CHAPTER ONE


1.1    Background to the Study

 Social studies is a unique and versatile subject in that it comprises a number of subject that are taught interactively. Its importance cannot be over emphasized since it forms the basis of subject like history, geography, sociology, anthropology, government and many other. It is meant to serve as a foundation; it needs to be taught properly and meaningfully so that pupil should acquire solid andpermanent experience. For learning to be permanent, relevant and appropriate instructional material should be employed. Teacher should take the pain of providing instructional material using available resource in their locality to enhance the quality of teaching and learning ( Audu&Agbo 2010). Students are exposed to expository rather the inquiry method of instruction which does not predispose them to experimentation (Anulobi, 2009). However, the National policy on Education (FRN, 2004), stated that the aim of education is to inculcate in the child, the spirit of inquiry and creativity through the exploration of nature. Education should equip students with skills with which to live effectively in our modern age of science and technology. In line with the above objective, the aim of social studies is to develop in students the ability to think critically in order to make reasonable decisions in issues that concern them, and the society at large. Research findings in education intend to indicate that the instructional materials adopted by teachers do influence the cognitive, psychomotor and affective outcomes of the students (Ofili 2003). Instructional materials perform specific functions in learning such functions ranges from simplifying teaching to make teaching effective. One of such instructional materials is the use of instructional video. This is the production of video programmes directed towards helping students 2 achieve specific instructional objectives with a specific target population. This is referred to the transmission of educational programme which can be stored in video, CD and DVD. They are used to teach students repeatedly till they gain mastery on what is being taught. They could be employed in topics where teacher find it difficult to carry out practical. The main basic tasks of teaching are to release and increase such motivational process and forces like interest and the need desire, and wish to learn. Instructional video could be used to achieve this aim (Ema, 2006). Instructional video does not only state a fact oral speech, it also shows that fact, illustrates it and within a few moments puts it in a large context of knowledge related to the fact. These various kinds of elaboration via sound tracts and pictures increase the memory of the basic statement or information. It has been found that the duplication of sensory channels and the richness of elaborated information are feature that contribute to the ease of learning and also to the strength of retention of verbal information.Educational instruction video is used to achieve objective which are supposed to reflect in the attitude of the learners (Adeosun, 2002). Ofili (2003) and Okworo (2008) found out that television and video tape influence learners, stimulate learning and enrich the class with material not likely to be available in real classroom setting. According to these scholars they make learning more permanent and offer experiences, instructional video is a useful tool that helps to stimulate our perception, increase our learning and seeing simultaneously it also allows repetitive viewing, the learner can repeated view until the concept taught is well understood Hallinan (2000). Gender issues and academic achievement has become a very important issue among researchers, some studies are in view that boys perform better than girls and vice versa. Females and males could do well in social studies if exposed to similar conditions (Nsofor, 2001). According to this view, gender difference has little or influence on 3 students performance in social studies. Essentially, achievement by learners depend more on personal effort. This implies that high achievement could be traced to the individual‘s efforts. It is against this background that the research finds it necessary to investigate whether or not educational media in the instructional delivery (video) could improve the academic performance and consequently better students coming of the subject.

1.2    Statement of the Problem

 The foundation for the use of instructional video was brought out of the problems faced by teacher of social studies in their teaching and making of students note, test and examinations which is being administered on them .thus this research intends to find a solution for these problems and to fill the gaps. These problems have created in Katsina State. Among the factors contributing towards declining of student‘s performance is social studies in junior secondary schools are as follows: Lack of qualified social studies teachers to teach the subject, Inadequate training of social studies teachers, Poor and inadequate instructional materials in the JSS social studies, Over population of students, Outdated or conventional methods of teaching social studies and Inadequate funding or supplying of invented instructional machine to aid teachers of social studies delivery (Eshiette, 2009). The effect of all these problems enumerated above are clearly manifested in producing high wastage inform of students to lose interest in taking social studies as a subject, therefore ,it is anticipated that educational technology professionals could be used to solve some of these problems. This is because application of educational technology approach to instruction shifts emphasis on teaching and learning from conventional talk and chalk to system and instructional materials approach (instruction video). In order to enhance the performance of students in social studies.

1.3 Objectives of the Study

 The objectives of the study are to. 1. Examine difference between academic performance of students taught social studies with instructional video and those without instructional video in Katsina State. 2. Examine whether instructional video has any gender influence on the academic performance of social-studies students in, Katsina State.

1.4    Research Questions

 The study sought to find out the following research questions:

1. Will there any difference between the academic performance of the group taught with instructional video from those taught without instructional video.

2. Does gender influence the performance of student taught with instructional video, Katsina state?

1.5 Research Hypotheses

The following hypotheses were raised to guide the study:

 Ho1: There is no significant difference in the academic performance between the group taught using instructional video and the group taught without the use of instructional video.

Ho2: There is no significant difference in the mean achievement score of males and females students exposed to instructional video. 1.6 BasicAssumptions

The following are the basic assumptions of the study: It is assume that the student were admitted in to the school using the same set admission criteria.The researcher assumed that the students are randomly selected for the study are representative of the secondary schools population in Katsina state.It is assumed that the instructional video materials are available in secondary schools in Katsina State and they are use by the teachers.

1.7 Significant of the Study

 The findings of this research would be useful for the improvement of Nigerian Basic Social Studies education in the following ways: The study may serve as an insight to researchers, who might consult it in process of carrying out similar study in the future.

Education students in colleges and universities may also find the study valuable when they consult it in the course of their studies. To school administrators, it will bring to the fore, the vital functions that instructional video play in teaching-learning process especially as relates to concretizing acquired knowledge and skills for long term memory.Government may also find the study useful because it attempts to show areas where its intervention is required, such as greater commitment to issues like; re-training of teachers provision of structures, and material resources/equipments that will promote effective teaching and learning. It is expected that government will further realize the potentialities of the various instructional materials as crucial tools to teachers for the attainment of instructional objectives and to that effect provide' the needed financial and moral support to acquisition and proper utilization of such materials. 6 Curriculum planners and policy makers on education may also benefit from the study in such a way that when engaged in further review of curriculum, interest groups such as nongovernmental organizations and students' associations will be contacted to make their input. It is hoped to be of significant value to social studies teachers who are implementers of the Social studies curriculum.The study may avail social studies teachers with an opportunity to broaden their professional skills in utilization of instructional video in instruction. This would enhance their resourcefulness which will in turn impact behavioral changes in the learners which is the ultimate goal of education.To parents and non-governmental organizations, it could engage them to take prime roles in the provision of instructional media to schools and creating opportunities for capacity building to keep teachers abreast to recent developments in the art of teaching. Finally, the study will provide additional literature that could enrich the existing ones in area of instructional video. 1.8 Scope of the Study This study was undertaken to determine the effect of instructional video utilization on academic performance of social studies secondary schools of Katsina State. The study was limited to:Junior secondary school (JSS II) students selected from the two junior secondary schools in the following towns,The topic covered was limited to national identity and lesson was taught for 6 weeks, including pre-test and post-test.





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