PERCEIVED INFLUENCE OF INSTRUCTIONAL MATERIALS ON LEARNING OF ECONOMICS IN SENIOR SECONDARY SCHOOLS (A CASE STUDY OF OGBOMOSO, OYO STATE, NIGERIA)
This research work investigated the perceived influence of Instructional Materials on Learning of Economics in Senior Secondary Schools in Ogbomoso, Oyo State. Specifically, the study was: Does the utilization of instructional materials influence the teaching of economics in senior secondary school in Ogbomosho, and could students learning be advanced by the use of instructional materials in Ogbomoso? Descriptive research design of survey type was used for the study. The total population of study comprised 200 respondents in selected schools in Ogbomoso of Oyo State. A multi stage technique of purpose sampling technique, proportionate sampling technique and simple random sampling technique were used for the study. The instrument used for data collection was self-structured question tagged on perceived influence of Instructional Materials on Learning of Economics in Senior Secondary Schools in Ogbomoso Questionnaire. Inferential statistic of chi-square was used to analyze the postulated hypotheses at 0.05 alpha level. The study revealed that: there is a significant difference in the perceived influence of instructional materials on the learning of Economics in Senior Secondary School in Ogbomoso based on student’s gender with calculated t-value of 2.19 is greater than the critical t-value of 1.96; there is a significant difference in the perceived influence of instructional materials on the learning of Economics in Senior Secondary School in Ogbomoso based on student’s school location with calculated t-value of 2.38 is greater than the critical t-value of 1.96. Based on the findings of the study, it was concluded that; there should be seminar giving to the teachers on the importance of instructional materials, Government should provide instruction materials to all the schools so that the teacher will not lack instructional materials during learning from the students, and parents should encourage their children on the importance of instructional materials in the learning.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Title Page i
Acknowledgement iv – v
Table of Contents vi – viii
Abstract ix – x
CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION
1.1 Background of the Study 1 – 11
1.2 Statement of the Problem 11 – 13
1.3 Research Questions 13 – 14
1.4 Research Hypotheses 14
1.5 Purpose of the Study 14 – 15
1.6 Significance of the Study 15 – 17
1.7 Scope and Limitations of the Study 17 – 18
1.8 Operational Definition of Terms 18 – 19
CHAPTER TWO: REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE
2.1 Concept of Instructional Materials 21 – 25
2.2 Types of Instructional Materials 25 – 29
2.3 Criteria’s for Selecting Instructional Materials on
Learning of Economics 29 – 30
2.4 Objectives of the Lesson to be Taught 30
2.5 Contributions of Instructional Materials on
Learning of Economics 31
2.6 Problems Militating Against the Influence of
Instructional Resources in Learning of Economics 32 – 33
2.7 Review of Empirical Studies 33 – 40
2.8 Appraisal of Literature Reviewed 41 – 43
CHAPTER THREE: RESEARCH METHOD
3.1 Research Design 45
3.2 Population of the Study 45
3.3 Sample and Sampling Technique 45 – 46
3.4 Research Instrument 46
3.5 Validity and Reliability of the Instrument 47
3.6 Procedure for Data Collection 47
3.7 Method of Data Analysis 48
CHAPTER FOUR: PRESENTATION, ANALYSIS OF DATA AND DISCUSSION
4.1 Hypothesis Testing and Discussion 49 – 59
4.2 Discussion 59 – 60
CHAPTER FIVE: SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS
5.1 Summary of the Findings 62
5.2 Conclusion 63
5.3 Recommendations 63 – 64
5.4 Suggestions for Further Studies 64
References 65 – 71
Appendix 72 – 74
1.1 Background of the Study
Instructional materials according to Emma and Ajayi (2004) are those things which help learning and teaching process. It helps to promote understanding of the concept and generalization by making lesson practical and realistic. Any teacher who has the interest of the student at heart is bound to think of the ways and means he will employ to make his learning process more effective and more interesting to the students.
Health on the other hand, is been defined by the World Health Organization (WHO) ‘2004’ as a state of complete, physical, mental and social wellbeing not merely the absent of disease or infirmity. According to Odue (2011) economics is a process o acquiring health information to make judgement on health behaviour and practices. Economics is sum of all experiences that will develop desirable attitudes, practices and knowledge of an individual, family or community health. The emphasis in economics also includes a teaching and learning transaction between the health teachers and the recipient or students.
