Poor performance and fluctuation of results in humanities subjects examination results has been witnessed in Kenya and the rest of the world over the recent past; this can be partly attributed to how the subjects is taught, negative attitude toward the subjects and teaching and learning resources used. The purpose of the study was to investigate the effectiveness in the use of ICT in teaching and learning of CRE on students performance in Public secondary schools in Bomet County. The factors that were investigated included: level of accessibility of ICT tools, materials and equipment, qualification and competency of teachers and students in handling the ICT resources, frequency of usage of ICT resources and methodology used while teaching and learning of CRE. The study employed descriptive survey research design in the study utilizing components of Generic Model that was proposed by Qiyun Wang, (2008). The data were collected using; questionnaires, and observation guide. A pilot study was conducted in three public secondary schools, one ESQAC official and one computer champion. Reliability of the instruments was tested using test-re-test method and Spearman rank order coefficient was considered which was 0.79.The sample size comprised 21 public secondary schools, with 281 respondents representing all stakeholders using ICT in public secondary schools in Kenya as follows; 21 CRE subject teachers, 21 ICT technicians/computer teachers, 21 principals/deputy principals, 4 ESQAC officials, 4 computer champion and 210 students. The quantitative data arrived at were sieved, coded and analyzed through computer package; Scientific Package for Social Sciences IBM version 21. Interpretation of findings given was based on the analyzed information with references made to statistical measures and techniques. The study found the ratio of ICT to student and teachers population to be 1:45 and 1:5 respectively. The study also established that ICT is frequently used in schools with adequate ICT tools and resources. However, those schools that are under equipped have not effectively used ICT. The study also established that majority of the teachers and learners are equipped with basic ICT knowledge and competently use ICT and lastly, the study found that learner-centered methods are used with ICT and they positively impact on learner performance. The findings of the study provide framework on effectiveness in the use of ICT. The school administrators, curriculum developers, Teachers Service Commission and Ministry of Education are likely to benefit from the study as it provides information on level of effectiveness ICT use.



This chapter presents the background to the study, statement of the problem, purpose of the study, objectives of the study, research questions, significance of the study, limitations and delimitations of the study, assumptions of the study and theoretical framework based on Generic Model that was proposed by Qiyun Wang, (2008), conceptual framework and operational definitions of terms used and scope to the study are also given.

Background to the Study

Quality in all dimensions of human life has been given a lot of emphasis world over. The 21st century human beings have witnessed an increase in the pursuit for knowledge, skills, information and competencies. Human beings are living in a period of revolutionary change induced by what is called the information and communication revolution (Carlaw, 2005). The ICT revolution refers to the socio- economic, socio-political transformation currently being driven by a cluster of technologies centred on electronic media and the internet.

Information and Communication Technology (ICT) are the media that utilize both telecommunication and computer technologies to transmit information. ICT consists of hardware, software, networks, and media for collection, storage, processing, transmission, presentation of information (voice, data, text, and images) and the hand-held devices like mobile phones are part of ICT, (Garrison & Anderson, 2003).

Most governments all over the world believe in the use of ICT to be economically competitive. Kenya Ministry of Education and Ministry of Higher Education  Session paper 14. (June, 2012) points out that no economy can survive without investment in ICT, and it further elaborates that already in Kenya such areas as banking, communications, tourism, and industry are almost totally dependent upon it. Aktaruzzaman et al., (June, 2011) concurs that when used appropriately, different ICTs are said to help expand access to education, strengthen the relevance of education to the increasingly digital workplace, and raise educational quality by, among others, helping make teaching and learning into an engaging, active process connected to real life.

Government of Kenya, (2010) refers ICT as to range of technological tools and resources used to communicate, create, disseminate, store and manage information. Kafyulilo, (2010) defines ICT as to all products that can store, retrieve, manipulate, transmit or receive information electronically in digital form. Ngaroga, (2008) explains that ICT stands for information and communication technology and refers to principles to all technologies used in processing information and communication in most educational circles. He points out that the following examples that are available in Kenyan market: Personal and portable computers and notebooks, data projections, internet which provide a lot of information, interactive whiteboards, CD ROMs and DVDs, video and television, magnetic tapes, video games, cameras and PDAs.

