TEACHER INITIATIVES FOR UTILIZING INFORMATION AND COMMUNICATION TECHNOLOGIES (ICTs) IN TEACHING AND LEARNING IN COLLEGES OF EDUCATION
The major purpose of this study was to determine the teacher initiatives for utilizing ICTs in teaching and learning in Colleges of Education in Delta State. Four research questions were answered and four null hypotheses were tested at 0.05 level of significance. The population for the study consisted of 2035 made up of 610, 723 and 702 teaching staff from Federal College of Education (Technical), Asaba, College of Education, Agbor and College of Education, Warri respectively, the three Colleges of Education in Delta State. The sample size for the study was 203, which represents 10% of the entire population and was determined through proportionate sampling technique. Descriptive survey design was used to generate data for the study. Structured questionnaire was used to elicit information for the study. The instrument was face validated by three research experts, two from the faculty of Vocational and Technical Education, University of Nigeria, Nsukkaand one from Federal College of Education (Technical), Asaba. The questionnaire was pilot tested with a sample of 30 teaching staff from two Colleges of Education in Enugu State. Cronbach Alpha reliability test was used to determine the internal consistency of the instrument and this yielded a reliability coefficient of .82. Data were analysed using mean statistics for the research questions and ANOVA was used to test the null hypotheses at 0.05 level of significance. Based on the findings, it was revealed that there was no significant difference in the mean ratings of teaching staff from FCE(T), Asaba, COE, Agbor and COE, Warri on the teacher initiatives in the use of ICT infrastructure in teaching and learning in Colleges of Education in Delta State. It was concluded that for teachers in the colleges of education in Delta State to be able to effectively utilize information and communication technology (ICT), they would have to create initiatives which would develop their teaching skills and create the enabling environment for an effective teaching and learning process to take place. It was recommended thatteachers and school administrators should put in much effort in creating initiatives by means of sponsorship and retraining programs, seminars and conferences that will help the teachers utilize ICTs which will facilitate effective teaching and learning.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Title Page i
Approval Page ii
Table of Contents vi
List of Tables viii
CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION 1
Background of the Study 1
Statement of the Problem 11
Purpose of the Study 11
Significance of the Study 12
Research Questions 13
Delimitation of the Study14
CHAPTER TWO: REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE 15
Conceptual Framework 15
⦁ Concept of ICT 15
⦁ Concept of Initiatives 24
⦁ Teacher Initiatives in Higher Education 27
⦁ Teaching and Learning in Nigerian Higher Education 35
⦁ Prospects of ICT in Teacher Education 38
Theoretical Framework 39
⦁ Constructivism Learning Theory 39
⦁ Downes Siemens Connectivism Learning Theory 41
⦁ Technology Acceptance Model Theory 42
Review of Related Empirical Studies 43
Summary of Literature Reviewed 46
CHAPTER THREE: METHODOLOGY 48
Design of the Study 48
Area of the Study 48
Population of the Study 49
Sample and Sampling Technique 49
Instrument for Data Collection 49
Validation of the Instrument 50
Reliability of the Instrument 50
Method of Data Collection 51
Method of Data Analysis 51
CHAPTER FOUR: PRESENTATION AND ANALYSIS OF DATA
Research Question 1
Research Question 2
Research Question 3
Research Question 4
Test of Hypotheses
Findings of the Study
Discussion of Findings
CHAPTER FIVE: SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS
Re-statement of the Problem
Summary of Procedures Used
Summary of Findings
Implications of the Study
Suggestions for Further Studies
Appendix A: Population Distribution of Respondents 88
Appendix B: Letter of Introduction for Validation 89
Appendix C: Questionnaire 90
Appendix D: Letter to Validates 95
LIST OF TABLES
1. Mean ratings of the teacher initiatives in the use of ICT infrastructure
in teachingand learning in Colleges of Education in Delta State. 52
2. Mean ratings of the teacher initiatives for training teachers in the
utilization of ICT in teaching and learning in Colleges of Education in
Delta State. 53
3. Mean ratings of the teacher initiatives in the use of ICT in instructional
deliveryin teaching and learning in Colleges of Education in Delta State. 54
4. Mean ratings of the teacher initiatives in the use of ICT instructional as
materials in teaching and learning in Colleges of Education in Delta State. 55
5. Analysis of Variance on teacher initiatives in the use of ICT infrastructure
inteaching and learning in Colleges of Education in Delta State. 56
6. Analysis of Variance on teacher initiatives for training teachers in the
utilizationof ICT in teaching and learning in Colleges of Education in
Delta State. 57
7. Analysis of Variance on teacher initiatives in the use of ICT in instructional
delivery in teaching and learning in Colleges of Education in Delta State. 58
