TEACHER’S INSTRUCTIONAL STRATEGIES AND STUDENTS’ ABILITY IN SENTENCE FORMATION IN FRENCH LANGUAGE (A CASE STUDY IN UYO LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA)
This study explored the relationship of Teacher’s Instructional Strategies and Students’ Ability in Sentence Formation in French Language in Uyo Local Government Area. Four research questions and four hypotheses were formulated to guide the study. The population of 23873 students’ was used for the study while the sample size of 200 students was drawn from the total population. The researcher developed instrument entitled “Teacher’s InstructionalStrategies and Students’ Ability in Sentence Formation in French Language Questionnaire” (TISSASFFLQ) which was used to obtain data. The instrument was validated by two experts in the University of Uyo before administered. The Cronbach Alpha Analysis reliability method was used to establish the reliability of the instruction at 0.68. The data obtained were analyzed using Pearson Product Moment Correlation to answer the research questions and test for hypotheses at 0.05 levels of significance. The findings revealed that teacher’s instructional variables significantly correlate with student’ ability in sentence formation in French language. Based on findings, it is recommended that French teachers should deliberately and consciously develop positive attitude and competence to effective curriculum implementation since teachers are the driving force of the education system.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Table of Contents
CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION
1.1 Background of the study
1.2 Statement of the problem
1.3 Purpose of the Study
1.4 Significance of the Study
1.5 Research Questions
1.6 Research Hypotheses
1.7 Delimitation of the Study
1.8 Operational Definition of Terms
CHAPTER TWO: REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE
2.1 Theoretical Review
2.1.1 Social Learning Theory by Vygotsky (1962)
2.1.2 Theory of Reasoned Action by Ajzen and Fishbein
2.2 Conceptual Framework
2.2.1 Concept of Sentence Formation
2.2.2 Time Allocation to French Teaching and Students’ Ability in Sentence Formation in French Language.
2.2.3 Professional Development and Students’ Ability in Sentence Formation in French Language.
2.2.4 Teachers’ Attitude to French Teaching on Students’ Ability in Sentence Formation in French Language
2.2.5 Teachers’ Instructional Competence on Students’ Ability in Sentence Formation in French Language
2.3 Summary of Review of Related Literature
CHAPTER THREE: RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
3.1 Design of the Study
3.2 Area of the Study
3.3 Population of the Study
3.4 Sample and Sampling Techniques
3.6 Validation of the Instrument
3.7 Reliability of the Instrument
3.8 Administration of the Instrument
3.9 Statistical Treatment of Data Collected
CHAPTER FOUR: DATA ANALYSIS, RESULT, AND DISCUSSION OF FINDINGS
4.1 Answering Research Questions
4.2 Testing of Hypotheses
4.3 Summary of Findings
CHAPTER FIVE: SUMMARY, CONCLUSION, AND RECOMMENDATION
5.4 Educational Implication Findings of the Study
5.5 Suggestion for Further Studies
1.1 Background of the Study
French and English are often the only common languages available to Nigerians once they have left their mother tongue; and French language has also become a significant factor in international unity, because half of the world’s scientific literature is written in French and it is a Language of large commercial and industrial use. A good knowledge and a good command of the language is a passport to social and economic advancement. It is, estimated to be among the four most important languages of the internet. It is therefore, one of the major tools for 21st century learning. Nigeria is an Anglophone country, surrounded by Francophone countries. To the north, northeast, east and west are republics of Niger, Chad, Cameroon and Benin respectively. This makes French language a necessity for Nigerians in order to have peaceful co-existence with the people in the neighboring countries.
French teaching and speaking can also be of vital benefit to Nigerians because French and English are the official working languages of the United Nations (UN); United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO); North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO); Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD), International Labour Bureau (ILB); the International Olympic Committee amongst others (Nathan, 2007). French is the dominant working language at the European Court of Justice, the European Tribunal of First Instance and the Press Room at the European Commission in Brussels, Belgium (Shryock, 2008). In Nigeria, during the eight All African Games of October 4, 2003 which had delegates from 52 African countries physically present, the reporting of events was done in English and French (Shryock, 2008).
The teaching of French in our schools would help promote inter-cultural tolerance and cooperation, provide additional opportunities for employment, access to varied sources and quality information needed for general development in Nigeria, offer a means of belonging to the international organization, develop the ability to be useful, and contribute to national growth and development. Therefore, knowledge of the French language will not only be of social, economic, political and cultural benefits to Nigeria but also help in conflict negotiation and resolution at the international forum. So, the teaching of French in our schools will enhance academic and professional capabilities and potentials of those in search for greener pastures.