According to Rao, (2005), application of ICTs in instruction includes using computers, CD ROMs, interactive media, modems, satellites, teleconferencing and other technological means to support learning. Application of ICTs in instruction has

several aspects which include: the process of designing instruction, application of learning theories and styles to designing instruction, selection of materials and tools to design and implement a design, evaluation of designs, effectiveness of teamwork and use of technology in support of the development and delivery of instruction.

Lack and insufficiency of data on use and implementation of ICT in Africa as expressed by Kenya School Net, (2003) that attempts to measure or access the utilization of ICT in Africa have been hampered by insufficient empirical data on to indicate any impact of ICT on sector productivity and lack of cross-country evidence. It further explains that in some cases the evidence has been non-existent due to recent developments, the rapid revolution of ICT and methodological challenges that include a deficiency of assessment variables and models of causality. Most of the studies undertaken have focused on information infrastructure issues, while a few researches have been undertaken to measure extent of usage ICT in Africa; particularly in education. The study focused on collection of data on extent of use of ICT in CRE subject and thus provided a clear picture on implementation of ICT at classroom level so as to provide data needed.

The use of ICT in education has the potential to enhance the quality of teaching and learning, the research productivity of teachers and students, and the management and effectiveness of institutions (Kashorda, et al., 2007). However, opportunities for realizing the benefits of using ICT in education face a number of challenges in the developing countries. Access to ICT facilities is a major challenge facing most African countries, with a ratio of one computer to 150 students against the ratio of 1:15 students in the developed countries (Kiptalam & Rodrigues, 2011). Thus, the

study  focused  on  identifying  the  ratio  of  ICT  materials  to  the  number  of both

teachers and students in order to report on its effectiveness in the process of teaching and learning of CRE.

Ministry of Education Policy on Usage of ICT in Schools in Kenya

Since the 1980s integration of ICTs in education has been compulsory in the developed nations. This is not so in developing nations such as Kenya, where ICT integration in education is considerably more recent, small-scale and experimental in most of the developing countries including Kenya (Ministry of Education, Kenya, 2006). With respect to the great concern about the digital divide, it will be noted that access to ICT facilities is currently one of the major challenges in Africa Kenya is no exception. While the ratio of one computer to 15 students is the norm in most developed countries, the ratio in Africa stands at one computer to 150 students. This ratio is even wider in disadvantaged regions and areas. It will also be recognized that access to ICTs varies according to the various sub-sectors of education. In Kenya, the ratio for university and colleges is one computer to 45 students, one computer to 120 students at secondary school level while access at the primary school level remains much more limited at one computer to 250 students (Ministry of Education, Kenya, 2006). The researcher was interested in investigating the ratio of ICT tools and resources in relation to the number of teachers and students in public secondary schools in Bomet County.

The Government of Kenya has put in place the National ICT Policy and E- Government Strategy that provides guidelines for transformation of the Kenyan into a digital society. In both documents, the Government recognizes that an ICT literate workforce is the foundation on which the nation will become a knowledge-based economy, (Ministry of Education, Kenya, 2006). The focus on impact of ICT in

education has been a major highlight in various governmental strategies and policies including the need for attainment of National Education goals and Vision 2030. The National Stakeholders Conference on Education and Training held on 27th to 29th November, 2003 led to the development of four national policies on ICT: The e- government Strategy (2003); The Kenya Vision 2030;Sessional Paper 1,2005, Chapter VIII on ICT; The National ICT Policy, 2006 (MOIC).

