EFFECTS OF DRUG ABUSE ON NIGERIAN YOUTHS (A CASE STUDY OF IBAKA IN MBO LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA)
This study set out to examine the effects of drug abuse on Nigerian youths, a case study of Ibaka Community in Mbo Local Government Area. The method adopted to gather data was to administer questionnaire to respondents. A total of 160 questionnaires were administered randomly to a cross section of respondents. Furthermore, the research employed three critical theories to strengthen the scope of the study. They included psychoanalytic, structural functionalism and rational choice theories respectively. The research also employed chi-square in the analysis and testing of the hypothesis. The research revealed that there is a high level of drug abuse among youths in Nigeria. Such drugs include: alcohol, marijuana, cocaine, tramadol among others. It is evident in the researcher’s observation that youths are the most vulnerable and deeply involved group in the social menace of drug abuse. This abuse comes with its attendant effect of physical assault, physical attack, mental depreciation, crime and deaths. The study observed that there is lack of concerned mechanism by the government and other concerned civil organizations apart from creating awareness of ills of drug abuse. Furthermore, the study observed that unemployment lack of parental supervision, peer-group influence poverty among others constitute the major causes of drug abuse. It was concluded that certain mechanisms should be put in place to curb the menace. And those who are engaged in drug abuse should be rehabilitated and integrated into the society so as to reduce or completely take away drug abuse and other crimes associated with it.
TABLE OF CONTENT
Declaration - - - - - - - - - i
Certification - - - - - - - - - ii
Dedication - - - - - - - - - iii
Acknowledgement - - - - - - - - iv
Abstract - - - - - - - - - v
Table of Content - - - - - - - - vi
1.0 Introduction - - - - - - - - 1
1.1 Background to the Study - - - - - - 1
1.2 Theoretical Framework - - - - - - 4
1.2.1 Psychoanalytic Theory - - - - - - 5
1.2.2 Structural Functionalism Theory - - - - - 6
1.2.3 Rational Choice Theory (Or Rational Action Theory) - - 8
1.3 StatementoftheProblem - - - - - - 10
1.4 Objectives of the Study - - - - - - 11
1.5 Research Questions - - - - - - - 12
1.6 Research Hypothesis - - - - - - - 12
1.7 Significance of the Study - - - - - - 13
1.8 Scope and Limitation of the Study - - - - - 13
CHAPTER TWO: LITERATURE REVIEW
2.0 Introduction - - - - - - - - 14
2.1 Concept of Drug Abuse - - - - - - 14
2.2 Types of Drugs Abused By the Youths - - - - 20
2.3 Effects of Drug Abuse on the Users - - - - - 24
2.4 Economic Impact of Drug Abuse on the Youths - - - -
2.5 Psychological and Emotional Effects of Drug Abuse on the Youths -
2.6 Physical and Health of Effects of Drug Abuse on theYouths - -
2.7 Youths Orientation Programmes on Drug Abuse - - - -
2.8 Consequences of Drug Abuse on Families andCommunities - -
CHAPTER THREE: RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
3.0 Research Design - - - - - - - 28
3.1 Geographical Description of Sampling Location Ibaka - - 28
3.2 Population of Study - - - - - - - 29
3.3 Sample and Sampling Technique - - - - - 29
3.4 Research Instruments - - - - - - - 29
3.5 Method of Data Collection - - - - - - 30
3.6 Problems of Data Collection - - - - - - 30
3.7 Method of Data Analysis - - - - - - 31
4.0 Introduction - - - - - - - - 33
4.1 Discussion of Findings - - - - - - 40
4.2 Conclusion - - - - - - - - 45
CHAPTER FIVE: SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS
5.0 Summary/Discussion - - - - - - 47
5.2 Conclusion - - - - - - - - 48
5.2 Recommendations/Strategies for Drug Abuse - - - 49
1.1 BACKGROUND TO THE STUDY
Since the early time, herbs, leaves and plants have been used to heal and control diseases. The proper use of drugs in itself does not constitute any danger because drugs correctly administered have been blessings. (Falco 1988) as cited by Sambo (2008) viewed that “Chronic use of substance can cause serious, sometimes irreversible damage to youth’s physical and psychological development”.A drug refers to a substance that could bring about a change in the biological function through its chemical actions (Okoye, 2001). It is also considered as a substance that modifies perceptions, cognition mood, behavior and general body functions(Balogun, 2006). They could thus, be considered as chemical modifiers of the living tissues that could bring about physiological and behavioural changes (Nnachi, 2007).
