ASSESSMENT OF PRACTICES OF DELEGATION OF DUTIES BY PRINCIPALS OF SECONDARY SCHOOLS
The study assessed practice of delegation of duties by principals of secondary schools in Funtua, Katsina State, Nigeria. The study aimed at finding out among other factors if delegation of duties would relate to better performance of secondary school teachers. Five objectives were formulated for this study some of which examine the delegation of supervisory duties by principals of secondary schools in funtua and the determination of delegation of Leadership duties by principals of secondary schools also in Funtua. Correlational design was adopted for the study. The population consisted of 188 secondary school teachers in Funtua Local Government Area out which 71 secondary school teachers were drawn from the main population of the study using stratified random sampling technique. Self developed questionnaire was duly validated by experts in the area of educational administration and planning. Five research questions were also asked and Five hypotheses were also postulated some of which stated that there is no significant relationship between the delegation of extracurricular activities by the principals and the performance of teachers in Funtua Secondary Schools. It further stated that there is no significant relationship between delegation of financial duties by principal and performance of Funtua Secondary School teachers. A pilot study was conducted and the reliability co-efficient was calculated to be 0.68 using Pearson Product Moment Correlation Coefficient. The study has shown that delegation of duties was related to efficiency and effectiveness of teachers in schools and the teachers’ attitudes to work. The five hypotheses were rejected as there were relationships between delegation of supervisory duties, leadership duties, extracurricular activities duties, financial duties, academic duties and the performances of teachers in Funtua Secondary Schools. Delegating work to the specialists who possess the detailed knowledge for realistic decision working makes tasks to be performed quickly and efficiently. Delegation provides a pool of talented and skilled personnel who are ready to take up advanced roles and bigger responsibilities. . Delegation motivates them to keep learning, become more involved in team work and makes work more interesting for them The researcher recommends among others that; Head teachers should delegate more duties to subordinate staff through ensuring that there is existence of functioning departments, consideration of expertise in delegation of duties and giving positions of responsibility to subordinate staff.
TABLE OF CONTENTS PAGE
Title Page i
Table of Contents vi
List of Tables vii
CHAPTER ONE: BACKGROUND TO THE STUDY
1.1 Introduction 1
1.2 Statement of the problem 6
1.3 Objectives of the Study 8
1.4 Research Questions 8
1.5 Research Hypotheses 9
1.6 Basic Assumptions 9
1.7 Significance of the Study 10
1.8 Scope of the Study 11
CHAPTER TWO: REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE
2.1 Introduction 12
2.2 Theoretical framework of the study 12
2.3 Conceptual framework of the study 14
2.3.1 Delegation 20
2.3.2 Delegation of Duty 21
2.4 Delegation of Supervisory Duties in a school 24
2.5 Delegation of Academic Duties in a School 26
2.6 Delegation of Leadership Duties in a School 30
2.7 Delegation of Financial Duties in a School 35
2.8 Delegation of Extracurricular Activities Duties in a School 39
2.9 Delegation of Academic Duties in a School 42
2.10 Review of Empirical Studies 45
CHAPTER THREE: RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
31. Introduction 53
3.2 Research Design 53
3.3 Population 53
3.4 Sample and Sampling Techniques 54
3.4.1 Instrumentation 55
3.4.2 Validity of the Instruments 56
3.4.3 Pilot Study 56
3.4.4 Reliability of the Instrument 56
3.4.5 Administration of the Instruments 57
3.5 Data Collection Procedure 57
3.6 Data Analysis Procedure 57
CHAPTER FOUR: DATA PRESENTAION, ANALYSIS AND DISCUSSION
4.1 Introduction 58
4.2 Background Information of respondents 58
4.3 Description of teachers’ responses to the items of the questionnaire 61
4. 3.1 Description of key officers’ responses to the items of the questionnaire 61
4.3.2 Opinions of respondents on delegation of duties 61
4.4 Hypotheses Testing 79
4.4.1 Hypothesis One 79
4.4.2 Hypothesis Two 80
4.4.3 Hypothesis Three 81
4.4.4 Hypothesis Four 82
4.4.5 Hypothesis Five 83
4.6.1 Practice of Delegation of Supervisory duties by principal to the subordinate staff 85
4.6.2 Practice of Delegation of Leadership duties by principal to the subordinate staff 87
4.6.3 Practice of Delegation of Extracurricular duties by principal to the subordinate staff 88