At the educational sector the following strategies and policies and bodies have been established and mandated to carry the implementation of ICT in education management and integration; The ICT Strategy for Education and Training, 2006; KESSP II– ICT is one of the investment programmes for ICT; The National ICT Strategy in Education and Training (2006, MoE); ICT Integration Team (2008); ICT Unit; ICT4E; ICT champions programme within directorate / departments / SAGAs

/ districts/schools; EMIS National ICT Innovation and Integration Centre (2010); Representation in directorates, CEMASTEA, KEMI, KICD, KNEC, VVOB, NI3C, (Ministry of Education, Science and Technology, Kenya, 24th February, 2015; Ministry of Education, Kenya Friday, June 08, 2012).

Reported achievements on ICT integration from 2009 -2012 – in the Ministry of Education is that 1470 schools under ESP computer project facilitated to integrate ICT in teaching and learning. With the following package: Computers and printers, projector, LAN, internet for one year, capacity building for teachers and principals (over 10,000 teachers trained on basic ICT skills), digital content (form 1&2), ICT Champions programme consequently, 1470 principals to be trained on use of ICTs for education management. Other sectoral achievements in education include among

others,  ICT  integration  training  manual  has  been  development,  National  ICT

Innovation and Integration Centre launched and is operational (www.ni3c.net), National education portal developed and operationalized (www.elimuportal.net), National Teacher orientation programme (KIE) www.elimika.ac.ke, (Ministry of Education, Kenya, 26th-27th, January, 2012).

The Ministry of Education also acknowledges the need to reform the secondary school curriculum with the emphasis shifting from knowledge reproduction to knowledge production and, to make ICT central to it. Learners exiting secondary schools have limited skills and abilities to join the world of work, trade or to join middle and tertiary level, (Kenya Ministry of Education and Ministry of Higher Education Session Paper 14 of June, 2012). It is from this background to the study that the researcher focused on examining the extent of utilization of ICT, alongside pedagogies in order to effectively attain the educational goals, aims and objectives in CRE subject. Table 1 below provides a clear picture on the performance in CRE over the last five years.

Table 1.1: CRE examination analysis table 2010-2013

Year 2010 2011 2012 2013

Mean score paper 1 50.67 50.36 46.96 40.84

Mean score paper 2 41.64 47.53 41.11 55.09

Candidature 240, 130 289, 471 316, 403 330, 964

Source: KNEC Examination Report, (2011, 2012, 2013)

According to KNEC Examination report, (2013) the Chief examiner argues that the paper tested the syllabus adequately. The paper was also in a position to discriminate between the well taught and poorly taught students. From the table above the

following can be deduced; there is ever increasing number of students every year. Thus, the study focused on pedagogical integration of ICT in the process of teaching and learning of CRE. It also provided the basis for examining how the subject is taught (pedagogy), attitude of the learners towards the subject and the level of exposure to ICT resources.

Statement of the Problem

This study addressed the problem of poor performance and fluctuation of results in CRE subject in public secondary schools in Bomet County focusing on the need for improving teaching and learning in classroom by using ICT to engage learner- centred strategies during teaching and learning of the subject.

In a survey conducted by Pan Africa Research in 13 African countries including Kenya the findings revealed that educational institutions are at different stages(infancy) in pedagogical integration of ICT with differences between public and private schools, rural and urban schools. they noted that some of the factors for apparent limited pedagogical integration of ICT were reported to include among others; lack of training in pedagogical integration of ICT, inadequate capacity to develop digital content, negative attitude of teachers to use ICT(technophobia) and lack of infrastructure support, (Ndidde, 16th April, 2013).

Ministry of Education and Ministry of Higher Education Session paper 14 of June, (2012) conquer with the premise that the challenges facing ICT in education sector include among others; access, funding, inadequate ICT facilities, high cost of development of interactive e-learning content, ICT not embraced as medium of instruction and management tool, inadequate capacity for teachers, absence of ICT

Curriculum at ECD and primary levels, dynamic nature of ICT technology, inadequate capacity for maintaining ICT equipment, inadequate use of ICT by the Ministry of Education, and inadequate capacity to monitor utilization of ICT in schools.