8. Analysis of Variance on teacher initiatives in the use of ICT as instructional
materials in teaching and learning in Colleges of Education in Delta State.59
Background of the Study
The development of a nation is measured by the quality of her education. Education holds the key to the economic, political, sociological and human resources development and well-being of any society (Oriafo, 2002). Idogho (2002) asserted that the objective of education is to prepare students to view their own society with some detachment; to compare it with other societies; to discover discrepancies and to acquire the will as well as the political and technological skills needed to work for change. Education prepares the individual for challenges of life. Consequently, Gujjar, Khan, Baig, Ramzan and Saifi (2010) opined that education does not only deliver information, but for developing complete personality of a child. In Nigeria, there are three levels of education: primary, secondary and tertiary levels. The tertiary level, otherwise known as higher education, is identified as the process that helps develop the whole man physically, mentally, morally and technologically, to enable him/her function effectively in any environment in which they find themselves so that they may become more productive, self-fulfilling and attain self-actualization (Aluede, 2004). Hence, the importance of higher education is to provide quality education for her products so that they can assume leadership positions in their immediate and external communities (FGN, 2004).
Colleges of Education are one of the higher education teacher training programs whose mandate it is to produce quality teachers for the Basic Education sub-sector. It equally prepares students to be productive members of the society (Jegede&Owolabi, 2003). In developed countries, Colleges of education are seen as the gateway to providing not only an educated citizenry but also a capable workforce. According to Jegede and Owolabi (2003), Colleges of Education are now being recognized as the cornerstone of the educational system in the 21st century. It therefore means that quality College of Education program is indispensable in creating a bright future for individuals and nations alike. Jacob and Tomoko (2001) also stated that Colleges of Education are crucial for economic growth. Colleges of Education therefore provides countries with the skills and knowledge needed for economic growth, including furthering learning and training of professionals such as technicians, scientists and entrepreneurs. Colleges of Education can also be decisive in fostering positive social and civic values and yields considerable private returns, offering young people the chance to acquire skills that were unlikely to be developed in the primary and secondary schools. This in turn enables youth to develop job-oriented skills, participate fully in the society, take control of their own lives and continue learning.In the same view, Akarachu (2010) stated that, educational system is gradually becoming a system of technology, especially in the present information driven economy. Based on the advances in science and technology which continues to revolutionize the global world, Federal Ministry of Education introduced the study of Computer and also Information and Communication Technology (ICT) at all levels of education in Nigeria (FGN, 2004).
Information and Communications Technology (ICT) is an extended term for Information Technology (IT). In whatever way it is used, they mean the same thing. Generally, the term ICT has no universal definition, as the concepts, methods and applications involved in ICT are constantly evolving on an almost daily basis (Ajibade, 2006). According to Okorie (2002), ICT encompassesinfrastructure that store, retrieve, manipulate, transmit or receive information electronically in a digital form, e.g. personal computers, digital television, email, robots among others. It could also be refered to any arrangement that is capable of capturing, storing, retrieving, manipulating, transmitting or receiving of information or data through the use of television sets, bulletin boards, radio, record players, disc players, still camera, video camera projectors, computers, interactive white board, internet and the internet resources among others (Blaise, 2010). Mejiuni and Obilade (2006) defined ICT as the electronic and non-electronic technologies and infrastructure systems used to create, store, manipulate, retrieve, and communicate or disseminate information. ICTs are computer based tools such as computer hardware and software, the network, and other digital devices like video, audio, camera, and so on, used by people to work with information and communication processing needs of an organization to convert information (text, sound, motion, etc.) into digital form (Moursund&Bielefeldt, 2002). ICT is therefore seen as all the electronic and non-electronic infrastructure or technologies which include, cd plates, recorders, projectors, still cameras, video cameras, computer systems, interactive white boards, printers, scanners, bulletin boards, among others, which may be utilized by the teacher for teaching and learning, to facilitate understanding among students.
