The main purpose of the study was to examine the factors responsible for pupils' dropout and achievement in a primary school in Nsukka L.G.A of Enugu State. The questionnaire was the main instrument used for data collection. The questionnaire was administered to 100 respondents in the primary schools in Nsukka L.G.A of Enugu State by the researcher herself. The data collected were analyzed using mean and standard deviation. The cut-off point was 2.5, any mean score of 2.5 and above were accepted, while any mean below 2.5 was rejected. The result of the study showed the factors responsible for pupils' dropout, such as financial constraints, personal or family issues, academic unpreparedness. The result of the study also showed the strategies that parents adopt to reduce their pupil's dropout. Moreso, the results of the study revealed the rate of dropout in Nsukka L.G.A of Enugu State. Based on the findings, the researcher recommended that there should be a central organization that will comprise the teachers’ parents and representatives of national/state primary education boards at national, state, and local government levels. This body should co-operate and pull resources together in reducing the dropout rate in schools.  



Background to the Study

       Education is the acquisition and application of knowledge in various fields for the effective performance of one's task. The federal, state, and local Governments of the federation place a high premium on education they recognize it as a weapon against ignorance, disease, squalor, and poverty and as a means of raising an enlightened, lively and industrious citizenry and of producing a prosperous nation.

       Education is an important medium for imparting the cultural traits and for change and transition and for instructing members of any society on the accepted norms, values, and practices. Omebe (2005) states that the main aim of an educational institution is to bring change in the behavior of human beings from the time an individual is born and lasts till death.

       Omebe (2007) defined education as that training which is given by suitable habits to the first instincts of virtue in children when pleasure and pain are rightly implanted in a non-rational soul. The particular training in respect of pleasure and pain which leads on to hate and love what love ought to have and love is called education.

       The federal government of Nigeria has adopted education as an instrument for excellence for effecting not only national development but also as a tool in the achievement of her five national objectives stated in the national policy on education (2007). These objectives are the building of:

a.  A free and democratic society

b.  A just and egalitarian society

c.   A united, strong and self-reliant nation

d.  A great and dynamic economy

e.  A land is full of bright opportunities for all citizens.

       This implies that among other things Nigeria intends to produce education for all her children of school age. This provision of education covers at least from primary school level to tertiary levels depending on the individual's academic ability.

       National policy on education (2007:14) defined primary education as the education given in institutions for children aged 6 to 11 plus since the rest of the education system is build upon it, the primary level is the key to the success or failure of the whole system. The duration shall be six years. The goal of primary education is to:

a.  Inculcate permanent literacy and numeracy and the ability to communicate effectively.

b.  Lay a sound basis for scientific and reflective thinking

c.   Given citizenship education as a basis for effective participation in and contribution to the life of the society.

d.  Mould the character and develop sound attitude and morals in the child.

e.  Develop in the child the ability to adapt to the Child’s changing environment.

f.   Give the child opportunities for developing manipulative skills that will enable the child to function effectively in society within the limits of the child’s capacity.

g.  Provide the child with basic tools for further educational advancement including preparation for trades and craft of the locality. These goals will form the basis of primary education in all the states of the federation.

       Emore (2005) Defined a dropout as a person who withdrew from conventional or who never completed his or her education in the primary school or other higher institution because of one circumstance or the other. The cost of dropping out of primary school can have a profound effect on a young person’s life. The relative earnings of primary school dropouts experience more unemployment during their work careers. Young girls who drop out of school are more likely to become pregnant at a young age and single parents Synder and  Sickmud (2005).

       The relative earnings of primary school dropouts may be lower than those who completed their education. Similarly, primary school dropouts experience more unemployment during their work careers. Young girls who drop out of primary school are forced to take up a nanny job, hawking exercise, farming, and planting, etc.

       Ecological achievement, During planting and farming season, pupils from the populous farming and fishing areas are drawn out from schools to help in these activities. Still speaking on economic, young girls who are unfortunate to come from a poor background drop out of school due to the inability of the parent to afford school fees, are forced into hawking simply to make ends meet. Both boys and girls drop out of school to take up a nanny job either in their home or outside their home.