The need to introduce ICT in teaching and learning in various subjects at all tiers of education has been occasioned by the need for quality education. In conjunction with this, one of the national goals of education is to promote social, economic, technological and industrial needs of learners for national development. Therefore, the researcher was determined to communicate on the level of effectiveness in the use of ICT in teaching and learning of CRE subject on students‟ performance. Since, most studies conducted have concentrated on challenges facing its implementation and not reporting on the way it is used and its impact on students performance.

Purpose of the Study

The purpose of the study was to assess the extent to which ICT is used while teaching and learning of CRE subject in public secondary schools in Bomet County.

Objectives of the Study

i. To examine the ratio of ICT tools and resources to the number of teachers and learners in public secondary schools in Bomet county.

ii. To identify the qualification and level of competence of CRE subject teachers and capacity of learners in handling ICT resources and tools.

iii. To determine the frequency of usage of ICT tools and resources in teaching and learning of CRE subject.

iv. To determine the level of effectiveness of teaching and learning pedagogy used with ICT tools and resources in teaching and learning of CRE subject.

Research Questions

i. What is the ratio of ICT materials and resources to the number of teachers and learners?

ii. What are the qualification and level of competency of CRE subject teachers and learners in handling ICT tools and resources?

iii. How frequently are ICT tools and resources used in teaching and learning of CRE subject?

iv. What is the level of effectiveness of teaching and learning pedagogy that are used with ICT resources and tools while teaching and learning of CRE subject?

Significance of the Study

The findings are of great value to educational sector at the national, county and sub- county level. Since, it reports on the level of accessibility and effectiveness of ICT materials and resources. Thus, ii informs the Ministry of Education, Science and Technology (MoEST) for budgetary requirements, policy formulation, and level of implementation and challenges encountered and possible solutions or strategies to be put in place to facilitate effective implementation of ICT to boost students performance in CRE subject.

The study informs quality assurance and standards officers on the quality of education at sub-county level. The results can later be projected to represent national quality of education. Since, the study was conducted during the process of teaching

and learning of CRE in an actual classroom setup, thus the data regarded as first- hand information.

The study has presented vital information to TSC and other teacher education, recruitment and employment bodies on the necessity of attainment of certain requisite skills, standards and level competency for one to be able to use ICT effectively during the process of teaching and learning. The data obtained are of great significance to both KICD and KNEC. Since they suggest on various strategies to be put in place to ensure relevant content and technology to be used effectively in all curriculum processes including; development, implementation, evaluation and innovation. This shall ensure quality education and attainment of educational goals, aims and objectives and appreciation of technology in education.

Furthermore, the findings from the research are of paramount importance to research field of curriculum implementation with the use of ICT in education in both Kenya and the rest of the world. Thus, adding stock of knowledge in the Department of Educational Management, Policy and Curriculum Studies in Kenyatta University and generally in the field of Education technology in an effort to reap the most out  of the current technologies.

Lastly, the study has immensely boosted researcher‟s motivation in engaging in other researches in the same field and has also provided an avenue for the researcher to put into practice theoretical knowledge attained; thus providing both experience and expertise.

Limitations of the Study

i. The study was carried out in public secondary schools due to financial, time and other logistical constraints. However, for more conclusive results, both public and private schools should have been studied.

ii. The research findings obtained from schools in the sample were generalized for the whole population. Although, different schools in Bomet County could be facing different issues or challenges not captured in the research on the use of ICT in teaching and learning of CRE.

iii. The study on ICT seems to be an interesting topic and some respondents might have overrated its use which might not reflect the reality of the prevailing conditions in the schools.

iv. There was a dearth of literature on use of ICT in the local context. Thus, the researcher had to use literature from the global context in theoretical framework and in literature review.

Delimitations of the Study

i. The study confined itself only to public secondary schools in Bomet County because they are the direct beneficiaries of governmental funding, policy formulation and implementation.

ii. Form four students would have been of greater insight in giving information regarding the use of ICT in teaching and learning of CRE subject on their performance. However, at the time of the study, they were preparing for examination. Thus, the study engaged form three students only as they are assumed to have interacted with content and exposed on the use of ICT unlike form ones and two students.

iii. The study confined itself to teachers in public secondary schools only. Teachers in private schools funded by non-governmental organizations and individuals were not included though they use ICT in the teaching process.