4.6.4 Practice of Delegation of Financial duties by principal to the subordinate staff 91
4.6.5 Practice of Delegation of Academic duties by principal to the subordinate staff 94
CHAPTER FIVE: SUMMARY, CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS
5.1 Introduction 97
5.2 Summary 98
5.3 Conclusions 99
5.4 Recommendations 101
5.5 Contribution of research to knowledge 103
In the course of this study, some words have been abbreviated because of their frequent use. The abbreviation words are listed below:
GDSS Government Day Secondary School
GCP Government College Pilot
GCDWSS Government College Day Wing Secondary School
GGDSS Government Girls’ Day Secondary School
GTC Government Technical College
G & C Guidance Counselor
HOD Head of Department
HOS Head of Section
ICT Information and Communication Technology
NCE Nigeria Certificate in Education
PTA Parent Teachers Association
SBMC School Base Management Committee
S/N Serial Number
VP Vice Principal
WASSCE West African Secondary School Certificate Examination
ZIEF Zonal Inspectorate of Education Funtua
LIST OF TABLES
2.1 Description of how delegation leads to teachers’ performance 14
3.1 Population of the Study 54
3.2 Sample of the Study 55
4.1 Distribution of respondents according to different attributes 59
4.2 Opinion of respondents on Delegation of Supervisory Duties 63
4.3 Opinion of respondents on Delegation of Leadership Duties 67
4.4 Opinion of respondents on Delegation of Extracurricular Activities Duties 70
4.5 Opinion of respondents on Delegation of Financial Duties 73
4.6 Teachers’ responses on Delegation of Academic Duties 76
4.7 Correlation of Delegation of Supervisory Duties and Teachers’ Performance 79
4.8 Correlation of Delegation of Leadership Duties and Teachers’ Performance 80
4.9 Correlation of Delegation of Extracurricular Duties and Teachers’ Performance 81
4.10 Correlation of Delegation of Financial Duties and Teachers’ Performance 82
4.11 Correlation of Delegation of Academic Duties and Teachers’ Performance 83
4.12Summary of the null hypotheses testing for the study85
1.1 Background to the Study
A number of researchers like Jamila (2012) and Abwalla (2014) have pointed out the significant roles which principal play to contribute to successful school. The tone of an organization is usually sounded by its top executive (principal) and the success of the organization may well depend on whether the principal infuses the whole hierarchy with energy and vision or whether, through neglect, he/she allows the school as an organization to stagnate. An organizational formal leader is in better position to set the tone of the school. The point just made seem to point out that the principal is to a large extent responsible for devising and maintaining his/her school as a formal organization and so in more revealing way his/her school become the expression of his/her authority. It is crucial for maintaining and expanding the effectiveness and productivity of complex institutions like schools, colleges and other institutions. The survival of organizations like school is dependent largely on the quality of the administrative service available. Sergiovanni’s view (1992) of administration is that a lot of the success of administrative actions depends on the interpretation that principals make as they translate theoretical understanding into practical decision and behavior. Sergiovanni regards actions by the principals, school goals, limited available resources and necessity for working with other people such as teachers, parents and students as the essential elements of administration. The principal’s traditional freedom to manage is increasingly constrained by a movement towards decentralization of responsibilities particularly on the question of finance and staffing among other issues. Traditionally, management scholars have preached the five functions of management; planning, organizing, coordinating, directing and controlling. Delegation may be part of any of these functions. On the other hand, any of these functions or part of any of the five may be delegated. All of these managerial functions require a flow of communication and decision making. Principal communicates and make decisions, some are simple, some complex, some are novels and some routine, some are significant, some are so trivial as to go almost unnoticed. The decision-making process is the essence of management; however no principal in a school of any size can possibly make all the necessary decisions without subordinate(s). This study tries to assess the practices of delegation of duties by principals of secondary schools in Funtua Local Government Area of Katsina State.
