AVAILABILITY, ADEQUACY AND UTILIZATION OF PHYSICAL EDUCATION TEACHING RESOURCES IN SECONDARY SCHOOLS IN ENUGU STATE
Background to the Study
The availability of adequate facilities, equipment and supplies as well as their utilization are important ingredients in any physical education and sports programme. In recent times it has been observed that physical education and sports seems to be loosing steam in almost all the secondary schools in Enugu State. This is being considered as part of the reason why the state has not been discovering new athletes and performing well in national sports festivals. This situation may likely persist if there are not adequate resources, especially instructional materials or if those available are not adequately utilized. The level of success of most physical education and sports programmes is greatly dependent on the degree of availability, adequacy and utilization of up-to- date facilities, equipment and supplies. This is because they form the hub around which such programmes revolve (Akinsanmi, 1995; Mgbor, 2005; Mgbor and Anyanjor, 2005).
Availability refers to services/resources that can be obtained in the discharge of certain functions. Longman (2003) asserts that availability refers to resources ready to be used, able to be used or that can easily be found and used. Onyejiemezie (2002) noted that availability is a state of making provision for a satisfactory standard requirement in terms of teaching resource to enhance effective instructional activity in a particular subject. According to the author no meaningful learning or transfer of what has been learned will take place if such learning occurs in a situation devoid of relevant activities and concrete experiences. In other words, availability can be defined as human and material resources ready for use in teaching physical education. In recognition of the importance of availability of resources in teaching Olaitan, Igbo, Ekong, Nwachukwu and Onyemaechi (1999) noted that no meaningful learning or transfer of what has been learned will take place if such learning occurs in a situation devoid of relevant materials and activities as well as concrete experiences. The importance of availability of resources cannot be over-emphasized in teaching of physical education in schools. The availability of resources- instructional facilities, equipment and supplies as well as adequate personnel motivates the learners, increases the teacher’s efficiency and promotes the productivity of the teacher. Facilities, supplies and equipment provision are important aspect of physical education and sports programme management.
“Excellent programme is the key word in physical education and sports competitions and this requires well equipped good play-ground for training.” (Onyejiemezie: 30, 2002).
Standard facilities and equipment are essential prerequisites to good and impressive performance. Lack of adequate and standard facilities and equipment hampers physical education programme in many ways. According to Awosika (2009), it might be impossible to achieve satisfactory results from athletes whose training facilities and equipment are inadequate or of sub-standard. The scarcity of physical education facilities, supplies and equipment could therefore constitute a big cog in the successful teaching of physical education in schools. Availability as will be used in this study therefore means human and materials resources ready for use in teaching physical education in the schools.
Adequacy of an object means a condition of being enough in quantity and good enough in quality for a particular purpose or need. Ojoawo (1990) opined that adequate facilities and equipment constitute a strategic factor in organizational functioning. This is because they determine to a very large extent, the smooth functioning of any educational programme. He further stated that their availability and adequacy influence efficiency and high productivity in teaching. According to Adedeji (2000) there must be sufficient motivation in form of attractive facilities, supplies and equipment for the school physical education programme in a secondary school. Where these resources are lacking, the effective functioning of the school physical education programme will be hindered. Longman (2000) explained adequacy as a situation in which there is enough resources for a particular purpose. Mapaderum (2002) opined that adequacy is a satisfactory condition of resources in an organization. He added that adequacy of facilities, equipment and supplies in schools promote effective teaching and learning activities in the school while their inadequacy affects the academic performance negatively. Hornby (2006) asserts that adequacy is a condition in which something is enough or good enough in quantity for a particular purpose or need. Adequate availability of equipment and facilities and their proper utilization have been positively correlated to good performance in examinations while poor performance has been blamed on inadequacies, (Maduewesi, 2010). Adding that where equipment and facilities are lacking, teaching may be poorly executed. Adequacy as will be used in this study therefore means satisfactory or acceptable quantity of resources as required for
success in teaching of physical education in secondary schools. Different policy making bodies in secondary school education in Nigeria recommend adequate physical education, Sports, and recreational facilities and equipment as one prerequisite for establishment and operation of a secondary school in the country. According to Tsiga, (2005) schools shall provide adequate physical education, sports and games facilities, and equipment as well as other recreation facilities as one of needed condition for operation. According to the minimum standard for the establishment and operation of secondary schools in Enugu State (2005) secondary schools should also have land space of between 1 to 5 hectares for games and sports field. The guideline suggests one football field as well as one each on other games in each school. ( See Appendix B.) Adequacy of these school physical education facilities, equipment and supplies in the schools should as a matter of importance meet the demand of the minimum standard for establishment of secondary schools. Schools should spare no effort to set up well structured physical education programme. Nigeria secondary schools are now looked upon as one of the fertile grounds for breeding the Nation’s future Sportsmen and women. For this objective to be achieved standard and adequate facilities, equipment and supplies should be provided in the schools.