Assumptions of the Study

i. Public secondary schools are the main beneficiaries of the ICT initiatives.

ii. There is use of ICT in teaching and learning in all public secondary schools.

However, its level of effectiveness in teaching and learning of CRE subject is not known by the researcher.

iii. Teachers and learners have requisite knowledge and skills to use ICT effectively.

iv. Use of ICT has an impact on student performance.

v. Lastly, teachers are aware of effective teaching and learning methodologies/strategies for CRE subject.

Theoretical Framework





The study is based on Generic Model that was proposed by Qiyun Wang, (2008). The Generic Model consists of three key components: pedagogy, social interaction and technology.

Figure 1.1: Components of Generic Model

Source: Wang, (2008) Components of Generic Model

An educational system is a unique combination of pedagogical, social, and technological components (Kirschner, Strijbos, Kreijns, & Beers, 2004). In an educational context, pedagogy often refers to the teaching strategies, techniques or approaches that teachers use to deliver instruction or facilitate learning. The pedagogical component is critical for distinguishing a learning system from other communities, such as an alumni community, as it primarily reflects the educational purposes of the learning system (Chen, 2003). Other communities are often built without any concrete learning purposes in mind, (Wang, (2008).

The theory further elaborates that pedagogical design is an ongoing process, which cannot be simply pre-determined before a lesson. In addition to the selection of proper content or activities, pedagogical design must deal with how to use these resources in an effective way in order to scaffold students during learning processes. In terms of pedagogical design, a learning environment ought to support and satisfy the needs and learning intentions of students with different backgrounds. It should also involve using various learning resources and activities that support students learning, and allow teachers to facilitate learning (Chen, 2003; Kirschner et al., 2004).

Social activities are crucial in daily life. People naturally live and work in various communities, in which they turn to others for help when they encounter problems (Jonassen, Peck, & Wilson, 1999; Wilson & Lowry, 2000). In many situations, students might use stand-alone computers which only allow them to interact with embedded learning resources. With the development of CMC, computers are now connected  world-wide.  Social  activities  become  more  convenient  and  flexible

through the support of CMC (Khine, Yeap & Tan, 2003). Students may still use

computers individually. However, they have the opportunity to work collaboratively, for instance in problem-solving. Computer-supported collaborative learning has shown positive effects on students performance in solving problem-based tasks (Uribe, Klein, & Sullivan, 2003). The social design of a learning environment must provide a safe and comfortable space, in which learners are willing to share information and in which they can also easily communicate with others (Wang, 2008).

The technological component becomes more prominent in a technology-enhanced learning environment, for many learning activities are conducted through the support of a computer. An online learning environment must be available all the time and access must be convenient and fast (Salmon, 2004). Availability and easy access are initial requirements for an effective online learning environment. In addition, human–computer interface design is crucial – as it determines the usability of a technology-based learning environment. The interface design of a computer programme ought to focus on ease of learning, ease of use and aesthetics (Wang & Cheung, 2003). Ease of learning is critical for beginners while ease of use becomes more important while users gain experience over time. Certainly, the interface must be attractive so that it can motivate and engage learners, (Wang, 2008).

Wang (2008) Pedagogy, social interaction and technology are critical components of a technology enhanced learning environment. Technology is more likely to be a basic condition for effective integration of ICT. Sound design of pedagogy or social interaction very much depends on the availability of technological support. Without sufficient support of technology, undoubtedly many pedagogical and social design

activities, such as 3D simulations or asynchronous online discussions, would be hard

to implement. However, the primary factor that influences the effectiveness of learning is not the availability of technology, but the pedagogical design and social design (Mandell, Sorge, & Russell, 2002).

