This research presents an overview of the enablement of IoT in developing countries and talks about the aspirations, general applications and challenges of IoT in Nigeria. It additionally addresses issues identifying with security, protection, and trust. The potential applications for IoT are innumerable and can advance procedures with an immediate effect on the society. The potential applications for IoT are countless and can optimize processes with a direct impact on society. Certain challenges have to be addressed to make IoT deployment successful. It will be shown that some of the challenges can be turned into opportunities and that IoT has great opportunities to prevail with regards to a developing nation as Nigeria. 




The Internet of Things (IoT) is a novel perspective that is rapidly gaining ground in current unavoidable processing. The idea is essentially created on a thought, where there are various things or innovation, for example, RadioFrequency Identification (RFID) labels, sensors, actuators, cell phones, and so on - that are associated with the Internet. Every one of the articles has an interesting location and can communicate with different items. The things or items co-work with one another to arrive at a shared objective. The IoT is a triumph of appropriated registering frameworks having a gigantic similarity to accumulate, process and disperse data utilizing remote and wired correspondence frameworks.

The Internet of Things (IoT), also called the Internet of Everything or the Industrial Internet, is a new technology paradigm envisioned as a global network of machines and devices capable of interacting with each other. The IoT is perceived as one of the most significant regions of future innovation and is increasing immense consideration from a wide scope of businesses. The genuine estimation of the IoT for undertakings can be completely acknowledged when associated gadgets can speak with one another and incorporate with seller oversaw stock frameworks, client care frameworks, business insight applications, and business examination. 

Gartner (2014) conjectures that the IoT will arrive at 26 billion units by 2020, up from 0.9 billion out of 2009, and will affect the data accessible to production network accomplices and how the store network works. From generation line and warehousing to retail conveyance and store racking, the IoT is changing business forms by giving progressively precise and continuous perceivability into the progression of materials and items. Firms will put resources into the IoT to upgrade production line work processes, improve following of materials, and advance dissemination costs. For instance, both John Deere and UPS are now utilizing IoT-empowered armada following innovations to cut expenses and improve supply proficiency. Notwithstanding producers' selection of the IoT, different assistance businesses are embracing the IoT to build income through upgraded benefits and become pioneers in their business sectors.

Disney’s MagicBand is a new wristband with RFID chips that serves as a ticket and connects to Disney’s data repository regarding park visitors. Kroger’s new IoT-based system, Retail Site Intelligence, is one complete retail platform of video analytics, wireless devices, POS devices, handheld sensors, IP cameras, and video management software that was designed to help customers have a better shopping experience by more easily finding the products they want and saving time at checkout. The adoption of this technology is rapidly gaining momentum as technological, societal, and competitive pressures push firms to innovate and transform themselves. As IoT technology advances and increasing numbers of firms adopt the technology, IoT cost-benefit analysis will become a subject of great interest. On account of the potential yet unsure advantages and high venture expenses of the IoT, firms need to painstakingly evaluate each IoT-initiated opportunity and challenge to guarantee that their assets are spent judiciously.


The benefit and welfare that the IoT brings about are undeniable; however, there are some challenges to apply IoT. While the world is taking a digital shape, a country like Nigeria import technology instead of producing. This approach makes them dependent on designers of digital world. For this reason, a developing country like Nigeria have to suitable for adoption of new technology. 


The main objective of this study is to reveal the usability challenges of IoT in a developing country like Nigeria.  The speed and method for implementing IoT differs from country to country. The priority of countries holding high product range is to benefit from flexibility to increase productivity. On the other hand, quality-focused approach is adopted by countries in order to decrease deficient products.


There are some structural hurdles for developing countries in African like Nigeria to implement IoT. Limited labor force skill is one of them. This obstacle slows down to adopt new technology. Also, the quality of labor force differs from industry to industry. Considering that the demand for value-added products increases rest of the world, low share of value-added products creates another drawback. The scope of the study is to discover the challenges faced with IoT in Nigeria. 


The limitations encountered in the course of the study was finding relevant textbooks and materials related to the research work in the school library. Also, another challenge encountered was the high cost of internet data to download relevant materials from the internet. 


⦁ IoT - The Internet of Things (IoT) is a system of interrelated computing devices, mechanical and digital machines, objects, animals or people that are provided with unique identifiers (UIDs) and the ability to transfer data over a network without requiring human-to-human or human-to-computer interaction.

⦁ Internet - a global computer network providing a variety of information and communication facilities, consisting of interconnected networks using standardized communication protocols.

⦁ Technology - the application of scientific knowledge for practical purposes, especially in industry.

⦁ POS devices – A retail point of sale system typically includes a cash register (which in recent times comprises a computer, monitor, cash drawer). 

⦁ Handheld sensors- A metal detector is an electronic instrument which detects the presence of metal nearby. 

⦁ IP cameras - An Internet Protocol camera, or IP camera, is a type of digital video camera that receives control data and sends image data via the Internet. 




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