THE INFLUENCE OF AVAILABILITY AND UTILIZATION OF TEACHING AIDS ON THE ACADEMIC PERFORMANCE OF PUPILS IN PRIMARY SCHOOLS IN IFELODUN LOCAL GOVERNMENT
The influence of teaching aids on the academic performance of pupils in primary school is very important and cannot be ignored. The inputs consist of both human and material resources, pupils and students learn easily with teaching Aid. It cuts time wastage as the object speaks volume of what to learn. The availability is very significance for learning to take place. Instructional materials consist of concrete or physical objects which provide sound. Utilization of instructional materials and lack of teaching skills are sort of bane to teachers regular meaningful of workshop on improvisation technique is solution to teachers on their day to day activities in the class. Hence, this study critically investigates the effects of availability and utilization of instructional materials on the academic performance of primary school in Ifelodun Local Government Area of Kwara State. This study was descriptive study of the survey type using questionnaire the population consists of all primary school teachers both public and private in Ifelodun Local Government Kwara state out of 100 teacher’s samples 59% were male while 41% were female. Pictures, charts and posters were moderately available. Also, the study discovered that there is no discrepancy in the utilization of instructional resources on the bases of teachers’ gender while correlation exist between the utilization of instructional materials and teachers’ perception on the influence of instructional materials on pupils academic performance. I recommend that government should supply instructional/teaching aids to school to make learning easy and accessible. Parent should be ready to cooperate with teachers for their wards to 80 far in life educationally. Based on the finding obtained from this study availability and utilization of instructional materials is indispensable.
TABLE OF CONTENT
Title page i
Table of Content vi
CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION
1.1 Background of the study 1-4
1.2 Statement of the Problem 5
1.3 Research Objectives 6
1.4 Research Question 6-7
1.5 Research Hypothesis 7
1.6 Significance of the study 7-8
1.7 Scope of the study 8
1.8 Operational Definition of Terms 9
CHAPTER TWO: REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE
2.1 Overview of Instructional material 10-13
2.2 Instructional Materials and Academic achievement 13-15
2.3 Challenges of utilizing instructional materials 15-16
2.4 Availability and utilization of instructional material 16-17
2.5 Appraisal of the literature reviewed 17-19
CHAPTER THREE: RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
3.1 Research Design 20
3.2 population of the Study 20
3.3 Sample and Sampling Technique 21
3.4 Instrumentation 21-22
3.5 Procedure for Data Collection 22
3.6 Validity and Reliability of the Instruments 22
3.7 Data Analysis Technique 23
CHAPTER FOUR: DATA ANALYSIS AND RESULTS
4.1 Demographic Data of the respondents 24
4.2 Answering of Research Question 25-29
4.3 Hypotheses Testing 30-31
4.4 Discussion of findings 31-33
CHAPTER FIVE: SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS
5.1 Summary of the Finding 34-35
5.2 Conclusion 35
5.3 Recommendations 36-37
5.4 Suggestion for Further Studies 37
1.1 Background of the study
The influence of teaching aids on the academic performance of pupils in primary school cannot be over emphasized. According to the handbook for instructional material, instruction materials are tools for accessing, manipulating and using information in teaching and learning. Instructional materials as covering a wide range of visual and audio media, from simple chalkboard drawing to complex overhead transparencies and computer as described by Miner and Tyler (2005).