The National Teachers Institute (2003) made a more elaborate recommendation of Physical Education facilities, equipment and supplies needed for teaching of Physical Education in schools. The National Teachers Institute (2003) recommendation will be used in this study owing to its comprehensive nature in terms of number of facilities, equipment and supplies for physical education. It is also in agreement with the federal capital territory, Abuja (2005) and Enugu State (2005) recommendations.( See Appendix A, B1 and B2.)
Hornby (2004) explained utilization as to make use of available services at the individual’s disposal. These resources include the facilities, equipment and experienced personnel. Olagunju and Abiona (2008) opined that the process of managing and organizing resources is resource utilization. They added that in a school, the available resources should be utilized in such a way that it enables the students to acquire desirable learning competencies. Utilization of resources in teaching brings about fruitful learning since it stimulates student’s senses and motivates them.
Ekenedo (1994) noted that there is a relationship between knowledge of a skill and the actual utilization of such knowledge. She added that the expected outcome in a programme will not come from mere acquisition of knowledge but from its utilization. Utilization as was used in
this study is the actual patronage of the school physical education facilities, equipment and supplies by the physical education teacher in teaching.
According to Ballard, Caldwell, Dunn and Hardinson (2005) the school physical education programme offers the best opportunity to provide physical activity to all children and to teach them the skills and knowledge needed to establish and sustain an active life style. Physical education facilities and equipment are therefore of great significance to educational experiences in physical education. One of the goals of physical education is the total development of the participant’s physical, mental, social and emotional well-being.
Physical education is one of the subjects in secondary schools which goal is the total development of the individual through physical activities. Educational activities in physical education are designed to promote not only the physical well-being but also the mental and social well-being of the participants.
According to the International Council for Health, Physical Education Recreation, Sports and Dance (ICHPER.SD, 2001), Physical education is an academic content area, which is composed of two major components namely human movement and Physical fitness (motor and health related) and is based on the following disciplines; motor learning, motor development, kinesiology, bio-mechanics, exercise physiology, sport psychology, sport sociology and athletics. Wuest and Bucher (2006) assert that it is the education process that uses Physical activities as a means to help individuals acquire skills, fitness, knowledge and attitude that contribute to their optimal development and well-being. The International Council for Health, Physical Education Recreation, Sports and Dance (ICHPER. SD, 2001) definition of physical Education was adopted in this study.
According to Singh (2011), the aim and objective of physical education is to develop human personality in its totality. This involves the development of the physical, mental, social, emotional and moral aspects so as to make the individual a good citizen. Such a person should be able to make contribution in the process of nation building in his or her own way. Oak (2011) noted that physical education help to instill in the students the value and skills of maintaining a healthy life style through physical activities. The person will learn skills necessary to perform variety of physical activities, is usually physically fit and participates regularly in physical activities as well as its contribution to healthy life style.