The most accepted criterion for measuring good teaching is the amount of student learning that occurs. A teacher’s competence is about student learning; that is, students’ success. However, all teachers realize that what a student learns is not always within the teachers’ control. Teachers’ instructional strategy is characterized by a far more complex set of qualities than one's professional preparation. It includes dispositions and an array of planning, organizational, instructional, and assessment skills. Effective teachers are able to envision instructional goals for their students, draw upon their knowledge and training to help students achieve success.
For French to be effectively taught its teachers must have a firm knowledge of the subject matter; instruction must be based on the belief that all students can be successful and that students’ ability in sentence formation is important and valuable for all students.How teachers teach, behave and interact with students in the classroom or during teaching are more vital than what they teach. It is very clear that a teacher's way of thinking and attitude determines his/her behaviour and decision inside and outside the classroom. They need to be competent in their own areas of specialization, be able to apply appropriate methods/strategies of teaching and employ the needed resources to facilitate the teaching and learning process.
As such, effective instructional strategy involves classroom planning and management which consists of controlling teachers’ behaviours that tend to produce high level students involvement in classroom activities, with minimal interruptions and efficient use of instructional time. In other words, whatever action that is required to stimulate learners thinking, enlarge their imagination, promote initiative, sustain attention, make learning real and enhance teaching and learning process is worth looking at critically (Guskey, 1997). Appropriate time allocation for the lesson should be taken into consideration to promote better understanding and encourage learners to have enough freedom to select, to participate in activities and make self-evaluation through acquisition of necessary knowledge and skills. Also, Nigeria has not put enough resources in to developing the French Language so that it can adequately serve as a national language. In the primary and secondary schools, French is currently assigned fewer lessons than English. This makes it have limited time for effective implementation as well as limiting students’ ability in sentence formation.
An active teaching and active learning situation is a very desirable educational environment for learning French. To create it, positive attitude may be powerful influences on the teacher’s effectiveness and students’ ability in sentence formation.
Attitude as a concept is concerned with an individual’s way of thinking, acting and behaving. It has very serious implications for the learner, the teacher, the immediate social group with which the individual learner relates, and the entire school system. Attitudes are formed as a result of some kind of teaching experiences teachers go through. This is mimicry, which also has a part to play in a teaching and learning situation.
The success of any learning therefore depends largely on instructional procedures. For a given instructional procedure to achieve desired objectives it must be properly harnessed through teachers’ preparedness, through pre-service and in-service courses as well as professional developments. Proper instructional strategies must be put in place to aid students’ ability in sentence formation. Effective professional development for teachers is job-embedded; thus makes it both relevant and authentic. In other words, professional development engages teachers in learning through their daily activities and responsibilities, and requires that they take time to consider possibilities, try out new ideas, and analyze the effectiveness of their actions (Quick, Holtzman, and Chaney, 2009).
Teaching sentence structure is not usually seen as an enjoyable learning concept. Sentence is a complex system of communication, which means learning how to write and speak can pose difficulties. One strategy is to start with simple verbal concepts and then relate them to sentence structure. The best way to do this is to use verbal cues that could be turned into written sentences. The deeper one has learned and memorized one's vocabulary, verb conjugations and sentence structures the quicker will be the student's ability to picking up the meaning of everyday conversation. So the more effective the tools for learning and remembering vocabulary the better for sentence formation.
Given the importance of the language in national and economic development, French as a subject should be well taught from primary school through the universities effectively to guarantee the quality is that of products that would be able to cope with the challenges or requirements by services meant to be offered. When instructional strategies are effectively and efficiently adopted, they can enhance understanding, and assimilation of facts and ideas in a given lesson. Such a strategy engages the multiple sense organs of the student leading to his mastery of the subject for better performance. But the teaching of French language is however, done with low esteem due to dearth of French teachers and lack of enthusiasm on the part of the students. Given this situation, the teaching of the French language is not as well pronounced as that of the English language. The school, therefore, lack both teachers and the students in French. In consequence, French language development today becomes a difficult task to accomplish in many Nigerian schools.
1.2 Statement of the Problem
French is an important course that supports bilingualism and places the country among the comity of nations. Bilingualism is essential for inter-continental communication and globalization. Unfortunately, the teaching of French in all the institutions of learning, especially at the secondary level is not accorded top priority. Despite the massive financial resources spent on the adoption, teaching and learning of French in Nigeria, the impact seems to be negligible. The teaching and the learning of French is still facing a very slow pace. This slow pace leads to an unstable status of the French language in Nigerian schools and universities. There is, therefore, the difficult and confused situation of whether in Nigeria; French language should be treated as a second official language or as a foreign language. In addition to this, only few schools teach and offer the subject in school certificate examination. This also negatively affects admission of students into the universities for courses in the language.