Robins (1972) posit that drug abuse implies the use of a given drug in excessive dose levels, over an unjustified long period of time, or outside therapeutic indications.Amina (2016) argued that there are different kinds of drugs including the hard drugs and the prescribed drugs. When you abuse any of them, it becomes drug abuse.Drug abuse is a major public health problem all over the world (UNODC, 2015).The use and abuse of drugs by youths or adolescents have become one of the most disturbing health related phenomena in Nigeria and other parts of the world (NDLEA, 1997).
Abdullahi (2009) viewed drug abuse as the use of drugs to the extent that interferes with the health and social function of an individual. In essence, drug abuse may be defined as the arbitrary over dependence or mis-use of one particular drug with or without prior medical diagnosis from qualified health practitioners. It can also be viewed as the unlawful overdose in the use of drug(s).The term youth varies in definition, form or approach. A youth as defined by the national youth policy is any individual who is a citizen of the federal republic of Nigeria between the ages of 18-35. This age group occupies the transition between childhood and adulthood exhibiting attributes of child dependence and independence of adulthood (Muraskin, 1999). As a result of Weekly Trust (2016) posits that more Nigeria gradually graduates from a drug consuming nation to a drug producing one. Furthermore, the chairman of NDLEA, expressed concern over the emergence of illegal laboratories installed for the illicit production of methamphetamine in Lagos. The first laboratory was discovered in July, 2011 and two Nigerians were being prosecuted while the second laboratory was detected in February that same year.
According National drug Law EnforcementAgency (1997) maintained that over 6millions bottles of cocaine were sold on a daily bases in the North-West part of the country. Studies also shows that over 11% of people in the North West Zone use drug. He also said due to the rise in drug addition, young people make use of cough syrups to make themselves high. “We have had few newspaper reports where people kill owners of pharmacy shops or chemists because they refused to sell codeine to them.” A doctor said younger people abuse prescription of drugs almost much more than what is refer to as illicit drugs. He disclosed that majority of patients who visit their facility are those who use combination of substances, some take cocaine, heroin, codeine, cannabis and alcohol at the same time. Consequently drug addiction is a case peculiar with people between the age of eighteen and twenty. Though there are cases recorded of people younger and older than this age range.
He explained that these substances referred to as volatile substances or inhalants could be fumes from petrol, glue, nail polish, paint, chemicals to dilute paints, bases of gutters, codeine in some medicines and other such agents. “Addicts inhale these directly or pour them on pieces of clothing which they put over their noses and inhale; they also pour the substances in water proof bags.” “he said” also in locations like factories where the concentrations of such chemicals are high, addicts sit in the room and simply inhale the chemicals. In this country drugs abuse and alcohol affect serious crime and also contribute to fatalities Barry, 1984.Drug abuse can be traced in Ibaka community long before the period of colonial era. The general perception is that drug abuse are for motivation, intoxication and adequate performance both physical and socially. Some equally belief that is philosophical that it gives them wonderful ideas and thought.Drug is a very strong substance, made from different grain and herb with the mixture of many strong chemicals. It has a very serious short and long term effects. It charges within no time, it has been found to bring instability in work place as a result of an increased amount of the intake.Boris (1974) say drug abuse can play or serve a significant role in everyday interpersonal affairs although there is no data shown, but many youth in Nigeria are user, however, there are many other users of drug that is beyond moderate level to them, drug abuse constitute a very solving problem and this condition appears to be based on an underlined psychological abnormality.Drug abuse seriously affect the individuals health and social function, it also hurt the users family, friends and colleagues and society as whole. Ejikeme (2003), equally identify problems associated with drug and alcohol abuse to include insomnia, injuries or even death incurred while driving etc under the influence of drug abuse increasing, likelihood of involvement in animal behavior (to finance the addiction); sickness resulting from the negligence of personal hygiene, toxic psychoses (may be percolate by a single dose). Memory difficulties, high blood pressure, manpower loss, violent behaviour and socially undesirable behavior.Excessive abuse of drug may cause physically or psychological dependence or both may coexist in one individual. Drug abuse may also bring conflict between the user and the society. It may lead to social problem and also create conflict within user and his social environment (Ejikeme, 2003). Within the community of IBAKA IN MBO Local government area, there appears to be an increasing rate of drug abuse in family setting. An observation shows that this practice of drug abuse is prominent among both sexes though this observation also indicated that most of the female who abuse drug do not openly indulge in this practice due to socio-cultural reasons.