Social efficiency is concerned with one’s proper adaptation to group living. Physical education activities are concerned with one’s proper adaptation to group living. Physical education activities provides ample opportunities to develop traits such as cooperation, respect to others, loyalty, sportsmanship, self confidence and other qualities which help a person to make a good citizen. The objective of culture aims at developing an understanding and appreciation of one’s own local environment as well as the environment which is outside the immediate environment. Physical education activities such as dances and games help the participants to fully understand the history, culture tradition, religious practices and the aesthetic values associated with these activities. To achieve these objectives of physical education a well planned activity programme as well as adequate resources (personnel, facilities, equipment, and supplies) for implementing the programme are necessary and should be put in place.
Physical educational resources are instructional and curriculum materials employed in physical education instructional classes or teaching learning experiences. The availability and utilization of resources are predictors to the successful implementation of any academic programme. According to Offorma (2002) teaching is usually facilitated and is more effective through the active participation of the learners and utilization of appropriate resources. Active participation of the learner in physical education is facilitated by the availability and effective utilization of adequate instructional resources personnel, facilities, equipment and supplies. Akande (2005) noted that teaching and learning are better and easier done through one’s interaction with one’s environment. Environment here refers to facilities and equipment utilized in teaching physical education. Similarly, Egwu (2005) noted that it is obvious that teacher competency and available instructional facilities and equipment in a school determine the coverage of syllabus and curriculum of any subject including physical education. According to Ikioya (2008) the schools Physical Education programme require the availability and adequacy of facilities, equipment and supplies for the attainment of set goals. School resources have been observed as a potent factor to quantitative and qualitative education (Owoeye 2011). This is especially important in Physical Education because of the activity oriented nature of physical education.
Resources according to Hornby (2004) are what can be used to help achieve an aim such as equipment and facilities which provide information for the teachers and students. Nikky (2010) referred to teaching resources as the different equipment available in the classroom,
adding that the process of teaching-learning depends upon the different types of equipment available in the teaching environment or classroom. Teaching resources are therefore all the facilities, equipment and supplies utilized by the teacher in teaching the subject. Nikky, (2010) summarized the following as some of the importance of teaching resources in teaching. Teaching resources help the teacher present concepts in a way that the learners can retain more concepts permanently; it helps the teacher to motivate the students, by making the environment more interesting to the students. Teaching resources facilitate proper understanding by the students and discourage the act of cramming, it also makes the classroom or learning environment lively and active. In teaching of physical education, teaching resources are referred to as physical education resources.
Teaching resources refers to a varieties of material used for teaching and learning purposes. Okeke (1995) assert that they are collection of materials and equipment that can be used effectively for classroom communication, adding that they could as well be described as variety of products of educational technology. They are collection of materials and equipment that can be used effectively for classroom communication (Okeke, 1995). In the view of Hornby (2004) resources are what can be used to help achieve an aim such as equipment and supplies which provides information for the teachers and students. According to Asogwa (2007) these are materials the teacher and in fact the entire class utilize for the purpose of making teaching and learning more effective. In other words, teaching resources are information carriers designed specifically to fulfill objectives in a teaching learning situation.
In the teaching learning process, teachers aim to maximizing learning. To achieve this, they employ varieties of teaching resources to arouse all the senses in the learning process. It is believed that the more the senses are activated during teaching learning encounter, the greater the effectiveness of such instruction as they (senses) are get-way to knowledge. The application of educational technology materials and equipment in the classroom (NPE, 2004), improve the teaching and learning and permit teachers and learners to interact as human beings in a climate where people control their environment for their own best purposes.
Physical education resources are the wherewithal employed in physical education instructional classes or teaching learning experiences. Osakunih (2002) defined physical education resources as facilities, equipment, supplies and personnel utilized in teaching of physical education in schools. National Teachers Institute (2002) also defines physical education
resources as human, material and finance available in teaching of physical education in schools. They are therefore all those facilities, equipment, supplies, fund as well as personnel used in implementing the physical education programme in schools. The place of physical education personnel, facilities, equipment and supplies as well as fund in the effective implementation of the school physical education programme is a prominent one. They are the hub on which the school physical education revolves. National Teacher Institute (2002) defines physical education resources as human, material and finance available in teaching of physical education in schools. The National Teachers Institute (2002) definition of physical education resources was adopted in the present study.