Delegation is the assignment of one or more meaningful tasks or responsibilities, either operational or managerial in nature to a subordinate(s). Mullins (1993) defines delegation of authority as ‘the authorization to undertake activities that would otherwise be carried out by someone in a more senior position. He urge that; At the personnel level, delegation involves the passing of one’s authority and responsibility to fellow workers to act on one’s behalf usually because one is unavoidably absent or busy with something else. A manager alone cannot perform all the tasks assign to him/her. In order to meet the targets, the manager should delegate duties. Delegation of duties means division of authority and powers downwards to the subordinate. Delegation is about entrusting someone else to do part of your job. Delegation of duties can be defined as subdivision or sub-allocation of power to the subordinates in order to achieve effective results. According to Goodworth (1986), effective delegation does not exist merely for the purpose of getting things done. It is a prime process by which a manager exercises and develops staff to the sensible limits of individual capacity and potential. Effective delegation is about encouraging creativity. This involves welcoming new ideas, not telling the delegate how to do the tasks; discouraging ill-considered limitation of the previous Post-holder or of you; supporting new ideas with resources and training; and creating a match between responsibility and scope in line with the demand for teacher’s professional development and growth. In effective delegation, the delegator quite often surrenders things that she or he enjoys the most and accepts that the job will be done differently from how h/she would do it her/him self. s/he should be willing to accept failure as well as success. According to Nathan (2000), careful planning is the source of effective delegation. Nathan further suggests that defining clearly and precisely area of responsibility to be delegated is the first task. The second one is the authority to do the job; that is signing letters, using office, taking decision without referring back to the principal. Thirdly, the delegated staff members need to be clear on how the performance will be judged. Finally effective communication is a critical aspect of effective delegation that helps the principal. It is a vital for the success of effective delegation.
In the context of an organization like school, duties can be defined as the power and right of a person to use and allocate the resources efficiently, to take decisions and give orders so as to achieve the organizational objectives. In a school organization, duties must be well-defined. All people who have the authority should know what the scope of their duties is and shouldn’t misutilize it. Authority is the right to give command, orders and get the things done. The top level management has the greatest authority. Authority always flows from top to bottom. Therefore it explains how a superior gets work done from subordinate by clearly explaining what is expected of him and how he should go about it. The key officers of secondary schools i.e (vice principals, Heads of Departments runs the section and departments on behalf of the principals. The organizational structures of schools are the result of delegations. Furthermore, organizations including schools are not supposed to be static as owners expect growth and development. Schools certainly experience changes in staffing, students’ enrolment, curriculum development, societal demand on schools and so on which raise their complexity and mount more pressures on the school heads to delegate more tasks and duties. This study tries to assess the practices of delegated duties by the principals in secondary schools in Funtua Local Government Area of Katsina State.