ICT is often perceived as a catalyst for change in teaching styles and change in learning approaches and in access to information (Watson, 2005).ICT capability is fundamental to participation and engagement in modern information society. ICT can be used to find, develop, analyze and present information, as well as to model situations and solve problems. ICT enables rapid access to ideas and experiences from a wide range of people, communities and cultures, and allows pupils to collaborate and exchange information on a wide scale (Crown, 2010). Education is the first and best key area for ICT applications. ICTs can help by providing alternative possibilities for education (Casal, 2007). The purpose of ICT in education is generally to familiarize students with the use and workings of computers, and related social and ethical issues. ICT has also enabled learning through multiple intelligence as ICT has introduced learning through simulation games; this enables active learning through all senses (Gateway, 2010). Use of different ICTs has become inevitable for students in learning. By using modern ICTs, students can retrieve their required informationwithin a short time. They can access and disseminate electronic information like e-books, e-journals and can improve their learning by using different modern ICTs in form of wireless networks, internet, search engines, databases, websites and web 2.0 technologies.Educators at the teaching profession (especially at the tertiary level) need to be able to exploit the potentials of ICT to meet the teaching objectives. Educators at the College of Education level must not only equip themselves but equip trainees to evaluate examples of ICT, both during their training andin their future employment; to make sound judgement about when, when not and how to use ICT. The pervasiveness of ICT has brought about rapid changes in technology, social, political and global economic transformation. However, the field of education has not been unaffected by the penetrating influence of Information and Communication Technology (Hossein, 2008). The fact that ICT has impacted on the quality of teaching, learning and research in teacher education world over cannot be over-emphasised. ICT has, therefore, provided opportunities for students and teachers to communicate with one another more effectively during formal and informal teaching and learning processes (Yusuf, 2005). Although it is recognized that resources will differ from school to school, opportunities to create effective learning and teaching environments make it necessary for teachers to not only talk about ICT in the classroom but also to model best practice or bring in their initiative by demonstrating different ways in which technology can enhance the delivery of ICT.
Initiative can be defined as a behavior syndrome that results in an individual or organization taking an active and self-starting approach to work goals and tasks and persisting in overcoming barriers and setbacks (Fay&Hilburger, 2002). According to Schew (2004), initiatives offer a framework within which an organization defines possible means of achieving its goals and objectives. Wilberg (2004), also defined initiatives as specific projects or programs undertaken to achieve specific objectives in the near term, such as to reduce costs, increase efficiency and improve performance.An initiative is the first in a series of actions. Initiative can also mean a personal quality that shows a willingness to get things done and take responsibility (Schew, 2004). The objective of every initiative is to put the organization in a position to carry out its mission effectively and efficiently (Schew, Charles and Alexandra, 2004). Wakefield (2001) pointed out that an educational program facing difficulties needs to develop and implement initiatives to improve its fortunes. With the launching of the National Policy on Information and Communication Technology (ICT) in 2001, the Federal Government began a spirited campaign to make computers available to different strata of the society, beginning from the Federal and State owned schools. In the context of this study therefore, initiatives in a simple term, can be viewed as programs, developments, strategies, plans, or training undertaken by a teacher or other educational stakeholders to foster or enforce the utilization of ICT for teaching and learning.
The benefits of initiatives in relation to ICT cannot be overemphasized. This is because initiatives are good initiations in the form of projects and developments which have overtime proved effective and efficient in raising the standard of an organizational program (Kozma, 2005). One good example is the World links. According to Kozman (2005), the World Links program is a good initiation in the form of a project, originally managed by the World Bank to place internet-connected computers in schools and train teachers in Africa, Latin America, the Middle East, and South and Southeast Asia. The goal of the program is to improve educational outcomes, economic opportunities, and global understanding for youth using information technology and new approaches to learning (Tinio, 2002). According to Tinio, services provided by the program include: feasibility studies and consultation on connectivity solutions and telecenter management, Internet connectivity for schools in developing countries, School-to-school partnerships, as well as regional and global partnerships with public, private, and non-governmental organizations. Many countries are now using ICTs as ways of providing teachers with new skills and introducing innovative pedagogies in the classroom. For example, teachers in Chile acquired familiarity with computers for professional and out-of-classroom tasks (e.g. searching for educational content on the web and lesson-planning activities) (Volman, 2005). The program also provides 200 hours of teacher training that include an introduction to ICT, use of the internet for teaching and learning, use of tele-collaborative learning projects, integration of ICTs into the curriculum and teaching, and innovative pedagogical approaches. Because of this, majority of teachers and school principals report that teachers trained with computer and teaching skills gain positive attitudes about technology and about teaching.