The influence of instructional materials in promoting students’ academic performance and learning in educational development is indisputable. The teaching of Economics in Nigeria secondary schools needs to be properly handled. The materials used by the teachers to teach and drive home their subject points at the primary and secondary school levels of our education system is incontrovertibly a paramount important issue.
Instructional materials assist teachers to make their lessons explicit to learners. They are also used to transmit information ideas and notes to learners (Ijaduola) (1997) instructional materials include both visual and audio-visual such as pictures, flashcards, posters, charts, tape recorder radio, video, television, computer among others. These materials serve as supplement to the normal processes of instruction.
Instructional material is crucial to learning processes. A dedicated classroom teacher feels satisfied when he realizes the objectives he has set out to achieve for every lesson. In order to achieve this, a trained teacher employs a number o methods, design and actions, one o which includes the use of instructional material. Instructional materials are referred to as the source which both the teachers and students use for the purpose of effective teaching and learning. Okwo (1996) defined instructional materials as those materials that teachers can use in teaching to facilitate the learning of a particular subject or lesson.
The lists o instructional materials are inexhaustible and their limit is the teacher’s level of resourcefulness, creativity and imagination. Rominszowski (1996) listed instructional material to include newspaper, magazines, pictures, textbooks, chalkboard, laboratory equipment, posters, builletings, journal, radio, television, audiocassettes, tapes, film scripts and slides. Others are overhead and opaque projector, real objects and computer. Okebukola (2003) described instructional materials as information multipliers because they are capable of providing learners with opportunities to learn beyond teachers capabilities when utilized for instruction.
Utilization of instructional material is the act of using and applying the available instructional material in the actual teaching/learning process. Where resources are supplied or instructional use, teachers are expected to utilize them to support a smooth and meaningful flow of instruction and promote understanding of the content being taught. To facilitate the learning of economics in secondary schools, the skilful teacher can select those instructional materials that are relevant to the economics curriculum. This could be implemented from the numerous instructional materials that abound in the market or that are available in the school. When instructional materials are not utilized, permanent learning are difficult to take place because students cannot actively participate in a way that challenge them to think creatively.
Economic as a subject came into, existence since 1776 via the publication of Adam smith the protagonist o the classical school of thought, and since then it has assumed many roles especially in both political and educational circles. Economic is an important subject that must be credited by students before gaining admission into any tertiary institution especially the university to study relevant courses like Accountancy, Business Administration, and insurance etc. the importance and technicality of this subject makes it necessary that relevant courses like Accountancy, Business Administration, and insurance etc. the importance and technicality of this subject makes it necessary that relevant instructional materials should be used to teach. This fact is supported by Macaulay (1998) who asserts that visual aids make lesson come alive and helps students to learn better. It is against this background that this study attempts to examine the extent to which the effect of instructional materials could advance senior secondary school students performance in Economics.
Poor academic achievements in Economic could be attributed to many factors among which teachers strategy itself was considered as an important factor. This implies that the mastery o economics concepts might not be fully achieved without the use instructional material. The learning of economics without the use of instructional materials may certainly result in poor academic achievement. Franzer Okebukola and Jegede (1992) stressed that a professionally qualified science teacher no matter how well trained will unable to put his ideas into practice I the school settings lacks the equipment and materials necessary for him or her to translate his competence into reality.
Bassey (2002) opined that science is resource intensive, and in such a period of economic recession, it may be very difficult to find some of the electronic gadgets and equipment for the learning of economics in schools adequately. A situation that is further compounded by the galloping inflation in the country and at times some of the imported sophisticated materials and equipment are found expensive and irrelevant, hence the need to produce materials locally. Researchers such as Obioha (2006) and Ogunleye (2002) reported that there were inadequate resources for teaching science subjects in secondary schools in Nigeria. They further stated that the available ones are not usually in good conditions. There is the need therefore for improvisation. Adebimpe (1997) and Daramola (2008) however noted that improvisation demands adventure, creativity, curiosity, and perseverance on the part of the teacher, such skills are only realizable through well planned training programme on improvisation.