Drug abuse indeed is one of the major social problem being faced today by the youth of the community of Ibaka, it account for a large portion of such problem and it has raise health, and marital issue for social welfare agencies.The problem of drug abuse has become a trans-cultural phenomenon in the community as it has been observed in most communities in AKWA IBOM State.Therefore drug abuse has direct toxic as well as sedative effects on the body and failure to take care of nutritional and other physical needs during prolong period of excessive use of drug in case of further complicate matter, such advanced cases often require the attention of psychotherapist or doctor.Accordingly, it can be argued that some people (Youth) in Ibaka community take drug to get away from pains and problems associated with social living and functioning. The people are deficient in their learned ways of dealing with problem of life while other abuse drug to elevate themselves, when celebrating an occasion. 1-lowever, this is a tentative statement, which is still subject to proper and further investigation in the course of this research. To this end, this research is out to investigate any positive effect of drug abuse on the family and youth especially among the youths of Ibaka community IN MBO LOCAL Government Area.
1.2 THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK
The theoretical perspectives are imperative in any sociological thinking and imagination. Therefore, the main theoretical viewpoint from which this research will be examined is the psychoanalytic theory, structural functionalism and rational choice theory.Scholar have tried finding a single cause pattern of deviance behavior "but" difficult because of the interplay of many factors which may differ from one society to the other as a result of the effort people from different societies have tried to explain the cause of social problem from different perspectives. However, these two theories would be best use to explain or discuss from the cases of drug and alcohol dependence on one hand and the effect on the other hands.
1.2.1 Psychoanalytic Theory
This theory was conceptualized by Freud (1912) to explain different aspect of human psychological and social life. Due to its ability to explain most of the psycho-social issue of human life, the theory is seen as a grand theory in psychology and sociology. In explaining human personality, Freud outline three (3) component. These include personality dynamics; personality structure and personality development. Frau argued that what finally surfaced personality of an individual is resulted from the interplay of these components. He explained that the personality dynamics deal with unconsciousness, sub-consciousness and consciousness. The personally structure according to Fraud deals with the ID, Ego and super ego which direct and control system of behavior is the society context, personality development is what we are concern with in this work. Freud outlined five (5) psychosexual stages of personality development; these are oral stage, anal stage, phallic stage, genital stage and talent stage. He pointed out all these stages are controlled by the dynamism of strong sexual drive known as "libido".
The dynamism of this libido starts at birth of a baby the libido is interested in almost all the region of baby associated with these stages. Therefore proper management or improper management of these stages in childhood life will determine the kind of personality that he or she will exhibit in adulthood. However the primary concern of this study is the oral stage of personality development. To Frau the first few days of a bay, the libido is interested in the mouth region (Oral) the baby during this stage is fun of stimulation through the mouth region when the need of the mouth at this stage is adequately met then the child will grow into a good personality relating to proper use of the mouth in his adulthood. Subsequently, when the need of the mouth are not adequately meet, libido will be fixable on the mouth and therefore the child or person will view his mouth as an object of pleasure. The individual will be fun of any experience that stimulates the mouth. In relating this theory to drug and alcohol dependence of people surface to say that drug, dependence is resulted from one or more unconscious tendencies of which the individual is unaware and for the expression of which excessive drug his functional value. According to Freud (1955) and other early psychoanalysts traced the origin of alcoholism to traumatic early childhood experience caused by defect in parent child relationship. In this view, over gratification or frustration of a child's earliest need by the parents lead to t the development of an inadequate personality fixated at the stage.
1.2.2 Structural functionalism Theory
This theoretical framework would be used to explicate the effect of drug and alcohol dependence on the progress and development of any society. Also the framework would give us insight into how functional or dysfunctional drugs to society at large. The major proponent of this theory are Auguste (1998), Taclcott (1977) and Emile (1917) This theoretical framework tends to view the society as a social system consisting of sub-system which are interrelated and independence to each other i.e the family, economy, political ,educational, religious bureaucratic institution arc considered to be system of the society or social system, each of these institution is examine in terms of its contribution to the maintenance of the social system This theory is of the view that behaviours in the society is structured just as the human body as any harm on one of the institution can affect the others. Thus the sub system of the society. Its institutions have function to perform for the maintenance and survival of the society. The over all function of this basic institution is seen as functional pre-requisites for the society's survival. Example, the major function of economic system is the production of food and shelter that of the family is socialization of new member of society, education system involves production and increase proficiency political system is concerned with improving materials living standard and raising productivity which are functional prerequisites for development.
