A SURVEY OF RELIGIOUS INTOLERANCE IN THE NORTH-WEST OF NIGERIA A CASE STUDY OF KADUNA EXPERIENCE
1.1 Background to the Study
More than anything else, the greatest obstacle to the nascent democracy is the pervasive insecurity of lives and property as evidenced by the spate of armed robbery attack assassinations and religious intolerance coupled with the seeming helplessness of agencies to handle criminal act (OJO 2010).
Nigeria (2002) that the situation is worsened by increasing number of unemployed Nigerians some of whom are ready recruit for criminal activities. The above statement from an editorial comment by a national daily in Nigeria indeed epitomizes the central focus of this paper, the aim of is to analyze the nexus between democratic nurturing, sustenance and eventually consolidation via-a-via religious intolerance seeing it as the most significant factor impeding constitutional democracy.
Joseph (1998) said not only Nigeria but in Africa generally is a source of serious concern. Social disintegration could well be the most acute danger facing democracies, undermining the human rights and civil liberties on which democracy stand.
Przeworski (1995) arguably with senseless Nigeria’s most serene city. Kaduna is now synonymous with senseless intolerance largely occasioned by misgiving and primordial sentiment and prejudices among inhabitant. The directive was given to national institute for policy and strategic studies (NIPSS), Kuru, Kaduna sometimes ago to carry over comprehensive research into the crisis and similar cases across the country can only have the desired results. If the government muster enough political will to tackle the issues leading to and fuelling the situations.
Gomas (2011) said when it began, it was a time the entire country was trying to come to terms with the prospects of democracy into the fourth REPUBLIC. A monster called indigene/settler syndrome tore the Kaduna people apart the Birom and Hausa were engaged in a supremacy feud over Kaduna North-West Nigeria. Simultaneously religion became an issue when it did it the scope of the problem was amplified as dwellers from other parts of the country were compelled to line up behind the two original parties to the conflict.
Predictably the mixtures of ethnicity and faith have taken the strife to unimaginable, deadly height whole villages have been levelled. Neighbours who had lived in harmony for decades have turned on one another with murderous fervours that has led to the loss of thousands of lives. Numerous buildings and other valuables have been razed social and economic life is at its lowest. The city and indeed state that used to hold a lot of attraction for tourists now find it hard to sustain even the love of the indigene fear has become a common denomination only a few weeks ago two suspected bombers who were on a morbid mission to one of the churches in the city were allegedly blown up by their own device before they could reach their destination. As the report was being disseminated church services were promptly terminated and worshippers dispersed law enforcement agents now comb worship centre in Kaduna on Friday and Sundays to safeguard them for a nation whose citizens boast of belongings to either Christianity or Islam two of the world is the greatest faith that indeed is said Commentary (Egwu 2011).
On the surface, the order given to NIPSS by the Federal Government should bring hope to and even the International Community many of whom are apprehensive about the surface of the city.
Obateru (2011) said to begin with the institute is located within the troubled area, so it should hopefully possess first-hand information about the subject. This is the thrust of this paper so as to sustain the current debate on sustainable development and security which are topical issues in Africa. The profile of the team, several competent scholar-practitioner and researchers in peace and conflict. Sociology was deployed in order to attain sustainable development in Nigeria in particular and Africa in general which were from diverse ethnic-religious geographical and political backgrounds is an added boost equally noteworthy is the government brief which includes devising workable peace enhancing strategies building a stakeholder model by applying strategies for sustainable development, participatory crisis analysis and strengthening community-based groups toward achieving societal harming.
1.2 Statements of Problem
This is aimed at investigating and unfolding a survey of religious intolerance in the north-west of Nigeria with a special focus in Kaduna State.
The above project topics have been selected by the researcher because of special interest, experiences and observation on religious intolerance in Nigeria society.
1.3 Purpose of the Study
The purpose of the study is:
i. To find out whether competitive politics pose any challenge to the management of the recurrent ethnic-religious intolerance in Kaduna state.
ii. To ascertain if the presence of a huge pool of angry brigade of youth poses any challenge to the management of the recurring ethnoreligious intolerance in Kaduna State.
iii. To determine whether the significant gap in the capacity of the security agencies to bring perpetrators of intolerance to face the wrath of the law pose any serious challenges to the management of the recurrent ethnoreligious intolerance in Kaduna State.
iv. Examine if the inputs of stakeholders to peacebuilding process on one group against another ignite the management of violent ethnoreligious intolerance in Kaduna state.
1.4 Research Questions
For the purpose of this research, the following question is posed.
(a) Does competitive partisan politics pose any challenge to the management of political and ethnoreligious intolerance in Kaduna State?
(b) Does the presence of a huge pool of angry brigade of unemployed pose any challenges to political and ethnoreligious intolerance in Kaduna State?
(c) Does the significant gap in the capacity of the security agencies make intolerance perpetrators face the wrath of the law?
(d) Does the mobilization of ethnoreligious sentiments pitch one group against another engender any challenge in the management of political and ethnoreligious intolerance in Kaduna State?
1.5 Significance of the Study
This study has been undertaken to suggest ways and means of building peace in the state.
It is also hoped that through this study, the security agencies will bring the perpetrator of intolerance to face the wrath of the law pose any serious challenge to the management of the recurrent ethnoreligious intolerance in Kaduna State.
1.6 Scope of the Study
The study shall be limited to survey from different scholars and very many articles on media.
1.7 Definition of Terms
1. State: A state may be defined as a politically organized body of people inhabiting a defined geographical entity with an organize legitimate government.
2. Ethnicity: These are different types of people with a different culture, norms and values.
3. Crisis: This is a state of tension, fear and insecurity within a state, group or organization.
4. Conflict: This denotes clash, battle in a country.
5. Ethno-Religiousintolerance: This is a clash, contention, battle, quarrel among ethnoreligious groups..