Wang (2008) Generic model fits well with constructivist learning theories, interactivity design and the definition of the usefulness of a system. Consequently, the pedagogical design of a learning environment can follow the cognitive constructivist learning theory to include basic educational functionalities by focusing on interaction with content. The social design can follow the social constructivist learning theory to provide a comfortable learning space in which students can interact with peers or the teacher. The technological design must ensure the usability of the learning environment by focusing on interaction with the interface.

The generic model is applicable in many phases of an instructional planning process. It can be used to guide the design and evaluation of Web-based learning environments; facilitate online discussions; or help teachers to compare and choose appropriate tools for specific educational contexts. This theory guided the researcher to examine the effectiveness in the use of ICT in teaching and learning of CRE.

ImagePresentation of lesson;

⦁ Collaborative tool

⦁ Internet use

⦁ Pedagogical strategy

Conceptual Framework


⦁ Making lesson notes

⦁ Organizing content

⦁ Research

⦁ Development of plays, games and multimedia resources.

⦁ Communication.

Independent variables Intervening variables Dependent variables

Assessment tool:

⦁ Setting

⦁ Moderating

⦁ Administration of exams

Factors affecting CRE subject on presentation:

⦁ Teacher

⦁ Student

⦁ School

⦁ Government

Learning outcomes:

⦁ Quality education.

⦁ Student achievement in CRE subject.

⦁ Motivation; student and teacher

⦁ Effective use of ICT in teaching and learning of CRE subject

⦁ Experience in use of ICT

Figure 1.2: Conceptual Framework Source: Researcher (2015)

The researcher perceived that there were three major uses of ICT in the process of teaching and learning of CRE subject. The uses are organization of content, presentation of lesson and assessment. At the organizational level the teacher performs, the role of making lesson notes, organizing content, research, development of plays, games and multimedia resources and communication with individuals and groups to get information to deliver to students in the classroom.

The next usage of ICT is at the classroom or any place designed for learning. It is at this level when the teacher is set to present learning objectives to students. The teacher is expected to use ICT as a pedagogical strategy, collaborative tool and also expose learners to global content through internet use. The last use of ICT is the assessment of attainment of learning objectives. This can be done orally or in written form. The perceived use include the setting, moderation, administration of examination and provision of feedback. The effectiveness in the use of ICT in the three contexts is affected by the following four factors:

a) Teacher‟s mastery of content, delivery methods, attitude towards the subject, attitude towards use of ICT academic qualification, knowledge in ICT, attitude towards ICT, understanding learners difference, personality, and class supervisory skills.

b) Student‟s basic knowledge of ICT, level of interaction with ICT materials, level of maturation and attitude toward the subject and subject teacher.

c) School availability of ICT resources, administrative functions, provision of proper learning environment, school policy on use of ICT resources, management support, technical support.

d) Government training on use of ICT, policies, provision of infrastructure, tools and human resources for effective use of ICT.

The researcher perceived that effective use of ICT can bring about the following outcome in the process of teaching and learning of CRE subject; attainment of quality education, student achievement in CRE subject, knowledge and experience in use of technology, effective use of ICT teaching and learning tools and resources in teaching and learning of CRE subject, practicing effective teaching and learning

methodology and motivation for both the student and the teacher.

Operational Definition of Terms

Effectiveness: Refers to the process of utilization of resources to produce the intended result.

Humanities: This is an academic discipline that uses methods that are primarily critical or speculative and have significant historical elements as distinguished from natural sciences. In the study, it refers to a group of subjects offered in 8-4-4 curriculum. CRE subject has been chosen for the study.

ICT: Refers all ranges of hardware and software devices and programmes such as computers, assistive technologies, scanners, digital cameras, multimedia programmes, notebooks, Data projections, internet, interactive whiteboards, CD ROMS(compact disk read-only memory) and DVDs( digital video disks), video, magnetic tapes, video games, image editing software, database, spreadsheet programmes and television.

Learning: Refers to the relatively permanent change in capacity for performance acquired through experience or training.

Teaching: Refers to a professional activity in which a teacher creatively and imaginatively uses himself and his knowledge to promote the learning of others.

New millennium learners (NMLS): Refer to people who use the internet whenever faced with a question.





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