The concept of this study includes the independent variable of practices of delegated duties with its accruing variables, supervisory duties, leadership, academic and administrative duties. The study will be in relation to the dependent variable of teachers’ performance. The study by Gardner, Roth, and Brooks-Gunn (2008) also indicated that it is important to look at the intensity and level of involvement the student has with the activity. In this study, supervisory duties can be referred to as the process of guiding the actions of others by delegated duties. Regarding leadership duties, this is a process of providing a sense of direction to the group in order to achieve the set goals of the school administration. Administrative duties, is the situation of giving those with responsibility in the organization authority to make decision and have control over the environment. While academic a duties, is the process of controlling the academic activities of the school as an institution. The delegation of duties by principal flow to the vice principal administrative office, vice principal academic office and other offices and committees attached to them, these committees comprises of ad-hoc and standing committees chaired by the most senior officers like Head of Departments, Head of Sections, Senior Master Academics, Examination officer, Guidance and Counseling officer, Game Master among others. Academic Duties that could be delegated to the Vice Principal (Academics) include checking and correction of unit plan and lesson note. Planning of time table, distribution of students’ admission procedure, Examination, among others, these duties are also assigned under him to the key officers like Senior Master Academics, Examination Officer and Guidance & Counseling Officer among other offices. Supervisory Duties are Supervision of instructions, disciplinary measures, library services, laboratory services, the development of the school curriculum and evaluation of teaching and learning, classroom supervision, Examination supervision Class attendance register and Health inspection, Class inspection and environmental inspection among others. These duties are delegated to the key officers and other committees either standing or Ad-hoc committee like senior officers, H.O.Ds, H.O.Ss among others. Vice Principal Admin is the next to principal in assigning duties to staff, handling of staff matters, signing of attendance register, assessing Annual Performance Evaluation Report, welfare service, supervision of lodging and accommodation, feeding, general cleanliness of the school compound, supply of electricity and water, encouragement of clubs and public relations. The school administrator (principal) in respect of how efficient s/he cannot single-handedly supervise these services efficiently and effectively, therefore there is need to delegate some to staff and students which includes, The office of the Vice Principal Admin, Senior Master Admin, Game master, Patrons, Prefects among others. Extracurricular activities are found at all level of our school system, especially in secondary schools (Foster, 2008). The terms extracurricular activities, co-curricular activities, and non-classroom have all been used interchangeably to mean experiences and activities such as clubs, contests, athletics, music, drama, school publications, students council, school clubs, contests, and various social events (Emmer, 2010). This multiple experiences form a third curriculum – paralleling the required and the elective curricular and are well integrated into the daily school program (Barbieri, 2009). Generally, extracurricular activities are voluntary, are approved and sponsored by school officials, and carry no academic credit toward graduation (Lunenburg and Ornstein, 2008). Following, I discuss extracurricular activities in relation to the overall goals of education followed by an examination of the functions of extracurricular activities. Delegation of duties is very import ant in school management and should be well understood by school heads as well as by the teachers, especially its process and the benefits for the educational system. The study took place in Funtua Public Secondary Schools in Katsina. In Nigeria, most Secondary School principals seemed not to be effective in managing their schools. This is due to poor delegation of duties to their subordinates, principles and procedures of delegation, management change and leadership style in their administration.
1.2 Statement of the Problem
Delegation of duties has been and continues to be a subject of concern to managers and employees since it is through this that an individual worker will develop and ultimately contribute to the general growth and development of the organization. Problem of delegation arise in our schools as a result of; poor delegation of duties, lack of control of every activity, negligence and other important matters, lack of confidence by the subordinate(s), segregation of feelings by the subordinate(s) as part and parcel of the success or failure of the school, and distribution of workload capacity of an individual or group in authority. Unwillingness of the manager to delegate duty is another problem. Some superiors/managers tend to think that they can do the job better when they handle the job. The attitude that ‘I can do it better myself’ on the part of superior acts as a problem to delegation. Some managers (superiors) who are autocratic and power worshippers feel that if they have competent subordinates and if they delegate authority to the subordinates, quite likely they might outshine them (managers) and may be promoted. Due to lack of confidence in subordinates, mangers may hesitate to delegate duties, if they feel that their subordinates are not competent to deal with the problems and take decisions. Even fear of losing control over the subordinates acts as a problem to delegation. In addition, fear of being exposed due to personal shortcomings may act as a problem in the process of delegation. Also too much dependence on the manager for decisions may lead to avoiding subordinates responsibility even when the superior/ manager is prepared to delegate duty as want the manager to tackle problems and take decisions. A subordinate who is not confident about his performance/ability will certainly try to shirk responsibility even though his superior is prepared to delegate functions and authority. Fear of criticism can make the subordinate express unwillingness to accept delegation because of the fear of criticism in the case of mistakes. They fear that they may be criticized by others if they commit mistakes. Absence of positive incentives: positives incentives like recognition of work and rewards go a long way in building up the morale of subordinates. Absence of positive incentives in the form of recognition, appreciation or monetary benefit, a subordinate may not be prepared to accept delegation of duties. It is against this background that the study was aimed at finding out among other factors if proper delegation of duties would lead to effective management of Funtua secondary schools in Katsina Sate
1.3 Objectives of the Study
The following objectives were formulated
1. examine the delegation of supervisory duties by principals of secondary schools to teacher performance.