       At home to save the cost of employing a well trained mature nanny who will be suited for the job, outside the home in order to get paid for and provide for the family needs. Sometimes primary school pupils are forced to take some national assignments like taking part in census exercise, registration of voters are drawn out of school to help in these activities. They are sobering statistics when contrasted with the reality of a workplace that continues to require skills and the ability to embark on careers that require an increase in literacy. More education, enhance technical skills, and the ability to embark on careers that require life long learning without the skills and training that schooling provide. Davidson (2005:15) states that those who do not complete their education face a lifetime of limited opportunities or even possibly life delinquency and crime.

       The purpose of this research work is to broaden people's understanding of dropout by taking into consideration psychological behavioral risk and protective factors associated with primary school dropout. Though dropout can be viewed as a personal decision, it should not be forgotten that other contributing factors such as family, peer relationship, school, and the individual psychological process must be taken into consideration.

       From a historical standpoint, research has shown a one-sided view as to why pupils drop out of primary school. According to Whelage (2006), it is the characteristics of students along with their families and cultural background that are responsible for their dropping out. Whelage (2006) further added that a more complex and balanced picture addressing the cause of dropping out of school has been identified. There is strong evidence that subject failure and school disciplinary problems in combination with chaotic personal, social, and family background conditions contribute to dropping out.

Statement of the Problem

       In this study, the researcher is concerned with the identification of those factors that bring about dropout in educational programs among primary schools in the Nsukka local government area.

       Teachers at times resort to strikes which can last for weeks or months to press their demand.

       Dropout rates differ by various demographic factors including gender race and ethnicity, immigration status, and geographic location.

       Dropout rates in the United States are higher for males than for females Nigeria may have the highest dropout rate by far, following by Africa Americans, and Asia Americans. Anyanwu (2005) noted that in 2005 the status dropout rate for Nigeria was 27.8 percent while the corresponding rate for Africa Americans and Asia Americans were 13.1 percent 6.9 percent and 3.8 percent respectively. Individuals born outside the united states have a higher dropout rate than those born in the united states. These are also regional differences in Nigeria with the south and west having a higher dropout rate than the northeast and the mid-west. Students in urban areas are more likely to drop out of primary school than students in sub-urban areas.

       Internationally, there is considerable variation in dropout rate because different nations are in different stages of extending universal basic education. Among developed countries, primary education completion rates is generally as high as or higher than in the United States, though the nature of primary school varies considerably. Rate in other countries but the primary admission and completion rate has been increasing worldwide. There are also differences in dropout rates associated with socio-economic and demographic factors. One notable demographic difference concern the rate for males and females, Females are less likely to drop out in developed countries and in Latin American and the Caribbean, but females are more likely to drop out before primary education completion in the rest of the world. It is against this backdrop that the researcher intends to diagnose the factors responsible pupils' dropout and their achievement among primary school pupils.

Purpose of the Study

       The main purpose of this study is to investigate the factors responsible for pupil’s dropout in primary school in Nsukka Local Government Area of Enugu state. Specifically the study sought to find out the following:

1.  To find out the factors responsible for pupils dropout in primary schools.

2.  To find out the strategies that  parent adopt to reduce their pupil dropout rate.

3.  To investigate the rate of dropout in a primary school in Nsukka L.G.A of Enugu State.

Significance of the Study

     Achieving a significant result is highly imperative in any empirical study. Mostly, the result of this study will be useful to the government, parents, curriculum planners, and the students.

     Also, the findings of this study will be of benefit to parents by understanding that they should give support of education to their children. It will help parents by knowing that children are the leaders of tomorrow and school dropout could be dangerous to their children’s future.

     Also, this will help the government to supply the missing link if any in its future plan for educational progress.

     However, it will be of benefit to curriculum planners by providing the planned experiences provided by the school to assist the pupils in attaining the designated learning outcomes. Again, it is expected that the result of this findings will expose the problem associated with school dropout and it consequence to the development of Nigerian education.

       More significantly, apart from increasing the volume of literature in emerging research work, the findings of the study will aid government for its policy making and will assist student to a great extent who may wish to conduct a research which is related to this one.

Scope of the Study

     This research work covers the factors responsible for pupil’s dropout in primary school in Nsukka L.G.A of Enugu State. In the course of the study, these factors will be highlighted and tackled properly to reduce the incidence or rate of dropout, the study is expected to suggest possible ways in which the rate of dropout will be minimized.

Research Questions

The following research question is designated to guide the study.

1.   What are the possible causes of dropout in primary school?

2.   What strategies do parents adopts to reduce the incidents of their student dropout?

3.   What are the rates of dropout in Nsukka L.G.A of Enugu State.





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