Hargreaves (1997) defined teaching as the activities of educating or instructing learners on some specific skills and knowledge in a particular discipline. It involves activities that impart knowledge and skill. Hornby (2004) asserts that teaching is the work or profession of a teacher. According to Trivia (2011) teaching is the art as well as science of instruction and pedagogy activity. There is the need to provide the background for such pedagogy activity in teaching (with availability of adequate teaching resources). With reference to this study, teaching means the act of giving guidance to learners so as to help them acquire knowledge and skills in physical education and sports. Effective teaching is the instructional techniques which make the teaching appealing to the learners, thereby enhancing easier acquisition of knowledge and skills in physical education.
According to Wuset and Bucher (2006) the development of values, character and ethical decision making skills is also the primary purpose of school physical education programme. Teaching is therefore a necessary tool through which these values are transmitted through physical education to the students by the teacher.
A teacher according to Teachers’ Registration Council of Nigeria (TRCN, 2002) means an individual who possesses the capacity to impact the acquired competency to learners in a given subject area. Eze (2011) defined teacher as a person who has acquired special competency required to effectively teach a particular subject area to a group of learners in a school.
In this study, a teacher is a person who has been trained in physical education programme in a university or college of education to enable him/her teach the subject in secondary schools. The teacher is hired to teach the content of physical education curriculum because he is expected to posses the required skills for the utilization of the physical education facilities, equipment and
supplies in the secondary schools. Unfortunately many physical education and sports programme in Enugu State are not being effectively implemented owing to the problem of resources.
Secondary education is the form of education children receive after primary education and before the tertiary level (Mgbodile; 2004). In other words, it is referred to as post primary education. The broad goals of secondary education are to prepare the individual for useful living within the society and higher education (National Policy on Education, NPE, 2004). For the schools physical education program to be successfully accomplished, there is the need to achieve the curriculum goals. Manross (2009) noted that one of the problems with physical education programmmes in schools is that sometimes the physical education teacher has too many classes to teach in a day or week. This problem is also coupled with the fact that there may be inadequate facilities, and equipment in such schools. The availability of adequate facilities, equipment and supplies as well as their utilization help the teacher achieve the objectives of the programme more effectively.
Physical education and physical activity needs vary according to seasonal difference and geographical locations (Baranowski, Thomspons, Durani, and Puhl, 1993). Similarly, Nigeria Secondary Schools-urban, rural, uni-sex and coeducational require a variety of physical education and sports facilities, equipment and supplies that will meet their curriculum needs. The availability and utilization of such facilities, equipment and supplies may vary among secondary schools in Enugu State according to school type and geographical location differences among the schools. There are yet scanty research reports on influence of school location and school type on availability and utilization of physical education resources in Nigeria. This is similar to Anekeagbo (2006) assertion that studies on influence of school location on psychomotor skill acquisition are inconclusive.
Ayogu and Nworgu (1999) observed that urban students out performed their rural counterparts in physics achievement. The study agrees with the findings of Nwagu (1992) and Owoye (2000) that showed that urban students performed better than rural students. Onah (2011) also indicated that urban students perform better than rural students in a similar study. The availability and utilization of teaching resources may be factors accounting for differences between urban and rural students in acquisition of psychomotor skills in difference subjects including physical education. The effects of gender, school type and school location on school physical education resources is investigated to determine whether these variables account for
possible differences in availability, adequacy and utilization of these resources in the schools. It may also be the reason for differences in acquisition of motor skills by the students.
In this study urban secondary schools are those secondary schools within Enugu State that are located in areas that have been designated as urban areas by the National Population Commission (NPC) of Nigeria. Rural secondary schools are those secondary schools within Enugu State that are not geographically located in areas designated as urban areas by the National Population Commission.