In Nigeria, for example experience has shown that spoken morals alone in the communication of idea are grossly ineffective and inefficient in producing desired learning outcomes. Abdu-Raheem (2011) in her work asserted that non –availability and inadequacy of (IM) are major cause of ineffectiveness of the school system and poor performance of students in school. Ogbonna (2014) observed in his research that there are lot of factors imitating against the effective learning of economics in secondary schools which includes lack of instructional materials, poor methodology of teaching, attitude and interest of the students in learning of economics. According to Adeniyi (2000), the effect of instructional materials to communicate more permanently, health related issues and information is retained when supplemented with aid; certainly instructional materials when carefully selected and skilfully used will make learning more effective. Therefore it becomes necessary to investigate the effect of instructional materials in learning of economics. Using secondary schools in Ogbomosho town as a case study.
However, man and animal possesses the necessary abilities or learning in other words they are potential learners. Certain factors within and outside the learner determine how effectively each individual learn. They are internal when they lie within the individual and external when they lie outside the learner or individual as the case may be. Instructional materials can be in different forms such as textual and non-textual, the visual and auditory and audio-visual. Benson (2003), indicated that there is a need for research on the use and effectiveness of instructional materials in economic classroom that would enhance its learning. Since instructional materials are said to be numerous and varied for a subject, the government may not have enough resources to effectively provide all that is required. This is because most factory-finished materials are very expensive due to various factors and inputs in the production process and sometimes the length o time taken to being out the finished materials. This situation now challenges a practicing teacher to explore his environment and discover materials which can be used in place of the factory finished or imported ones. The teacher’s effort to find alternative for the supply of locally made material elicits the innate act of improvisation. Given the inadequate provision of instructional material on learning economics, improvisation for learners in urban and rural secondary schools becomes very necessary if students, must be properly taught.
Improvisation is the act of preparation of the replicas of real substances using costless or cheap locally available materials. Improvisation according to Mogbo (1994) refers to the invention, construction, collection, creation, modification, production and substitution of material for teaching-learning process in the absence of professionally made ones. Improvisation involves the act of making suitable substitute for the real thing. It also involves the act of making suitable substitute or the real thing. It also involves designing or constructing an equipment or tool by a teacher or with the help of some carpenters, blacksmith, and trade centres. Alterhaug, (2004) noted that when teachers improvise instructional materials, they generate new processes in which learning insight and knowledge acquisition beyond basic level of learning can be achieved, thus providing a platform for further development in a variety of contexts.
In other words, the activity of the teacher which aimed at improving the sensory experience o the ideal is regarded as improvisation. The teachers are to show positive attitude towards the improvisation of instructional materials in the absence of professionally made ones. They are to be aware that the era of mere rhetoric has gone when textbooks and chalkboard were the only way out. Okpala (2005), stated that “improvisation is teacher’s center activity” and it is therefore, the urban/rural teachers who through their resourcefulness improvise and utilize a variety of instructional materials for effective teaching and learning. Economic teachers in urban areas are those that teach in schools located within urban areas characterized by many amenities like big markets, television networks, pipe-borne water, road networks, hospitals companies, and banks. Those in rural areas teach in school located within the area where many amenities are lacking. When learners are taught using instructional materials, they learn faster and retain facts better (Alterhaug, 2004).
1.2 Statement of the Problem
In Nigeria, despite the high allocation of government funds to secondary schools, special training of teachers, provision of learning resources (i.e in structural materials) all these are not fully influenced the learning of economics in seniors secondary schools. For instance, using Ogbomosho town as an example, experiences has shows that spoken words alone in teaching are grossly inefficient in producing desired learning outcomes. Every year, when the results of public examination are released, there has always been mass failure in economics. The reason for this could be the fact that there are some topics in economics that pose serious problem of comprehension to students. Topics like; Theory of cost money, utility theory, price/market system, indifferent cure theory, international trade and so on.
These topics cannot be taught effectively without the use of instructional materials like chart, maps, flannel, realia (like coins, bank notes of various denomination, teller machines (ATM), cheques, etc), internet, etc. To influence the students and make the learning practical. On the foregoing, scholars like Mutebi and Matona (1994) have emphasized the influence of instructional materials utilization on learning. According to them, we learn and remember 10% of what we hear, 40% of what we discuss with others and as high as 80% of what we experience directly or practice. In order to improve the academic performance of students in learning economics, the following where we have questions arises as the problem which needs to be tackled within this project work:
⦁ Does the utilization of instructional materials influence the teaching of economics in senior secondary school in Ogbomosho Town?