Teacher initiatives play an important rolein the teaching-learning process especially towards the utilization of ICT. In this respect,Bandura (2000) describes teacher initiatives as a teacher’s plan, strategy, development or program of capabilities toorganize and perform courses of actions toachieve particular types of performances in teaching and learning.Moreover, as identified by Brosnan (2001),attitude, motivation, computer anxiety, andcomputer self-efficacy are factors affectingteachers’ use of computers and ICT in their lessons. Therefore, the teacher is expected to be motivated towards undertaking a plan or strategies that will enable him achieve objectives. It is important to note that the teacher may also undertake a drive by involving other stakeholders like GSM companies, the immediate community, College community, banks, Local Government and other non-governmental organizations by way of sponsorship and assistance in bringing some of these initiatives where it may not be possible to achieve it alone due to financial constraints. Teacher initiatives are therefore strategies, plans, programs or developments undertaken by the teacher either directly or indirectly in order to be adequately equipped to achieve teaching and learning objectives.
Teacher initiatives could take the form of ICT infrastructure.Computers alone do not constitute ICT infrastructure asother crucial accessories like the Internet, digital audios, CD recorders, flash drives, memory cards, interactive whiteboards, generators, workshops, satellites, and software also make up ICT infrastructure. According to Watson (2001), ICT infrastructure includes all the human and material resources needed to put all the electronic and non-electronic ICT gadgets into use. It is also certain that government alone cannot adequately provide the computers and other ICT accessories and make them functional in schools as well. In addition to the government, the efforts of other stakeholders are needed in providing ICT infrastructure and training for teachers (Egboka, 2007). These other stakeholders include private sectors organizations, ministries, management of schools, parents, communities, teacher education institutions and teachers themselves. ICT infrastructure are therefore, those materials (including buildings, human resource, electronic and non-electronic devices) needed to put ICT into full usage for the purpose of teaching and learning.
Teacher training is another form of teacher initiative. Teacher training can also be regarded as teacher development. According to Jegede (2002), the term teacher development may be used in reference to a wide variety of specialized training, formal education, capacity building workshops or other advanced professional learning intended to help teachers, and other educators improve their professional knowledge, competence, skills, and effectiveness. When the term is used in education contexts without qualification, specific examples, or additional explanation, however, it may be difficult to determine precisely what teacher training/development is referring to. In practice, teacher training for educators encompasses an extremely broad range of topics and formats. For example, professional-development experiences may be funded by district, school, or state budgets and programs, or teachers may be supported by a foundation grant or other private funding source. Training teacher may range from a one-day conference to a two-week workshop to a multiyear advanced-degree program. Training may be delivered in person or online, during the school day or outside of normal school hours, and through one-on-one interactions or in group situations. The teachers may also be led and facilitated by educators within a school or provided by outside consultants or organizations hired by a school or district.It is therefore pertinent to say that teacher training development should take the form of a comprehensive, sustained, and intensive approach to improving teachers’ effectiveness in raising student achievement in ICT usage especially in this ICT driven economy.
Teacher initiative could also be in form of instructional delivery. Akudolu (2001) defined instructional delivery as a process in which teachers apply a repertoire of instructional strategies to communicate and interact with students around academic content and to support students’ engagement. The teacher’s approach to teaching and the content delivery strategies utilized are important components in course design and implementation. While teaching still plays a great role in education, teachers too are being adapted to be in-line with the movement towards more student-centered, active-learning environments. Additionally, team teaching, interdisciplinary instruction and learning communities are becoming more common in both face-to-face and online courses. ICT tools can be used in the classroom to enhance lectures, and can also create options for flip teaching and blended learning using lecture capture and web conferencing.Regardless of how the teacher plans to present content to students, the use of ICT in teaching and learning is one sure way of enhancing understanding among students. Instructional delivery is therefore a process by which the teacher implores the use of ICT infrastructure by the application of different teaching methods and techniques such as the project method, demonstration method and the learning-by-doing to transmit knowledge to his students in order to attain the needed goal which aims at understanding.