Co-educational secondary schools are those schools where male students and female students receive their educational career jointly in the same school blocks and classrooms, and use other educational facilities in the school communally. On the other hand uni-sex schools are secondary schools where either males only or females only receive their educational career and utilize other school facilities without the opposite sex.
Statement of the Problem
Given the importance of facilities and equipment to the success of any given physical education and sports programme, it would be expected that secondary schools administrators would ensure the provision, availability, adequacy and utilization of up-to-date physical education facilities, equipment and supplies one of paramount interest in public secondary schools.
The prevailing problem in Nigerian secondary schools is that resources for teaching physical education may be declining steadily without the school administrators giving attention to it. This unfortunate development has become a source of worry to many stakeholders in the teaching of physical education in schools. The average physical education teacher is faced with a lot of challenges in teaching not only because of the increased number of students but also as a result of the scanty and often poorly maintained physical education facilities, equipment and supplies in the schools. The downward trend in sports and physical education facilities and equipment in schools have continued unabated since the early 90s. Since then many governments, local, state and federal pay lip service to its resuscitation (Mgbor 2002; Abu 2012). The situation of scanty and inadequate physical education and sports facilities and equipment in schools have persisted over the years in spite of the fact that many Nigerians, especially former Nigeria Internationals have identified the return to school sports as the foundation to build the rebirth of sports development in Nigeria.
Observation by the researcher indicates that in schools where there are no physical education teachers or there is inadequate numbers of physical education teachers, non-physical education teachers in Physical Education or teachers that studied other subjects teach physical education. Such arrangement may affect the utilization of the available physical education facilities, equipment and supplies in the schools. Observation by the researcher indicates that many physical education teachers in schools in Enugu State also find it difficult to demonstrate certain skills in different games and sports such as soccer, hockey, handball among others owing to non-availability of necessary facilities and equipment. Secondary schools require a variety of sports and physical education facilities, equipment and supplies to meet the teachers and students needs. Besides, the non-availability, inadequacy and non-utilization of facilities, equipment and supplies for teaching the subject may be a factor in the inability of the few teachers in the schools to sustain students interest, leading to poor performance in the subject. Also very few and in most cases no student offers the subject in Senior School Certificate Examination (SSCE) in secondary schools in Enugu State. (See Appendix G). Based on the fore mentioned problems the study intends to determine the availability, adequacy and utilization of resources in public secondary schools in Enugu State.
Purpose of the Study
The purpose of the study is to ascertain the availability, adequacy and utilization of physical education teaching resources in public secondary schools in Enugu State. Specifically the study seeks to determine;
1. the availability of physical education facilities in public secondary schools in Enugu State;
2. the availability of physical education equipment and supplies in public secondary schools in Enugu State;
3. the adequacy of physical education facilities in public secondary schools in Enugu State;
4. the adequacy of physical education equipment and supplies in public secondary schools in Enugu State;
5. the extent of utilization of the available physical education facilities in public secondary schools in Enugu State;
6. the utilization of available physical education equipment and supplies in public secondary schools in Enugu State;
7. Factors affecting availability of resources in teaching physical education and sports in secondary schools in Enugu State;
8. Factors affecting utilization of resources in teaching physical education and sports in secondary schools in Enugu State.
Based on the problems under investigation the following research questions were posed to guide the study.
1. What are the available physical education facilities in public secondary schools in Enugu State?
2. What are the available physical education equipment and supplies in public secondary schools in Enugu State?
3. What is the adequacy of physical education facilities in public secondary schools in Enugu State?
4. What is the adequacy of physical education equipment and supplies in public secondary schools in Enugu State?
5. What is the extent of utilizations of available physical education facilities in teaching of physical education in public secondary schools in Enugu State?
6. What is the extent of utilization of available physical education equipment and supplies in teaching of physical education in public secondary schools in Enugu State?
7. What are the factors affecting availability of resources in teaching physical education and sports in secondary schools in Enugu State?
8. What are the factors affecting utilization of resources in teaching physical education and sports in secondary schools in Enugu State?