⦁ Could students learning be advanced by the use of instructional materials in Ogbomosho Town?
1.3 Research Questions
In order to adhere to the purpose of this study, the following research questions were raised:
1. Will the use of instructional materials influence the learning of Economics in Senior Secondary School in Ogbomosho?
2. What is perceived influence of instructional materials on learning of economic in Ogbomoso, based on student’s genders?
3. What is the perceived influence of instructional materials on learning of economics in Ogbomoso, based on student’s school locations?
1.4 Research Hypotheses
The following null hypothesis were stated for the study.
Ho1: There is no significant difference in the perceived influence of instructional materials on the learning of Economics in Senior Secondary School in Ogbomoso based on students’ gender.
Ho2: There is no significant difference in the perceived influence of instructional materials on the learning of Economics in Senior Secondary School in Ogbomoso based on Student’s School location.
1.5 Purpose of the Study
The general purpose of this study is to investigate the influence of instructional materials in learning of Economics in senior secondary school in Ogbomoso, Oyo State, Specifically, the study intends to:
1. examine the perceived influence of instructional materials utilization on the learning of economics in Senior Secondary Schools in Ogbomoso based on students’ gender.
2. examine the perceived influence of instructional materials utilization on the learning of economics in Senior Secondary Schools in Ogbomoso based on students’ school location.
1.6 Significance of the Study
The significant of the study is to identify the influence of instructional materials on learning of economics and how the outcome of this study would assist economics teachers in manipulating instructional materials to aid teaching to achieve maximum learning objectives. The findings of this study will be of benefit to the school management the Board (SUBEB) teachers, students, educational planners, curriculum experts, educators and government and the society at large.
To the students, the effective use of instructional materials would enable them to effectively learn and retain what they have learnt and thereby advancing their performance in the subject in question.
The study would help enhance teachers’ teaching effectiveness and productivity with the appropriate use of instructional materials in other to achieve good academic performances.
It will help the school management to understand help that can be rendered to students. The study will be useful to both educational policy makers in giving guidance to the government on necessary course of action to enhance academic performance. The finding may also be useful feedback to curriculum experts and designers of experiences in shaping the needs of senior secondary schools.
The study is also significant to the educational system and the society at large. This is because, when teachers solidity their teaching with instructional materials and the learners learn effectively, the knowledge acquired will reflect in the society positively. Students will be able to understand the functioning of the economy, interpret government’s economic policies and activity and perform economically better in the choice of life and work.
1.7 Scope and Limitations of the Study
This study is focused on perceiving the influence of instructional materials on the learning of economics in senior secondary schools in Ogbomoso, Oyo State. As a result of time and financial constraints, the study is limited to students as respondants and only Ogbomoso town. This is because the researcher resides in this area and had the opportunity of having a comprehensive knowledge of the area and its environs.
Besides, the study is focused on the senior secondary schools in Ogbomoso Town of Oyo State. The study will cover twenty (20) secondary schools in both rural and semi-urban location of schools in Ogbomoso, from each of the schools two (2) economics teachers each would be selected through stratified sample technique from each of the twenty (20) schools making a total of forty (40) teachers. Also, ten (10) SS 2 economics students would be randomly selected in each school to make a total of two-hundred (200) economics students as respondents in all the twenty (20) selected students.
Questionnaire will be used as an instrument for collection of data from economics teachers and students in the schools. Statistically, percentage would be used to answer the research questions while the independent t-test would be used to test the hypotheses for data analysis.
1.8 Operational Definition of Terms
The relevant terms below were operationally defined relative to their usage in this study.
⦁ Instructional Material: What the teacher sues to make the lesson more interesting and understandable
⦁ Improvisation: This is the act o replacing the instructional materials that is not available or too costly to get in the lesson to make it more explanatory and understandable.
⦁ Utilization: The act of using something to achieve a purpose
⦁ Difference in Learning of Economics: This is the change (outcome) that is brought about in learning of economics as a subject, that is, the way in which an event, action or person changes towards the subject either positive or negative in learning of economics.
⦁ Audio: These are teaching aids which appeals to the sense of learning.
⦁ Audio-Visual: These are instructional materials that can be used to assist teaching and learning via the sense of sight and learning.
⦁ Gender: Refer to the students male and female status.
⦁ School Locations: Senior Secondary Schools that are located in rural and semi-urban in Ogbomoso towns and its environs..