Drug abuse dependence did not only affect one system but virtually all the system. Since all the sub- system are married by human beings. Hence any society that large proportion of drug abuse base on the theory, we have to pay serious price of impaired growth and development. However drug abuse is not always dysfunctional to development, it generate revenue for both personal and societal development, it decrease the disposable income of producer, and this help to poverty as it provided, employment for many people. But for this analysis, all these functions are inconsequential to warrant development compare to its long term problems of adversities.
Include boredom, the supply or availability of drug, inadequate provision of medical facilities leading to self-medication, delinquency, peer pressure group weak religions norm or laxity in social sanitation and taboos families disorganization, personal characteristics, parent of deviant interaction pattern, emotional problem, expenses by relative of the drug abuse difficulties such as stress anxiety, tension to feeling of insecurity and inadequate, feeling of alleviation, genetic factors, low frustration toluene, Jack of motivation, risk taking tendency, poor impulse, control and passive dependence. Ejikeme (2003) also buttressed on the above cause and effects of use and misuses of drug and other substances. The aim of this framework is to bring to light the effect of the phenomenal uses of drugs on the AKWA IBOM as wide range of psychiatric condition arc associated with drug abuse has given the categories of condition associated with it being a psychoactive substance as acute intoxication listed as a cite intoxication, harmful use dependency syndrome withdrawal state psychotic disorder and other mental and behavioral disorder which can affect any structural functionalism.
1.2.3 Rational Choice Theory (or Rational Action Theory)
This theory is concerned with the understanding and modeling social and economic behaviour. The basic premise surrounding this theory is that the aggregate or total social behaviour in society result primarily from the behaviour of individual members of such society, each of whom is making their individual decisions. The theory also focuses on the determinants of the individual choices.Rational choice theory therefore, asserts that an individual has preferences among the available choice alternatives that allow him or her to state which option they prefer (Hedstrom 2008). These preferences are said to be complete – the person can always choose between two alternatives, which one he or she considers more preferable. The rational agent (the person who makes a choice) may take account of available information, probabilities of events, and potential costs and benefits in determining preferences, and to act consistently in choosing the self-determine best choice of action.
Blume & Easley (2008) assert that rationality iswidely used as an assumption of the behaviour of individuals in microeconomic models, therefore enhancing analysis of human decision making. Rational choice theory cuts across various fields of discipline such political science, sociology and philosophy, among others. The concept of rationality used in rational choice theory is different from the colloquial and most philosophical use of the word. Colloquially, the phrase “rational” behaviour typically means “sensible”, “Predictable”, or being “in a thoughtful, clear-headed manner”. Rational choice theory uses a narrow definition of rationality. At its most basic level, behaviour is rational if it is goal oriented, reflective (evaluative), and consistent across time and different choice situations.
This sharply contrasts with behaviour that is random, impulsive and conditioned, or characterized by unevaluative imitation (Donald & Shapiro 1994).Some early proponentof the theory avocate that individuals make consumption choices so as to maximize their happiness, or utility. However, contemporary proponents of rational theory bases rational choice on a set of choice axioms that need to be satisfied, and typically does not specify where the goal (preferences, or desires) comes from. They further assert that individuals choose the best action according to their personal preferences and the constraints facing them. For instance, they believe that there is nothing irrational in preferring fish to meat the fish time, but there is something irrational in preferring fish to meat in one instant and preferring meat to fish in another, time, without any viable reason for such change.The irrationality inherent in this kind of change the individual. The reason behind the choice of this theory for this study is its relevance to the study. This is because, individuals in society make different irrational choices overtime such as taking hard drugs; cocaine, tramadol, Indian herm among others. This choices, more often than not, affect them physically, psychologically, mentally and economically.
Accordingly, the three theories used for this study – psychoanalysis, structural functionalism and rational choice theories would be applied to the analysis of the findings of the study to produce a formidable result of the effect of drugs abuse in Nigeria especially among the youths. Such analysis would invariably lead the researcher to a logical conclusion and will equally contribute to the body of knowledge.