Another form of teacher initiative is in the use of instructional materials. Instructional materials in its simplest term are those materials that help the teacher to teach with ease and the learners to learn without stress (Abolade, 2009). Instructional materials appeal to the senses of seeing, touching, smelling, feeling and hearing. This includes projected, non-projected, printed and real objects. The use of locally produced instructional materials in the teaching learning situation has many advantages. Some of them according to Abolade (2009) and Abolade&Olumorin (2004) include the fact that they are cheap to produce or buy, they can be used to teach large classes, they encourage class participation, they motivate learners through participatory activities, they also arouse the interest of learners because they are made from materials they see daily in their immediate environment. In the context of this study, Instructional materials involve the use of ICT tools and gadgets like the computer system, CD plates, printers, scanners, projectors, flash drives among others to display what is taught or even as real objects. ICT involves much more than just learning the theory aspects, the use of ICT tools and gadgets will definitely enhance teaching and learning among students.
Teaching and learning is defined as the process of guiding the less informed to acquire knowledge which brings about changes in the individual’s behavior (Morrison, 2001). Nwangwu (2007) however noted that teaching and learning can be actualized in this information age through the use of ICT. It has no barrier, for it cuts across every discipline, learning experiences and all levels of education. According to Nwangwu, ICT literacy helps learners to master content and expand their horizon of investigation, become more focused and more condiment in their learning. To be in line with this information age, it therefore becomes imperative to refocus the quality of both teaching and learning in the direction of electronically delivery learning (e-learning). This e-learning offers an initiative that improves both teaching and learning.Teaching and learning as far as education is concerned, takes place globally, hence, the use of ICT in teaching/learning is seen to be the practice in most tertiary institutions in Delta State.
Delta State is one of the 36 states situated in the South-South geo-political zone of the Federal Republic of Nigeria. It is located within the tropics and shares a common boundary with Anambra State, Rivers State, Edo State and Bayelsa State. There are 25 Local Government Areas in the state, with a total population of about 4,098,391 (NPC, 2006). According to Ogbonnaya (2009), Delta State is a state where the number and percentage of students who have received formal education is comparatively low and even the few ones who have access to formal education do not stay in school to complete their formal education. The advancement in science and technology has made it imperative that all levels of education in the state, especially for a country like Nigeria, which is still a developing nation should join the band-wagon and become super ICT compliant by utilizing ICT with the help of teacher initiative for teaching and learning in schools especially Colleges of Education in Delta State which is the area of this study.
Statement of the Problem
The growing need for computer literacy has made it imperative that increased attention should be given to ICT at all levels of education especially in Colleges of Education. The Government of Delta State and the Federal Government of Nigeria have provided computers and other ICT gadgets to the Colleges of Education in Delta State, but the teachers have been unable to fully ensure ICT use in the schools for teaching and learning probably because of phobia and insufficient technical know-how. Teachers are supposed to utilize ICT by integrating it into their teaching and result computation to facilitate effective service delivery and understanding on the part of the students. Support for ICT infrastructure, teacher training, instructional materials, and instructional delivery for teaching and learning should therefore, be an integral and essential part of the teacher initiatives to raise the standard of ICT use in Colleges of Education. This is however, not the case in the Colleges of Education in Delta State. Without proper utilization of ICTs in these Colleges of Education in Delta State, students upon graduation are bound to be completely obsolete in our contemporary society where the usage of ICT has become a prerequisite for interview, employment and in some cases for promotion.
It therefore becomes imperative to identify teacher initiatives that will facilitate the utilization of ICTs in teaching/learning in Colleges of Education in Delta State. It is on this basis that the researcher deems it necessary to conduct a study on teacher initiatives for utilizing ICTs for teaching and learning in Colleges of Education in Delta State.
Purpose of the Study
The major purpose of the study was to determine teacher initiatives for utilizing Information and Communication Technologies in teaching and learning in Colleges of Education in Delta State. The study specifically sought to determine:
1. teacher initiatives in the use of ICT infrastructure in teaching and learning in Colleges of Education in Delta State.