According to Combs in Ogundiran (2015) Education consist of two components. Inputs and outputs according to him, inputs consist of human and material resources and outputs are goods and outcomes of the educational process. Both the inputs and outputs form a dynamic organic whole and if one wants to investigate and assess the educational system in order to improve its performance effects of one component on the other must be examined. Instructional materials which are education al inputs are of vital importance to the teaching of any subject, in the primary school curriculum. According to Ogundiran (2015) no effective education programme can exist without equipment, facilities, materials and so on. They are indispensable to good teaching and learning. Teachers handling science subjects complain of lack of equipment and materials to carry out practical exercise with pupils. Due of this, some teachers avoid the practical aspect of science while concentrating their attention on the theoretical aspects. Some try to verbalize their teaching on theoretical aspect and by so doing render the lesson vague and abstract. Hence, the use of instructional materials in teaching and learning will enable the learner to develop problem solving skills, and positive attitude, acquire and develop functional knowledge and manipulative skills some researchers like Wales (2001) &Nwichi (2003) among others postulated that, the use of instructional materials would make a discovered facts glues firmly to the memory of pupils. Also, Asaya and Egwali (2005) opined that the use of teaching aids is to bring desirable changes in learner’s abilities and behavioursmore or less permanent due to experience exposure of knowledge gained and required by the active participation of the learners. Other also added that a well planned and imaginative us of visual aids in lesson should do much to banish apathy, supplement inadequacy of books as well as arouse pupils interest by giving them something practical to see, do and at the same time helping to train them to think abstractly (Savoury 2000, Koert 2000). Hence, Savoury (2004) suggested a catalogue of useful visual aids that will help in teaching pupils in public primary school like; pictures, postcards, diagrams, maps, film, strips and models. He added that, the selection of materials which are related to the basic contents of a lesson helps in understanding of such a lesson by the pupils. It also makes the lesson attractive and this motivating them to learn.
Ibe-Bassey (2008), suggested that school should be properly and uniformly equipped to promote sound and effective teaching with suitable textbooks, qualified teachers and libraries among others, and adequate learners should also be in schools in order to achieve a just and egalitarian society as spelt out in Nigerian National Policy on Education. Combs (2003) stressed that scarcity of these constraints, restrict the educational system from responding more fully to new demands. Knezewich (2001) also stressed the importance of having appropriate personnel plan, and adequate facilities to support of educational effort. Knezewich also opines that quality of education and its efficiency and productivity depends solemnly on good instructional materials.
Therefore, to ensure that the goals of primary education were met, the policy document recommended that primary education will be tuition free, universal and compulsory. It also recommended that teaching and learning must be practical, exploratory and experimental and should be handled by teachers the document also recommended the provision of educational resources centers to boost the availability of teaching materials . All the subjects taught in theprimary school help and assist the young children to be able to interact favourably with their environment, using these five senses to perceive the environment through providing assistance for the child to make useful orderly observation and to draw valid inference on the basis of what he observed around him. For the teacher to be proficient in handling classes, he must be trained and must possess skills that will help in this task, Umoren (Esu&NtuKidem, 2003). According to Umoren (Esu&Ntu-Kidem, 2003), the use of instructional materials at primary level has become an accepted fact in the world over.
Savoury (2004) submitted that most public primary schools in various local government areas in Nigeria do not know the scope and content of education technology and proper management strategies of any available instructional materials to enhance better teaching and learning. This result to their negative attitudes to the resources available. Another challenge facing the academic performance of the pupils in public primary school according to Fafunwa (2004) includes non-use of instructional materials, lack of funds to acquire some of the materials that cannot be improvised, lack of adequate room facilities for storage and security facilities inadequate regular electricity supply to sustain specific audio visual resources that require specific room temperature. Epileptic supply of electricity has a damaging effect on some of these teaching facilities. Also, Minor & Tyler, (2005) stressed that unavailability of useful materials; inadequate room facilities and budgets, poor, planning, poor communication, unfamiliarity with audio visual materials and methods of teaching, are challenges facing teaching in utilizing the available instructional material. Hence, Russell (2001) observes that “the use of media in instruction depend onthe attitude of the teacher and his perception of how media resources can facilitate the academic performance of the public primary school pupils in teaching and learning process.
It is on these notes that, the researcher want to investigate the effects of availability and utilization of instructional material on academic performance of primary school pupils.
