers in the two colleges, Akwanga and Pankshin used ineffective instructional methods to teach students shorthand.

iii. Teachers‟ use of available instructional facilities in teaching shorthand in the two Colleges of Education has no influence on students‟ academic performance in shorthand.

iv. There is no significant difference on the influence of teachers‟ use of available instructional facilities and instructional methods on students‟ performance in shorthand in colleges of education Akwanga and Pankshin

Delimitation of the Study

This research covered the influence of the state of laboratory facilities, and teaching techniques on students‟ academic performance in shorthand in Colleges of Education Akwanga, Nassarawa State and Pankshin, Plateau State with particular reference to shorthand, a course offered within the Office Education Option in Business Education Department. It concerns itself with all the lecturers teaching shorthand, Heads of Departments and 300 level students‟ five years (2010 – 2014) results Business Education Departments in Akwanga and Pankshin Colleges of Education.

.

INFLUENCE OF AVAILABILITY OF INSTRUCTIONAL FACILITIES AND TEACHERS’ INSTRUCTIONAL METHODS ON ACADEMIC STUDENTS’ PERFORMANCE IN SHORTHAND IN COLLEGES OF EDUCATION



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