2. teacherinitiatives for training teachersinthe utilization of ICT in teaching and learning in Colleges of Education in Delta State.
3. teacher initiatives in the use of ICT in instructional delivery in teaching and learning in Colleges of Education in Delta State.
4. teacher initiatives in the use of ICT as instructional materials in teaching and learning in Colleges of Education in Delta State.
Significance of the Study
The findings of this study would be of immense benefit to teaching staff of Colleges of Education. Since this study aims at determining the teacher initiatives in utilizing ICTs in teaching and learning in Colleges of Education, the teaching staff that may not have been exposed to ICT usage as a result of phobia or lack of technical know-how, would now have the opportunity of knowing the ICT initiatives that they can indulge. Consequently, the teaching staff would become proficient and would be courageous, happy and motivated to use ICT facilities in teaching since it would make teaching very easy and stress free.
It is hoped that the findings of this study would be of immense benefit to the students of the Colleges of Education in that learning would not be limited to the four walls of the classroom alone. They will now be exposed to a variety of learning options as a result of the availability of the ICT infrastructure and instructional materials that would be used in teaching them, thereby ensuring better understanding. Since the teaching staff would now be courageous and motivated to use ICT in teaching, the students would learn better and would become more ICT compliant in order to be able to fit into the global world. This is because the students are the direct recipients of this knowledge.
The findings of this study would be of immense benefit to policy makers. Being aware of the changing and challenging world of digitalization, they would be able to produce curriculum (minimum standard) that will stand the test of time. The findings would help them follow suit and form a body that will regulate, monitor, evaluate and verify progress on the use of the existing curriculum, since curriculum needs to be updated regularly within the dynamic world of ICT. It will also help their planning of the curriculum stress free since they would now know exactly what to include in the curriculum without having to make a guess.
Lastly, the findings of this study wouldalso be of benefit to future researchers. It wouldnot only alert but serve as a source of data to the current trend by adding to the volume of literature available in schools and as a reference for future research for identifying the teacher initiatives for utilizing ICTs in teaching and learning in Colleges of Education. Therefore, future researchers who intend to find out the teacher initiatives in utilizing ICT in teaching and learning would find this research work very beneficial.
1. What are the teacher initiatives in the use of ICT infrastructure in teaching and learning in Colleges of Education in Delta State?
2. What are the teacher initiatives for training teachersin the utilization of ICT in teaching and learning in Colleges of Education in Delta State?
3. What are the teacher initiatives in the use of ICT in instructional delivery in teaching and learning in Colleges of Education in Delta State?
4. What are the teacher initiatives in the use of ICT as instructional materials in teaching and learning in Colleges of Education in Delta State?
Four null hypotheses were formulated to guide the study and were tested at 0.05 level of significance.
H01: There is no significant difference (p<0.05) in the mean ratings of teaching staff from FCE(T), Asaba, COE, Agbor and COE, Warri on the teacher initiatives in the use of ICT infrastructure in teaching and learning in Colleges of Education in Delta State.
H02: There is no significant difference (p<0.05) in the mean ratings of teaching staff from FCE(T), Asaba, COE, Agbor and COE, Warri on the teacher initiatives for training teachersin the utilization of ICT in teaching and learning in Colleges of Education in Delta State.
H03: There is no significant difference (p<0.05) in the mean ratings of teaching staff from FCE(T), Asaba, COE, Agbor and COE, Warri on the teacher initiatives in the use of ICT in Instructional Delivery in teaching and learning in Colleges of Education in Delta State.
H04: There is no significant difference (p<0.05) in the mean ratings of teaching staff from FCE(T), Asaba, COE, Agbor and COE, Warri on the teacher initiatives in the use of ICT as instructional materials in teaching and learning in Colleges of Education in Delta State.
Delimitation of the Study
This study is delimited to teaching staff ICT initiatives in the two Conventional State owned Colleges of Education (College of Education, Agbor and College of Education, Warri) and one Technical Federal owned College of Education (Federal College of Education, Asaba) in Delta State. The study is further delimited to teacher initiatives including the use of ICT infrastructure; training teachers in the utilization of ICT; use of ICT in instructional delivery; and use of ICT as instructional materials in teaching and learning in Colleges of Education..