2. determine the delegation of leadership duties by principals of secondary schools to teacher performance.
3. find the level of delegation of extracurricular activities duties by principals of secondary schools to teacher performance.
4. ascertain the delegation of financial duties by principals of secondary schools to teacher performance.
5. assess the delegation of academic duties by principals of secondary schools to teachers performance.
1.4 Research Questions
1. Is there any relationship of supervisory duties delegated by principals of secondary schools to the performance of teacher?
2. Does delegation of leadership duties by principals of secondary schools relate to teachers’ performance?
3. To what extent extracurricular activity duty delegated by principals of Secondary Schools affect teachers’ performance?
4. Does delegation of financial duties by Principals of Secondary Schools relate to the performance of teachers?
5. How does the Principals of Secondary School delegate academic duties in relation to teachers’ performance?
1.5 Research Hypotheses
1. There is no significant relationship of delegation of supervisory duties by Principals of Secondary Schools and teachers’ performance.
2. There is no significant relationship between delegation of leadership duties by Principals of Secondary Schools and teachers’ performance.
3. There is no significant relationship between delegation of extracurricular activities duties by Principals of Secondary School and teachers’ performance.
4. There is no significant relationship between delegation of financial duties by Principals of Secondary Schools and teachers’ performance.
5. There is no significant relationship between delegation of academic duties by principals of Secondary Schools and teachers’ performance.
1.6 Basic Assumptions
1. It is believed that when supervisory duties are properly delegated teachers performances would be more effective.
2. When leadership duties are delegated there would be smooth running of the school.
3. Whenever extra-curricular activities duties are properly delegated among teachers, Children will participate fully and get refreshed.
4. When allocated funds are judiciously utilized and the finances of the school are properly appropriated, the school will able to meet most of their needs and there will be smooth running of the school system.
5. The students achievement In the different subjects will be enhanced when academic duties are correctly delegated to the teachers.
1.7 Significance of the Study
The study focused on one of the fundamental aspects in the running of schools; that is, delegation of duties and how it impacts to performance of teachers in secondary schools. The findings of this study are hoped to help principals in improving their administration through proper delegation of duties in the area of academic duties, extracurricular activity duties, financial duties, leadership duties and supervisory duties to those who have been delegated such that they have the courage to perform without fear. By doing this, principals will be relieved of the heavy work load they would have done without delegation taking place. When there is effective delegation of duty to teachers, there is likelihood of increased efficiency, improved leadership skills and handling of few responsibilities. The stakeholders in schools such as the parents, Board of governors and local council leadership in partnering with the head teachers and teachers will find it easy to run the schools smoothly. This may help to promote the education standards as required by the Ministry of Education and other stakeholders such as donor agencies who are policy makers. It may also provide new knowledge to researchers and academicians to extend and develop new knowledge in delegation of studies.
1.8 Scope of the Study
The study is confined to select four (4) Public Secondary Schools in Funtua Local Government Area of Katsina State, Nigeria. Funtua is located west of Katsina, about 180km from Katsina City, along Kano-Sokoto Highway. The research focused on the assessment of practices of delegation of duties by principals of secondary schools in Funtua Local Government Area of Katsina State. The variables of the study include supervisory duties, leadership duties, extracurricular activities duties, financial duties and academic duties and how they impacts teachers performance in secondary schools..