1.2 Statement of the Problem
The primary school education, the background to which other levels of education are built upon. Many educationist and researchers have published their views on why instructional materials should be used in teaching in primary school level. Ogundiran (2015) postulated that despite the numerous advantages of utilizing instructional materials in teaching and learning, it is embarrassing to note that many teachers and schools in Nigeria still limit the teaching process to textbook chalks and chalkboards, teachers centered methods. They disregard the importance of using instructional materials as a tool to enhance the academic performance of the pupils in the primary schools. Also Savoury (2004) submitted that most public primary schools in various local government areas in Nigeria do not know the scope and content of educational technology and proper management strategies of any available instructional materials to enhance better teaching and learning.
The foregoing results to an unimpressive performance of primary education as postulated by Uzeochi (2004). It is therefore pertinent to find out the effect of availability and utilization of instructional material on pupils academics performances in primary schools.
Therefore, this study critically examines the effects of availability and utilization of instructional materials on the academic performance of primary school in Ifelodun Local Government Area of Kwara State.
1.3 Research Objectives
The major objective of this study is to examine the influence of availability and utilization of instructional material on the academic performance of primary schools’ pupils. Hence specifically, the study investigates;
1. The extent of the availability of instructional materials in primary schools.
2. The level at which the available instructional materials utilize by teachers in primary schools.
3. The teachers’ perception on the influence of instructional material on pupil’s academic performance.
4. The challenges faced by teachers in utilizing the available instructional materials in primary schools.
5. The relationship between the use of instructional material and teachers’ perception on its influence on pupils’ academic performance
6. To determine how availability and utilization of teaching aids could influence academic performance.
1.4 Research Questions
The following research questions were asked to guide the study;
1. What is the extent of the availability of instructional materials in primary schools?
2. How often the available instructional materials areutilized by teachers in primary schools?
3. What is the teachers’ perception on the influence of instructional material on pupils’ academic performance?
4. What are the challenges faced by teachers in utilizing the available instructional materials in primary schools?
1.5 Research Hypothesis
The following null hypotheses were drafted to guide the study;
HO1 There is no significant difference between male and female teachers level of utilization of instructional materials in primary schools.
HO2 There is no significant relationship between the use of instructional material and teachers’ perception on its influence on pupils’ academic performance.
1.6 Significance of the Study
This research work examines the effect of availability of availability and utilization of instructional materials on academic performance of pupils. However, the effective use of the available instructional material in primary schools covers all development of pupils.
Hence, qualitative analyses of this research work will provide more detailed explanation and insight into the effect of availability and utilization of instructional materials on academic performance which needed when establishing guidelines for future implementation especially the primary schools. Hence, this current study will add to the knowledge base of teachers’ education and the use of instructional materials in teaching/learning process as well as establishing guidelines for further explanation.
In addition, this research work will make clear to the Kwara State Government the available instructional materials in primary school.
Furthermore, this research will encourage the primaryschools teachers to adequately utilize the available instructional haven know its effect on the academic performance of their pupils.
Therefore, it is hoped that the results of this study will be helpful in providing useful information for the preparation of pre-service teachers for teaching practice exercise; To serve as a basis for comprehensive investigation to redress problems in the implementing the new primary school syllabi.
Finally, the research works will be an eye-opener to the various challenges face by the primary school teachers in adequately utilizing the available instructional materials.
1.7 Scope of the study
This research work significantly covers the availability and use of instructional material in primary schools.
Therefore, the research work covers only the primary school teachers randomly selected based on their demographic information.
1.8 Operational Definition of terms
Instructional Materials: This is seen by teachers as teaching aids other than substitution in the classrooms
Teaching: Is the process of facilitating pupils learning through a proper management by the teacher, pupils interest, content of learning, method and materials intend to use in teaching and learning process.
Teacher: this is a professional personnel that involve in teaching process
Effect: this is regards as the power to bring out a result
Primary school: this is the early stage of education i.e. Basic one(1) to Basic six (6)
Availability: refer to having instructional material at hand, which has an impact on the use of the instructional materials. This is important because for the instructional materials to be used they must be readily available.
Utilization: this is to make use of or turn to practical use i.e instructional material.