The following null hypotheses have been formulated and each tested at 0.5 level of significance.
1. There is no significant difference in the availability, adequacy and utilization of physical education resources based on location of school.
2. There is no significant difference in the availability, adequacy and utilization of physical education resources based on working experience of personnel.
3. There is no significant difference in the availability, adequacy and utilization of physical education resources based on type of schools.
Significance of the Study
The data of the study will be significant in many respects. The determination of the available physical education facilities in the schools may be of immense benefit to the physical education teachers in the schools and school administrators. To the physical education teachers in the schools it may help to x-ray to them the present situation of facilities in terms of availability in schools. This knowledge may also be a source of encouragement to the teachers to make requisition to the school administration on the need to construct more physical education and sports facilities in the school. The school administrators may also be furnished with information on areas where there are no facilities in the schools and hat can help them to invest more in the area of physical education and sports development.
The determination of the availability of physical education equipment and supplies may be of immense benefit to the students, the physical education teachers and school administrators. The findings of the study may unveil to the teacher areas in physical education where there are no equipment and supplies in the schools. This information may help them in making requisition for purchase of physical education equipment and supplies to the school administration. The students may benefit because if the school procure more instructional equipment and supplies in physical education, it will bring about improvement in teaching and learning conditions in the school. The findings of the study may also encourage the physical education teacher to improvise non-existent equipment in the school. The information may also be useful to the government in deciding areas to provide equipment to schools.
The data from the study also provides information on the adequacy of physical education facilities in secondary schools in Enugu State. This information may be useful to the state ministry of education in taking decision whether public schools are establishing the needed physical education and sports facilities or not. The ministry can use the information in making requisition to the state government on need for adequacy of physical education and sports facilities in the schools.
The information on adequacy of physical education equipment and supplies in the schools will also be useful to Enugu state ministry of education and the ministry of youths and sports. The information will help them to determine areas where there are insufficient equipment and
supplies in the schools. The ministries may advice the government to make supply to the schools in those areas.
The determination of the extent of utilization of the existing physical education facilities, equipment and supplies in the schools may be of benefit to the physical education teachers, the principals in the schools as well as the Post Primary School Management Board. To the school physical education teacher the information may help him or her carryout self assessment on the Job and determine whether there is need for improvement or not. The school administrators (principles) may benefit from the information since it will provide information to him or her on whether these instructional aids are being utilized as they are supposed to. Such information may be necessary in exercising control over the physical education teachers in the school. To the officers in the (PPSMB) the information on extent of utilization of the physical education facilities, equipment and supplies may help them determine whether the teacher require coaching clinic or not. Information from this study also point out specific areas where such retraining, coaching clinic or workshops may be necessary to organize for the teachers.
The determination of the factors that affect the availability and utilization of physical education resources in the schools may be of benefits to the physical education teachers such information may help him plan adequately to improve on the availability and utilization these resources in the school. School administrators may also benefits since there may be areas where such factors require his or her action to control. Information that will be generated from the study may help the Enugu State government formulate policies that will help to improve on availability, adequacy and extent of utilization of physical education resources in public secondary schools in the state.
To the researchers, the findings of this study would provide information upon which future researches in the areas of physical education resources availability could be based. In all, the study will likely on availability, adequacy as well as the utilization of instructional facilities, equipment and supplies in public secondary schools in Enugu State.
Scope of the Study
The study will carried out in Enugu State of Nigeria. Enugu State has six educational zones namely: Nsukka, Agbani, Awgu, Enugu, Obollo-Afor and Udi. Only the physical education teachers in public secondary schools in these zones will be involved in the study. The
physical education teachers in public secondary schools will be used because there are teachers with higher certificates and experience on the job than the private schools in Enugu State.
In the content area, specifically the study will attempt to determine the availability and adequacy of facilities, equipment and supplies in the schools as well as their utilization in the schools. The human and financial resources were not covered in the work. The essence of the delimitation was to make a more thorough study of the areas covered in the study..