This study is instigated by the increasing use and abuse of drug among family and youth in IBAKA community. Drug abuse and its effects on youth, family are relevant to the present trend of event, which was noticed to be increasingly growing as observed by the research. Drug abuse has been found to bring different kind of hazard to both the individual group and the community as a result of an increase intakeEJikeme,(2003) draw attention to the factors that drug abuse and alcohol it is not less harmful than other chemical it possess some degree of risk to the user. In the same way Boris (1974) Opines that abuse of drug can serve or play a significant role in interpersonal offense. Researcher at the Royal Alexandra Hospital for children, Sydney, tell us a single large intake of drug at the critical stage can cause FAS while frequent small amount of alcohol can lower the offspring’s intelligence and learning potential (Barry, 1984).He also stated that damage to the ovum or sperm before conception can lead to abnormalities in the child. He further says that if the Foetus is exposed to alcohol in the mother’s blood in the early weeks, it may be born with foetal alcohol syndrome (FAS).Some studies suggest that marijuana produces change in the users chromosome and as with nicotine and alcohol may damage sperm, reducing fertility and affecting the developing foetus. A defective ovum which is fertilized is likely to produce an early miscarriage. Chronic cannabises use causes decreased level of male hormone test stone, testicular, degeneration and arrested or abnormal sperm production. Barry, (1984).
However, as a result of socialization, culture has taken a greater part in drug intake, it is said that any group or society in which the use of drug and drinking of alcohol custom. Value and sanction together with attitude of all segment of the group or society are well established and agreed upon by all play a significant role in determining the people behaviour.In this way, culture is the acquired characteristic of a people, their total way of life, or how they do their own things, acquired through socialization.
The effect of drug abuse to the health is quite tremendous. Forest and Garry (2004) examine that “heavy drug addict loss their appetite and tend to obtain calories from drug rather than ordinary food. Forest stage of liver disease caused by drug and alcohol, fat accumulate in the liver. This stage of disease is known as fatty liver. Most people never notice it until it enlarges the live cells” this has been the case in Ibaka community. All human being in the society have goals, which they strive to achieve in life. But considering the hazards and demands that abuse of drug cause to the family, one then is forced to ask why people still indulge in drug abuse. Meanwhile, social realities present a picture of differential occurrence among individuals and even between him and groups. The question there is to what extent are certain variable like class, culture and gender responsible for or what extend do they determine drug abuse.It is consideration of the above that the researcher’s concerned with survey of social, emotional health, economics, political and psychological consequence of drug abuse and its effect on the family and youth in Ibaka.
1.4 OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY
Based on the research problems and question the following are the specific objectives of the study:
i. To find out the social effect of drug abuse on the youth
ii. To examine the economic impact of drug abuse on the youth
iii. To investigate the psychological or emotional effects of drug abuse on the youth
iv. To fine out the physical or health consequences of drug abuse on the youth
v. To proffer solution as a guideline against drug abuse
1.5 RESEARCH QUESTIONS
The following formulated questions are provided to serve as a guide for the research.
i. What effect does drug abuse have on the youth?
ii. What economics impact does drug abuse have on the youth?
iii. What psychological or emotional effect does drug abuse have on the youth?
iv. What physical or health effect does drug abuse have on the youth?
v. What is the youth orientation towards drug abuse?
vi. What are the consequences of drug abuse on individual fimi1y and community?
1.6 RESEARCH HYPOTHESIS
1. H0: Nigerian youths are not strongly engage in drug abuses.
Hi: Nigerian youths engage strongly in abuse of drugs.
2. H0: Abuse of drugs has no significant effects on Nigerian youths.
Hi: Abuse of drugs has a significant effects on Nigerian youths.
3. H0: There is low level of drugs abuse on Nigerian youths.
Hi: There is a high level of drug abuse among Nigerian youths
4. H0: There is no strong consequence of drug abuse among Nigerian youths
Hi: There is a strong consequence of drug abuse among Nigerian youths
5. H0: No good control measures have been put in place to check drug abuse among youths in Nigeria
Hi: Good control measures have been put in place to check drug abuse among youths in Nigeria
1.7 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
The study will contribute in addressing the issue related to problem of drug abuse on the family, youth and individual which is embedded in the socio-culture and psycho-social belief of most society.Besides, the study would further contribute to the knowledge of Lauina (Theory) discovered in existing relevant literature in the field thereby enabling government and non-governmental organization to find a possible solution to drug abuse.In other words, it will provide scholarly information for further studies. Most importantly, the study will come up with a suggested programs, that when put into consideration the problem of drug abuse affecting the youth would be brought to the nearest minimum.
1.8 SCOPE AND LIMITATION OF THE STUDY
This research work covers only family and youth within IBAKA IN MBO Local Government Area with specific reference to Ibaka community. It involves both the rich, poor illiterate and literate family in the community. Intellectually, the research is concern with the effect of drug abuse on the youth; on the other hand its geographical scope focuses on youth in the community of IBAKA IN MBO Local Government Area, However the study is limited in scope but we draw inference from the research work for a wider application on the effect of drug abuse on the youth generally..