This has raised the concern of many scholars and researchers towards conducting researches on the giving of recognition to French language and its status, though very little students have been carried out on teachers’ instructional strategies on students’ ability in sentence formation in French language among secondary schools. One therefore is poised to ask if instructional strategies and the concern of teachers can enhance teaching effectiveness and thus facilitate students’ ability in sentence formation in French language among secondary schools in Uyo Local Government Area of Akwa Ibom State.
1.3 Purpose of the Study
The purpose of this study is to determine the relationship betweenteachers’ instructional strategies andstudents’ ability in sentence formation in French language among secondary school in Uyo Local Government Area, Akwa Ibom State. Specifically, the study is aimed at the following objectives:
1. To establish the relationship betweenteachers’ time allocation and students’ ability in sentence formation in French language.
2. To determine the relationship betweenteachers’ professional development and students’ ability in sentence formation in French language.
3. To establish the relationship betweenteachers’ attitude to French teaching and students’ ability in sentence formation in French language.
4. To establish the relationship betweenteachers’ instructional competence and students’ ability in sentence formation in French language.
1.4 Significance of the Study
The study would be significant to curriculum planners, teachers, researchers, students and the entire nation. Curriculum planners and implementers will find the work very useful because they will determine the curricular content that will instill quality among secondary school graduates. This will make them competent to perform in the labour market; they will also determine the element that needs revision and bring innovation into the curriculum.
The study will also be very useful to the teachers who will be exposed to different pedagogical strategies and have them adopted to effective and efficient teaching to enhance students’ ability in sentence formation. The study would also be relevant to scholars and researchers who will find it a very good source of information and foundation for other researches can be based.
Students will benefit from the study because they would be exposed to the curricular content by their teachers during their professional development. The country will benefit from the study because it will be able to strengthen bilateral relations with the comity of nations by producing French speaking students in good quality and numbers. The subject will also be used showcase French as another language that could be used for effective communication.
1.5 Research Questions
The following research questions are formulated to guide the study.
1. What is the relationship betweenteachers’ time allocation and students’ ability in sentence formation in French language?
2. What is the relationship betweenteachers’ professional development andstudents’ ability in sentence formation in French language?
3. What is the relationship betweenteachers’ attitude to French teaching andstudents’ ability in sentence formation in French language?
4. What is the relationship betweenteachers’ instructional competence andstudents’ ability in sentence formation in French language?
1.6 Research Hypotheses
The following hypotheses are postulated to guide the study:
1. There is no significant relationship betweenteachers’ time allocation and students’ ability in sentence formation in French language among secondary school in Uyo Local Government Area.
2. There is no significant relationship betweenteachers’ professional development and students’ ability in sentence formation in French language among secondary school in Uyo Local Government Area.
3. There is no significant relationship betweenteachers’ attitude to French teaching and students’ ability in sentence formation in French language among secondary school in Uyo Local Government Area.
4. There is no significant relationship betweenteachers’ instructional competence and students’ ability in sentence formation in French language among secondary school in Uyo Local Government Area.
1.7 Delimitation of the Study
This study is delimited to instructional strategies and students’ ability in sentence formation in French language among public secondary school in Uyo Local Government Area. The study was carried out in Uyo Local Government Area of Akwa Ibom State. Variables such as, teachers’ time allocation, teachers’ professional development, teachers’ attitude, andteachers’ instructional competence were treated as independent variables and students’ ability in sentence formation in French language as dependent variable. Also, the study is restricted to 2018/2019 academic session.
1.8 Operational Definition of Terms
The following terms will be defined as used in the study.
Sentence Formation: Is the arrangement of words and phrases in a grammatical whole to convey meaning.
Instructional Strategies: These are factors that could affect effective implementation of the curriculum. They include teachers’ time allocation, teachers’ professional development, teachers’ attitude,teachers’ time allocation and competence among others.
Teachers’ Time Allocation: Is the total amount of time available for teaching and learning; e.g. the length of the school day or a class period.
Teachers’ Professional Development: This refers to the process by which teachers in schools enhance their knowledge and skills towards directions that are advantageous to the attainment of their educational and effective implementation of the French Language curriculum.
Teachers’ Attitude: This refers to the disposition and perception of teachers towards implementation of the French language curriculum.
Instructional Competence: This is regarded as applied skills and knowledge that enable the teachers to successfully perform their work effectively..